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PART 3. 






VOLITHE I. Parts 1-13. — Report of the Secretary of War and all other reportf except 

those of the Chief of Engineers and the Chief of Ordnance. 

VOLITHE n. Parts 1-8. — Report of the Chief of Engineers. 

VOLUME m. Report of the Chief of Ordnance. 


Part 1. — Reports, 849 follows: 

Secretary of War. 

Boar<l of Ordnance and Fortification. 

CommissionerH of National Military Parks: 

Chickamauga and Chattanooga. 



United States Military Academy, West Point, N. Y.: 

Board of Visitors. 

Soldierjj' Home, District of Colmnbia: 

Board of Commissioners. 

Inspetlor-General, United Staton Army, 
National Home for Disabled Volunteer Soldiers. 

Part 2. — Reports of Bureau Chiefs: 



Judge- Ad vocate-General . 

Quartern! aster-General . 

Acting Commissary-General of Subsistence. 



Chief Signal Officer. 

Record and Pension Otlice. 



1. Summary of the principal evente connected with military operations in the 

Philippine Islands, September 1, 1899, to August 31, 1900 5 

2. Distribution of troops in the Philippine Islands, September 1, 1900 45 

3. Annual Report of Maj. Gen. Arthui MacArthur, U.S.V., commanding the 

Division of the Philippines 59 

A. Report of Col. Merritt Barber, assistant adjutant-general, U. S. A., 

adjutant-general. Division of the Philippines 78 

B. Report of Maj. Stephen C. Mills, inspector-general, U. S. A., inspector- 

general. Division of the Philippines 86 

C. Report of Maj. John A. Hull, judge-advocate, U. S. V. ; assistant judge. 

advocate. Division of the Philippines 91 

D. Report of Maj. Crosby P. Miller, quartermaster, U. S. A., chief quarter- 

master. Division of the Philippines 99 

E. Report of Maj. Edward E. Dravo, commissary of subsistence, TJ. S. A., 

chief commissary. Division of the Philippines 103 

F. Report of Col. Charles R. Greenleaf, assistant surgeon-general, U. S. A., 

chief sui^eon. Division of the Philippines 117 

G. Report of Lieut. Col. Albert S. Towar, deputy paymaster-general, 

U. S. A. , chief paymaster. Division of the Philippines 135 

H. Report of Capt. John Biddle, Corps of Engineers, U. S. A., chief 

engineer. Division of the Philippines 137 

1. Report of Lieut. Col. John R. McGinness, Ordnance Department, 

U. S. A. , chief ordnance officer, Division of the Philippines 140 

K. Report of Lieut. Col. James Allen, Signal Corps, U. S. A., chief signal 

officer, Division of the Philippines 148 

L. Report of Brig. Gen. J. F. Bell, U. S. V., ])rovost-mar8hal-general. Divi- 
sion of the Philippines 189 

4. Annual report of Maj. Gen. Loyd Wheaton, U. S. V., commanding Depart- 

ment of Northern Luzon 196 

5. Annual report of Maj. Gen. John C Bates, U. S. V., commanding Depart- 

ment of Southern Luzon 207 

6. Annual report of Brig. Gen. R. P. Hughes, U. S. V., commanding Depart- 

ment of the Visayas 230 

7. Annual report of Brig. Gen. W. A. Kobb^, U. S. V., commanding Depart- 

ment of Mindanao and Jolo 255 

8. Report of Maj. Gen. H. W. Lawton, U. S. V., of an expedition to the prov- 

ince of Cavite, June 10 to 22, 1899 272 

9. Report of Brig. Gen. Theodore Schwan, U. S. V., of operations of Schwan's 

Expeditionary Brigade in the provinces of Cavite, Batangas, Tjaguna, and 

Tayabas, January 4 to Febniary 8, 1900 387 



Part 8. — Report of the Lieutenant-General Commanding the Army and 

Department Commanders: 

Lieutenant-Gen eral . 
Adjutant-General . 
Inspector-General . 
Department of tlie East. 
Department of the Lakes. 
Department of the ^lissouri. 
Department of Texas. 
Department of Dakota. 
Department of the Colorado. 
Department of California. 
Department of the Cokimbia. 
Department of Alaska. 
Division of Cuba: 

Department of Matanzas and Santa Clara. 

Department of Western Cuba. 

Department of Santiago and Puerto Prinidpe. 
Department of Porto Ri(H). 
Infantry and Cavalry School. 
Cavalry and Light Artillery School. 

Part 4. — Report of the Lieutenant-General Commanding the Army and 

Department Commanders — Continued. 

Department of Habana and military governor city of llabana. 
Division of the Philippines ( ^lajor-General Otis). 

Part 6. — Report of the Lieutenant-General Commanding the Army and 

Department CommEinders — Continued. 

Division of the Philippines (Major-General MacArthur). 
Department of Northern Luzon. 
Department of Southern Luzon. 
Department of Visayas. 
Department of Mindanao and Jolo. 

Part 6. — Report of the Lieutenant-General Commanding the Army — Con- 

Military oj>erations in the Philippine Ij^lands. 

Part 7. — Report of the Lieutenant-General CommEinding the Army — Con- 


Military operations in the Philippine Islands — (>)ntinued. 

Part 8-^Report of the Lieutenant-General Commanding the Army — Con- 

Military operations in the Philippine Islands — Continueil. 

Part 9*^Report of the Lieutenant-General Commanding the Army — Con- 


Military operations in China. 

Part 10. — Report of the Military Governor of the Philippine Islands, on 

civil affairs. 

Part 11. — Report of the Military Governor of Cuba, on civil affairs. 

Part 12. — Report of the Military Governor of Cuba, on civil affairs — Con- 

Part 13. Report of the Military Governor of Porto Rico, on civil affairs. 

1, 1899, TO AUGUST 31, 1900. 

Sept. 1, 1899. — Companies D and E, Seventeenth U. S. Infantry, commanded by 

Capt. W. C. Wren, resij-t an attack made at 6.15 a. m by insur- 
gents on cantonment at Dolores, P. I., causing them to retreat 
by firing a few volleys. No casualties. 

2, 1899. — The President authorizes the organization of two additional regi- 
ments to be known as the Forty-eighth and Forty-ninth regi- 
ments of Infantry, U. S. V. 

8, 1899. — (Corporal Gillen water, Company A, Thirty-sixth Infantry, U. S. V., 
commanding 4 privates on reconnoissance toward Porac, P. I., 
is fired on by about 16 insurgents, who kill 1 private and wound 
another. The 2 uninjured men, the other being too far off to 
render assistance, stand over their wounded comrades, returning 
the fire of the insurgents, and finally drive them off, killing 1 
and wounding several. 

5, 1899.— First Washington U. S. Volunteer Infantry (42 ofiicers and 776 
enlisted men) leaves Manila, P. I., on transport Pennsylvania 
for San Francisco, Cal., for muster out. 

8,1899. — Transport Columbia sails for Manila, P. I., with headquarters, 
band. Companies E, F, G, H, and L, Thirty-fourth Infantry, 
U. S. v., and 3 Hospital Corps men, under command of Col. 
L.W. V. Kennon, from San Francisco, Cal. 

9, 1899. — Companies F and C, Seventeenth U. S. Infantry, commanded by 
Capt. C. St. J. Chubb, encounter on reconnoissance toward 
Mount Arayat, Luzon, P. I., a band of 50 insurgents and drive 
them from San Pedro. No casualties. 
Capt. Henry J. Reilly, cx)mmanding Battery F, Fifth U. S. Artil- 
lery, repels attack by insurgents on outpost near Imus, P. I. 
No casualties to United States forces. 
11, 1899. — Companies B and 1, Seventeenth U. S. Infantry, commanded by 
Capt. Greorge H. Roach, on reconnoissance northeast of Calu- 
lut, P. I., engage the insurgents and defeat them without sus- 
taining any loss. 
13, 1899. — Company K, Twenty-third U. S. Infantry, commanded by Capt. 
W. H. Sage, is engaged in skirmish with insurgents in the 
Acan Valley, P. I. 
15, 1899. — Companies F, commanded by Captain Polk, and E, commanded 
by Captain Hager, First Tennessee Volunteer Infantry, engage 
in outpost skirmish near La Paz, P. I., in which 1 man, Com- 
pany F, is killed. 
Eighteen enlisted men of Company L, Thirty-sixth Infantry, 
U. S. v., commanded by First Lieut. O. A. McGee, in making 
reconnoissance 2 miles north of Guagua, P. I., encounter a 
party of insurgents of about 150 men, driving them off and kill- 
ing 5 or 6. The number of wounded unknown. No casualties 

among United States forces. 



Sept. 16, 1899. — Company L, Sixth U. S. Infantry, ('ommancle<l by Capt. AV. K. 

Jones engages at Isabela, P. I., a band of "Papa Isians," 
which was attacking the post, repulsing them. No casualties 
among United States forces. 

17, 1899. — Company A, Twenty-third U. S. Infantry, under command of 
Capt. E. P. Pendleton, Company H, under command of Capt. 
Gaston O'Brien, and detachments Companies A and C, Sixth 
U. S. Infantry, engage and defeat the insurgents near Moalboal, 
P. I. 
Provisional brigade, with headquarters established at San Fer- 
nando, is organized, and Brigadier-General Young placed in 
command. It consists of the Fourth U. S. Cavalry (10 troops), 
Twenty-fourth U. S. Infantry (8 companies) , Thirty-fourth 
Infantry, U. S. V. (2 companies), Lowe's scouts (men detached 
from companies), and Batson's scouts (Macabebe), 2 troops, 
(200 Macabebe natives enlisted for a term of three months). 

19, 1899. — Forty-six men of Company F, Seventeenth U. S. Infantry, com- 
manded by Capt. C. St. J. Chubb, make reconnoissance from 
Dolores to Casaibas, P. I., and engage an outpost of insurgents 
without casualty on either side. 

21, 1899. — ^Twenty-seventh Infantry, U. S. V., sails from San Francisco, Cal., 

on U. S. transports Taeoma and George W. Elder ^ for Manila, 

22, 1899. — Companies G and M, Seventeenth U. S. Infantry, under com- 

mand of First Lieut. W. T. Bates, reconnoitering toward the 
town of Gondis, P. I., encounter the msurgents beyond it. No 
Detachments Sixth U. S. Artillery, Sixth U. S. Infantry, Nine- 
teenth U. S. Infantry, Tw^enty-third U. S. Infantry, and First 
Tennessee Volunteer Infantry, in mountains near Cebu, Island 
of CebUjP. I., engage insurgents occupying seven forts and nine 
fortified places. A fort is captured after a day's fighting and 
insurgents driven from several positions. 

23, 1899.— Detachmenta Sixth U. S. Artillery, Sixth U. S. Infantry, Nineteenth 
U. S. Infantry, Twenty-third U. S. Infantry, and First Tennessee 
Volunteer Infantry renew the attack begun in mountains near 
Cebu, Island of Cebu, P. I., September 22, on forts and fortified 
positions held by insurgents, driving them from their positions, 
killing 39, capturing large quantity of ordnance stores, and 
sustaining a loss during the two days' fighting of 1 killed and 
4 wounded. 

Insurgents ambush and wreck train near Angeles, Luzon, P.L, 
kilUng 2 and wounding 3 men. Insurgents are put to flight 
after heated engagement with a loss of 8 men. 

Thirtieth Infantry, U.S.V., sails from San Francisco, Cal., on 
U. S. transport Sherman^ for Manila, P. I. 

26, 1899. — Transport Granty with Twenty-sixth Infantry, U. S. V., sails from 
San Francisco, Cal., for Manila, P. I. 

27, 1899. — Thirty men of Companies F and K, Twenty-fourth U. S. Infantry, 
commanded by Second Lieut. R. E. Frith, have a skirmish with 
party of insurgents near Mexico, Luzon, P. L No casualties. 


Sept. 28,1899.— The Thirty-sixth Infantry, U. S. V., Battery K, Third U. S. 

Artillery, Troop E, Fourtii U. S. Cavalry, Companies A, H, K, 
and L, Seventeenth U. S. Infantry, and detachment Ninth U. S. 
Infantry, engage the insurgents in the vicinity of Porac, Luzon, 
P. I., routing them, killing and wounding many, and sustaining 
slight losses. 

29, 1899. — First Battalion, Fourth U. S. Infantry, on reconnoissance 1 J miles 
on Dafimarinas road from Imus, P. I., encounters the insurgents, 
who, after fifty-five minutes' fight, are driven off 3 Americans 
being wounded. 
30,1899. — Fourth U. S. Infantry, occupying Imus, Luzon, P. I., is sharply 
attacked by insurgents, who are repulsed. No casualties. 

Transport Sheridan sails from San Francisco, Cal., for Manila, 
P. I., with Thirty-third Infantry, U. S. V., and Companies C and 
D, Thirty-second Infantry, U. S. V. 
Oct. 1,1899. — Transport Charles Nelson sails from San Francisco, Cal., with 

field and staff and Companies C and D, Thirty-second Infantry, 
U.S. v., for Manila, P. I. 

Transport Glenogle B&ils from San Francisco, Cal., for Manila, P. I., 
with headquarters. Companies A, E, F, G, K, L, and M, Thirty- 
second Infantry, U.S. v., and detachment of men for Thirty- 
first and Thirty-third Infantry, U. S. V. 

Detachments Sixth U. S. Infantry and Hospital Corps, under 
conunand of Capt. B. A. Poore, adjutant Sixth U. S. Infantry, 
attack an intrenched party of 150 insurgents near Si lay, P. I., 
driving it from position, killing 20, wounding many, and sus- 
taining a loss of First Lieut. Haydon Y. Grubbe killed, 1 oflicer 
and 3 enlisted men wounded; 12 rifles,5,000 rounds Mauser and 
1,000 rounds Remington ammunition, lead for bullets, reloading 
outfit, bolos, spears, 10 sacks of rice, and considerable quantity 
of clothing, medical supplies, and many papers, containing much 
information of value, captured. 
2, 1899. — Companies A, D, and 1, and scouts, Fourth U. S. Infantry, com- 
manded by Capt. J. W. Glidden, Company H, Fourteenth U. S. 
Infantry, and center platoon. Light Battery F, Fifth U. S. Artil- 
lery, commanded by Lieut. Manus McCloskey, encounter and 
defeat a party of insurgents near Imus, Luzon, P. I. 
3, 1899.— Detachment Light Battery F, Fifth U. S. Artillery, commanded by 
Lieut. L. R. Burgess until wounded, when first and second 
pieces are commanded by Sergeants Patton and Proctor, respec- 
tively, Companies A, D, I, and scouts, Fourth U. S. Infantry, 
and Company H, Fourteenth U. S. Infantry, encounter insur- 
gents at big bend of Imus River, IJ miles below Imus, Luzon, 
P. I., defeating them, and inflicting considerable loss. 

Troop B, Fourth U. S. Cavalry, commanded by Capt. James 
Parker, on march to Santa Ana, Luzon, P. I., and return, 16 
miles, encounters a body of insurgents, killing and capturing 
13 without loss. 

Troop A, Fourth U. S. Cavalry, commanded by Capt. George H. 
Cameron, encounters at Santa Cruz, Luzon, P. 1., a party of 
insurgents holding an intrenched position and defeats them 
with a loss of 1 American killed. Insurgent casualties unknown. 


Oct. 3, 1899.— Detachment Light Battery F, Fifth U. S. Artillery, Lieut. Charles 

P. Summerall commanding, engage in successfully repulsing an 
attack by insurgents, with infantry and artillery, on Calamba, 
Luzon, P. I. 

4, 1899.— Thirty-fifth Infantry, U. S. V., sails from Portland, Oreg., on 

transports SUka and City of Bio de Janeiro^ for Manila, P. I. 
Companies E, F, and K, Twenty-second U. S. Infantry, on march 
toward Arayat, P. I., when near Matanio, a barrio of that 
place, are fired upon by insurgents from sugar mill in front and 
trenches across Imus River. The fire is returned, and with 
assistance of gunboat the insurgents are forced to retreat and to 
abandon Arayat. Casualties: American, 1 wounded, slight; 
insurgent, unknown. 

5, 1899. — First South Dakota Volunteer Infantry mustered out of the serv- 

ice of the United States at San Francisco, Cal. 
Companies B, C, D, K, L, H, and scouts, Fourth U. S. Infantry, 

under Brigadier-Greneral Grant, assault Binacayan, P. I., and 

capture it on succeeding day. 
Twenty-ninth Infantry, U. S. V., sails from San Francisco, Cal., 

on transports Zealandia and City of Para^ for Manila, P. I. 

6, 1899. — Companies A, F, and K, Twenty-fourth U. S. Infantry, First 

Lieut. G. H. McMaster commanding, attack the insurgents 
intrenched around the town of San Augustin, Luzon, P. I., 
driving them from their positions and inflicting considerable 
loss, and with a loss of two wounded. The town is entered at 
3 p. m. 
Company H, Fourteenth U. S. Infantry, Companies B, C, D, H, 
K, L, and scouts, Fourth U. S. Infantry, and center platoon, 
Light Battery F, Fifth U. S. Artillery, commanded by Brig. 
Gen. F. D. Grant, attack and capture Binacayan, Luzon, P. I., 
killing 20 and wounding many insurgents, and losing 3 men 
slightly wounded. 

7, 1899. — Expedition starts into the province of Cavite, P. I., under com- 

mand of Brig. Gen. Theodore Schwan, U. S. V. The command 
consists of the following organizations: Thirteenth U. S. Infan- 
try (11 companies), Fourteenth U. S. Infantry (3 companies), 
Third U. S. Cavalry (1 troop). Fourth U. S. Cavalry (1 troop), 
Fifth U. S. Artillery (Battery F), Lowe's scouts (1 company), 
engineers (1 company). Hospital Corps (detachment). Signal 
Corps (detachment). Aggregate strength, 1,771 soldiers. 
Engagements occurred at or near Cavite Viejo, Rosario, Santa 
Cruz, Buena Vista, and San Francisco, Province of Cavite, P. I. 
The insurgents lost, durinej these engagements, about 100 killed 
and 400 wounded. Our loss was 5 officers wounded (3 mor- 
tally) and 15 enlisted men. 

8, 1899.— Capt. W. H. Cowles, with Companies A, E, F, and G, Fourth 

U. S. Infantry, reconnoiters and captures San Nicolas, P. I., 
with a loss of 3 wounded. Insurgent casualties unknown. 
Company C, Fourteenth U. S. Infantry, commanded by Capt. 
Wm. B. Reynolds; Thirteenth U. S. Infantry, Col. W. H. Bisbee, 
and detachments Fifth IJ. S. Artillerv and Fourth U. S. Cavalry 
encounter and defeat, without loss, the insurgents at Noveleta, 
Luzon, P. I., killing and wounding several. 


Oct. 8, 1899. —One officer and 39 men of Company L, Fourteenth U. S. Infantry, 

Bcouting to San Mateo, P. I., are attacked on way back to camp, 
Mariquina, P. I., where stationed, and a two-hours* fight ensues 
in which 1 man is wounded and 2 others missing. Insurgent 
casualties unknown. 

9, 1899.— Col. J. F. Bell, Thirty-sixth Infantry, U. S. V., accompanied by 
Lieutenant-Colonel Grove, Majors Straub, Bishop, Braden, and 
Luhn, Doctors Mathews and Brewer, Battalion Adjutants 
Ferguson, Widdifield, and Corey, company commanders of the 
first and second battalions, and 120 selected men. Thirty-sixth 
Infantry, U. S. V., starts to reconnoiter from Guagua, P. I., 
Florida Blanca, P. I. At Myquiapo a party of insurants 100 
strong is discovered approaching, and upon being fired into, 
deploys on both sides of road. The insurgents flee after a sharp 
skirmish of a few minutes duration, and a second lieutenant 
and 3 privates, with their arms, are captured. 

Company D, Sixteenth U. S. Infantry, is fired on at station of 
Meycauayan, P. I., by insurgents, but fire is not returned, owing 
to danger of shooting noncombatants in vicinity. No casualties. 

Detachments Fourth U. S. Artillery, Twenty-fifth U. S. Infantry, 
Sixteenth U. S. Infantry, and Sixteenth U. S. Infantry band, 
armed with rifies belonging to absent soldiers of Company A, 
Sixteenth U. S. Infantry, repulse an attack by insurgents on 
line of trenches near Manila, P. I. , extending from Caloocan to 
La Loma Church. No casualties. 

10, 189^).— Center platoon. Light Battery F, Fifth U. S. Artillery, and the 

Thirteenth U. S. Infantry, commanded by Col. W. H. Bisbee, 
march on San Francisco de Malabon, P. I., routing the insur- 
gents, taking 14 prisoners, and sustaining no loss either in killed 
or wounded. 
Company A, Corps of Engineers, defeats a party of insurgents at 
Santa Cruz, Luzon, P. I., without casualty. 

11, 1899. — Transports Columbia and Belgian King, with Thirty-fourth In- 

fantry, U. S. v., arrive at Manila, P. I., from San Francisco, Cal. 
The Ninth, Twelfth, and Seventeenth U. S. Infantry are attacked 
during night at Angeles, Luzon, P. L, by insurgents, who are 
repulsed. Casualties: Americans, 4 wounded; insurgents, un- 

12, isv)9. — Companies A, B, and D, Thirty-seventh Infantry, U. S. V., and 

Hospital Corps, attack insurgents near Muntinlupa, Luzon, P. I., 
defeating them and sustaining a loss of 3 killed, wounded, and 
missing. Insurgents' loss unknown. 
Company H, Sixteenth U. S. Infantry, under Capt. Wm. H. John- 
ston, guarding Bagbag bridge in vicinity of Calumpit, Luzon, 
P. I., is attacked by insurgents, who are driven off. No cas- 

13, 1899. — Troops D and H, Fourth U. S. Cavalry, encounter insurgents near 
Arayat, Luzon, P. I., and 2 men are wounded. Insurgents' loss 

15, 1899. — Guard for railway track detailed from Company F, Sixteenth 
U. S. Infantry, Guiguinto, Luzon, P. I., is attacked by insurgents, 
who retreat when their fire is returned. No casualties. 


Oct. 16, 1899. — Companies A, H, K, and L, Seventeenth U. S. Infantry, the 

Twelfth U. S. Infantry, and Ninth U. S. Infantry, repulse an 
attack by insurgents at Angeles, Luzon, P. I., inflicting consid- 
erable loss, and having 1 killed and 4 wounded. 

17, 1899. — First Montana Volunteer Infantry is mustered out of the service 
of the United States at San Francisco, Cal. 

Thirty-sixth Infantry, U. S. V. , under Col. J. F. Bell, marches on 
Dolores, from Porac, Luzon, P. I., to attack insurgents stationed 
there, but on arrival find that they have retreated. Returning 
to Porac meals are cooked, and while thus engaged the r^- 
ment is attacked by the insurgents, who are completely routed, 
15 rifles and 1 horse being captured. Casualties: American, 1 
killed and 1 wounded; insurgents, 10 captured and a number 

During the night a detachment of Company D, Sixteenth U. S. 
Infantry, detailed to guard Marilao bridge, Marilao, Luzon, 
P. I., is attacked by insurgents, who are repulsed without loss 
to either side. 

18, 1899. — Lieutenant Batson, with his Macabebe scouts, attacks the insur- 
gents occupying San Mateo, P. I., driving them from their 

19, 1899. — ^Troop L, Fourth U. S. Cavalry, under command of Capt. C. H. 
Murray, strikes a party of insurgents at Cabiao, Luzon, P. I., 
defeating it without loss. 

Troops A, B, F, and M, Fourth U. S. Cavalry; First Battalion, 
Twenty-second U. S. Infantry; Companies G and H, Thirty- 
seventh Infantry, U.S. v., and Hospital Corps, march toward 
San Isidro, Luzon, P. I., and, on reaching a point 3 miles from 
that town, are attacked by insuigents 150 strong, who are com- 
pletely routed, 4 Americans being wounded. 

Twenty-five men. Company M, Eighteenth U. S. Infantry, are 
fired on at Jaro, P. I., by a band of insurgents, and an engage- 
ment ensues in which 7 insurgents are killed and 15 wounded, 
the Americans sustaining no casualty. 

Companies F and K, Nineteenth U. S. Infantry, under Capt. 
Thomas G. Hanson, attack and capture insurgent fort and rifie 
pits on Tulas Mountains, P. I. 

A detachment of Company L, Sixth U. S. Infantry, under First 
Sergeant Guthrie, marches to the mountains and destroys, 6 
miles southeast of Isabela, the Papa-Isian village of Baog, P. I., 
killing 6 insurgents. 

20, 1899. — San Isidro, Luzon, P. I., is reoccupied by troops under General 

21, 1899. — Transport Sherman^ with the Thirtieth Infantry, U. S. V., arrives 
at Manila, P. I., from San Francisco, Cal. 
Lieu*. W. H. Simons and 20 men. Sixth U. S. Infantry, march 
against a band of Tulisanos, north of San Carlos, P. I., arriving 
at their cuartel in the early morning. In the action that follows 
3 of the band are killed, several wounded, and cuartel 

22, 1899. — ^The steamer Oceanica is fired upon, at the mouth of the Rio Chico, 
Luzon, P. I., by insurgents, and Maj.Guy Howard, quarter- 
master, U. S. v., is killed and 2 men wounded. 


Oct. 22,181)9. — Scouts Thirty-fourth Infantry, U. S. V., and quartermaster 

employees engage the insurgents at Rio Grande, P. I. No 

26, 1899. — Transports Tartor and Newport sail from San Francisco, Cal., with 
the Twenty-eighth Infantry, U. S. V., for Manila, P. I. 

27, 1899. — Transports Tacoma and George W. Elder, with the Twenty-seventh 
Infantry, U. S. V., arrives at Manila, P. I., from San Francisco, 

Transports Charles Nelson, Glenogle, and Sheridan, with Thirty- 
second Infantry, U. S. V., arrive at Manila, P. I., from San 
Francisco, Cal. 

Greneral Lawton advances north of San Isidro, near Cabanatuan, 
Luzon, P. I., and establishes permanent station. 

28, 1899. — Twentieth Kansas Volunteer Infantry is mustered out of the serv- 
ice of the United States at San Francisco, Cal. 

Nov. 1, 1899. — First Washington Volunteer Infantry is mustered out of the serv- 
ice of the United States at San Francisco, Cal. 

2, 1899.— First Battalion, Thirty-sixth Infantry, U. S. V., under Maj. Wm. 
H. Bishop, U. S. v., leaves camp at Betis and reaches position 
of insurgents near Lubao, near barrio of Santa Cruz, Luzon, 
P. I. The insurgents are attacked and forced to retire. No 
Troops H and M, Fourth U. S. Cavalry, commanded by Capta. 
James B. Erwin and John A. Lockwood, respectively, encoun- 
ter the insurgents 2 miles southwest of Aliaga, Luzon, P. I. 
No casualties. 

Two battalions Thirty-sixth Infantry, U. S. V., Col. J. F. Bell 
commanding, engage 2 companies of insurgents at Porac, Luzon, 
P. I., driving them out and, with the assistance of a detach- 
ment of cs^valry, pursuing them into the mountains. 

3, 1899.— Thirty-seventh Infantry, U. S. V., sails from Portland, Oreg., on 
transports Pennsylvania and Olympia, for Manila, P. I. 

Troop L, Fourth U. S. Cavalry, under Capt. C. H. Murray, has a 
skirmish with insurgents near Talavera, Luzon, P. I. No cas- 

A portion of the Forty-fifth Infantry, U. S. V., sails from San 
Francisco, Cal., for Manila, P. I., on transport Olympia. 

4,1899. — Forty-seventh Infantry, U. S. V., sails from New York City for 
Manila, P. I., on transport Thomas. 
Lieut. S. W. Widdifield and detachment of 50 men, Second Bat- 
talion, Thirty-sixth Infantry, U. S. V., in hills northeast of 
Porac, Luzon, P. I. , captures an insurgent supply train loaded 
with provisions and clothing. No casualties. 

5, 1899. — An expeditionary brigade under command of Brig. Gen. Loyd 
Wheaton, U. 8. V., consisting of the Thirteenth U. S. Infantry, 
Col. William H. Bisbee; 11 companies Thirty-third Infantry, 
U. S. v.. Col. L. R. Hare; 1 platoon and 2 3.2-inch guns and 
Battery L, Sixth U. S. Artillery, First Lieut. E. O. Sarratt; 
detachment U. S. Engineers, First Lieut. S. A. Cheney; detach- 
ment U. S. Signal Corps, First Lieut. B. O. Lenoir (about 2,000 
men), embark at Manila, P. I., for Lingayen, San Fabian, San 
Jacmto, and vicinity. 


Nov. 5, 1899.— Maj. L. M. O'Brien with his battalion of the Seventeenth U. S. 

Infantry; E Troop, Fourth U. S. Cavalry, Lieutenant Hawkins; 
K Troop, Fourth U. S. Cavalry, Lieutenant Babcock, and head- 
quarters scouts, Lieutenant Slavens, have, in a march from 
Calulut, Luzon, P. I., to Pandataqui, several engagements with 
insurgents, killing 49, wounding 15, and capturing 28 prisoners 
and 14 guns. 

Companies D, H, K, and L (First Battalion) and A, B, G, and I 
(Third Battalion), Seventeenth U. S. Infantry; Light Battery 
E, First U. S. Artillery, and detachment Signal Corps, in 
advancing on Magalang, Luzon, P. I., encounter insurgent out- 
posts li miles northeast of Angeles, killing 2 and w^ounding 
another and driving remainder. Near Magalang the insurgents 
are developed in force along Arayat road. A brisk action 
ensues and insurgents forced to retire to Magalang, where for 
fifteen minutes they stubbornly resist the advance in order to 
remove their dead and wounded, which were now considerable. 
They are driven out, however, with a total known loss of 16 
killed and 128 wounded, while the casualties to the United 
States forces amount to only 9 woimded. In a series of engage- 
ments following the capture of Magalang 44 insurgents are 
killed, 15 known to have been wounded, 28 captured, and 26 
rifles taken, the Americans losing 3 wounded. 

6, 1899. — One piece of artillery. Battery E, First U. S. Artillery, with Com- 
pany A, Seventeenth U. S. Infantry, in a skirmish with insur- 
gents north of Magalang, Luzon, P. I., kill several and wound 
a considerable number without casualty. 

7, 1899.— Thirty-sixth Infantry, U. S. V., and detachments Fourth U. S. 
Cavalry, First U. S. Artillery, and Third U. S. Artillery encounter 
3 companies of insurgents at Mabalacat, Luzon, P. I., and 
scatter them in confusion, killing a number of men and 1 oflBcer, 
and capturing several men and 3 horses. 

The expeditionary brigade under Brig. Gen. Loyd Wheaton, 
U. S. v., with the assistance of cruisers and gunboats under 
Commander Henry Knox, U. S. N., lands at San Fabian, Luzon, 
P. I . , driving the insurgents from their intrenchmenta around 
the town, killing 2, wounding 2, capturing 35, and releasing 2C 
Spanish prisoners. 

Troop L, Fourth U. S. Cavalry, under Capt. C. H. Murray, repels, 
at Talavera, P. I., a night attack by insurgents, killing 1 and 
wounding several. No casualties to United States troops. 

8, 1899.— Maj. P. C. March, with a battalion of the Thirty-third Infantr}-, 
U. S. V. (Companies B, E, G, and H), has a running engage- 
ment with from 200 to 300 insurgents near Magaldan, Luzon, 
P. I., in which 9 are killed and 2 oflBcers, who are captured, ai-e 
wounded. No casualties among the United States forces. 

Third Battalion, Thirteenth U. S. Infantry, Captain Buck com- 
manding, on entering San Jacinto, Luzon, P. I., is fired up>on 
by insurgents. No casualties. 


Nov. 9, 1899. — A party consisting of Col. J. F. Bell, Majors Bishop and Luhn, 

Captain Hegemau, Lieutenants Pedlar and Corey, and 2 privates, 
all of the Thirty -sixth Infantry, U. S. V., and Lieutenant 
Hawkins and 10 men of Troop E, Fourth U. S. Cavalry ( 19 men 
in all), by an exceedingly skillful approach over the foothills 
of the mountains to the left of Concepci6n, Luzon, P. I., arrive 
at a point in the rear of a trench containing a company of 100 
insurgents, and from this point make a charge upon them and, 
without a casualty to our forces, completely rout the insurgents, 
killing and wounding 19 and capturing 6 men and 30 Mauser 

First and Third Battalions, Thirty-sixth Infantry, U. S. V., and 
detachment Fourth U. S. Cavalry, reconnoitering country east 
of Bamban, Luzon, P. I., capture a train of 23 bull carts loaded 
with rice. No casualties. 

General Mac Arthur's troops occupy Mabalacat, Luzon, P. I. 
10, 1899.— Companies B, E, G, and H, Thirty-third Infantry, U. S. V., under 
Maj. P. C. March, attack a party of insurgents 600 strong under 
Colonel Carlos, throwing up intrenchments about 2i miles from 
San Fabian, Luzon, P. I., on the Magaldan road, and disperses 
the whole force, killing 70, among them Carlos, and wounding 
a large number. Losses to United States forces are 2 killed. 

Companies A and C, Seventeenth U. S. Infantry, under command 
of Capt. E. Chynoweth, attack a battalion of insurgents 
intrenched at Masapinit, Luzon, P. I., killing 29, capturing 4, 
and having 3 men wounded. 
11,1899. — Maj. Matthew A. Batson, with a detachment of his Squadron 
Philippine Cavalry, captures Hmningan, Luzon, P. I., after a 
skirmish with about 100 insurgents, 2 of whom are killed. 

Col. J. H. Smith, with his own regunent (Seventeenth U. S. Infan- 
try) , 2 troops. Fourth U. S. Cavalry, a platoon of Artillery, and a 
detachment of Engineers captures the insurgent stronghold of 
Capas, Luzon, P. I., with a loss to our forces of 1 killed and 3 
wounded. Insurgent losses not known. 

Lieut. Col. E. M. Hayes, with detachment of Fourth U. S. 
Cavalry, intercepts and captures 172 bolo men of the insurgent 
army near Carranglan, Luzon, P. I. 

Company I, Seventeenth U. S. Infantry and Troops E and K, 
Fourth U. S. Cavalry, in a succession of engagements with insur- 
gents between Masapinit and Santa Rita, Luzon, P. I., kill 
several and wound many. Our losses, 2 killed and 1 wounded. 

Four soldiers of Troop K, Fourth U. S. Cavalry, in an engage- 
ment with 12 insurgents near Concepci6n, Luzon, P. I., kill 1 
lieutenant and 2 privates, wound 1 and capture 5. 

Eleven companies of the Thirty-third Infantry, U. S. V., under 
Col. L. R. Hare, and 1 Gatling gun, under Capt. C. R. Rowland, 
Twenty-eighth Infantry, U. S. V, attack the insurgents, from 
1,200 to 1,600 strong, under General Tinio, intrenched a mile 
west of San Jacinto, Luzon, P. I., killing 134 of their number 
and wounding a great many. Losses sustained by United States 
forces, 1 officer (Maj. Jno. A. T^ogan, Thirty-third Infantry, 
U. S. V.) , and 6 men killed and 1 officer and 14 men wounded. 


Nov. 12, 1899. — Companies A and C, Nineteenth U. S. Infantry, during the after- 
noon engage the enemy near San Bias, Luzon, P. I. No 
casualties among United States forces. 
Troop D, Third U. S. Cavalry, imder Capt. G. F. Chase, marches 
against Bongabon, Nueva Ecija, Luzon, P. L, and attack 50 
insurrectos in uniform, scattering and pursuing them 2 miles 
beyond the town, killing 3, capturing 7, also 12 ponies and 8 
saddles, and destroying 500 rounds ammunition, telegraph 
instruments, hand grenades, 300 pounds black powder, 100 
pounds hexagonal powder, 100,000 percussion caps, imiforms, 
telegraphic and postal records. 

14, 1899.— D and K Troops, Third U. S. Cavalry, strike a battaUon of 300 
insurgents near Manaoag, Luzon, P. I., and scatter them in all 
directions, killing 4 and wounding many, and capturing 15 pris- 
oners and 36 guns. No casualties to United States troops. 

15, 1899. — First Troop, Nevada Volunteer Cavalry, is mustered out of the 
service of the United States at San Francisco, Cal. 

16, 1899.— Firpt Battalion, Thirty-third Infantry, U. S. V. (Companies A, B, 
C, and D), under Maj. M. D. Cronin, in vicinity of San Fabian, 
Luzon, P. I., captures Buencamino, a principal leader in the 
insurrection; also an adjutant, a secretary to Aguinaldo, Agui- 
naldo's mother and son, also $1,998, gold, and $1,191.10, silver, 
which is sent to headquarters at San Fabian. 
Detachment Forty-third Infantry, U. S. V., embarks at New York 
City, on transport 3/eacZ^, for Manila, P. I. Detachments Forty- 
fifth Infantry, U. S. V., and Forty-sixth Infantry, U. S. V., 
embark at San Francisco, Cal., on transports Hancock and Ciiy 
of Pueblo y for Manila, P. I. 

19, 1899. — Capt. H. A. Leonhaeuser and his battalion of the Twenty-fifth U. 
S. Infantry are directed by an insurgent captain, who had sur- 
rendered to Gen. A. S. Burt a few days previous, to O'Donnell, 
a town in Luzon, P. I., where they capture 4 insurgent officers, 
100 soldiers, over 200 rifles, 1,000 rounds of ammunition, 20 
ponies, 14 carabao and carts, and destroy a great immber of 
uniforms and many official papers; also secure 5,000 pounds of 
rice, 13,000 pounds salt, and 14,000 pounds of sugar. 

20, 1899.— Forty-first Infantry, U. S. V., and detachment Forty-third In- 
fantry, U. S. v., embark at New York City, on transport Zx)^n, 
and Forty-fourth Infantry, U. S. V., and detachment Forty-third 
Infantry, U. S. V., embark at San Francisco, Cal., on transports 
Hancock and City of Fuebin, for Manila, P. I. 

21, 1899. — Thirty-eighth Infantry, U. S. V., sails from San Francisco, Cal., 
on transports Duke of Fife and St. Paul, for Manila, P. I. 

23, 1899. — First Tennessee Volunteer Infantry, the last volunteer regiment 
serving during the war with Spain in the service of the United 
States, is mustered out at San Francisco, Cal. 

24, 1899.— Company F, Thirty-third Infantry, U. S. V., under Captain Fow- 
ler, and detachment of Engineer Corps, attack at Mangatarem, 
Luzon, P. I., 600 insurgents under Generals Alexandrina and 
San Miguel, killing and wounding many, capturing 7 pieces of 
artillery and large quantities of stores and ammunition. 

26, 1899. — Capt. G. R. Fowler, with detachment of Thirty-thinl Infantry, 
IJ. S. v., captures at Mangatarem, Luzon. P. I., 12 rifles, 10,000 
Maxim cartridges, 5 cannon, 800 jKiunds jxiwder, 800 pounds 
lead, 1,000 pounds shrapnel, and releases American and 82 
Spanish prisoners. 


Nov. 26, 1899.— Maj. R. E. L. Spence, Thirty-second Infantry, U. 8. V., with a 

detachment of 50 men, attacks a barrio 6 miles northwest of 
Angeles, Luzon, P. I., capturing 1 captain, 15 men, 7 rifles with 
ammimition, and a number of bolos, with no casualties to 
United States troops. 

28, 1899.— The Thirty-sixth Infantry, U. S. V., and Company F, Thirty- 

third Infantry, U. S. V., in an engagement with insurgents in 
the Zambales Mountains, near Mangatarem, Luzon, P. I., 
entirely disperse them, capturing 14 pieces of modem artillery 
(all they possess) , powder factory, arsenal, and large quantities 
of ordnance stores, and inflicting an ascertained loss of 10 killed 
and 10 wounded. 

29, 1899. — A scouting party from Angeles, Luzon, P. I., captures 4 insurgent 

officers, 1 soldier, several rifles and bolos, and a considerable 
quantity of ammimition. 
Capt. F. L. French and Lieutenants Ferguson and Davis, with a 
detachment of the Thirty-sixth Infantrv, U. S. V., engage about 
100 insurgents near Lubao, Luzon, P. I., killing 3 officers, 8 
men, and woimding several more. Casualties to United States 
troops. Captain French and Lieutenant Ferguson wounded, 1 
enlisted man killed, 6 wounded. Detachment then withdraws 
to Lubao waiting reenforcemente under Major Bishop, who 
promptly arrives and attacks approaching body of insurgent 
cavalry, scattering them in all directions and killing Maj. Pedro 
Dec. 1, 1899. — Gren. Fernando Canon, governor of the province of Nueva Viz- 

caya, surrenders his province, 3 cities, 110 Spanish and 10 Amer- 
ican prisoners, to Lieutenants Castner and Munro. 

2, 1899. — Headquarters, band, and 8 companies, Forty-ninth Infantry, 
U. S. v., and Hospital Corps detachment, sail from San Fran- 
cisco, Cal., on transport Warren, for Manila, P. I. 
Maj. P. C. March, commanding detachment Thirty-third Infantry, 
U. S. v., moves against insurgents intrenched at Tila Pass, 
which is 4,441 feet high, in Tila Mountains, near Lingey, Luzon, 
P. I. The trail winds up the mountains in a sharp zigzag, and 
is commanded by stone barricades loopholed for infantry flre. 
Shortly after leaving Lingey the advance is checked by a heavy 
fire from one of these barricades, killing and woundine several 
men. Reenforcemente are brought up at double time, and on 
resuming the advance it is discovered that position can not be 
taken by frontal attack. To the left front of the barricade a 
hill permitting a flank fire is occupied by 10 sharpshooters, 
and Lieutenant Tompkins, commanding Company H, retires 
and ascends the slope under cover of the ridge which strikes the 
face of the mountain 150 feet from summit. After climbing up 
this declivity by means of twigs, a simultaneous attack is made 
by parties in front and rear, carrying all before them, killing 
and wounding 52, among them Gregorio del Pilar, the com- 
manding general of the insui^ents. The casualties to the 
United States forces are 2 killed and 9 wounded. At summit 
large quantities of rice, lard, etc., are found. 

4, 1899.— Companies F, G, and H, Thhly-fourth Infantry, U. S. V., find 
800 insurgents strongly intrenched in mountain pass of Tagan- 
adin, P. I., and an engagement lasting three hours takes place. 
The United States forces lose 7 wounded, fatally, and the: 
insurgents lose 35 killed and 80 woujxded^ 


Dec. 4, 1899. — Companies A, F, H, and detachment Company K, Twenty-fourth 

U. S. Infantry, encounter insurgents at San Luis, Luzon, P. I., 
without sustaining any loss. Insurgent casualties unknown. 
Companies A, B, and C, Third U. S. Infantry, detachment 25 men 
each from Companies B, C, D, E, F, G, I, K, L, and M, and 
all of Company H, Sixteenth U. S. Infantry, and detachment 
Third U. S. Artillery, engage and defeat the insurgents at San 
Ildefonso, Luzon, P. I., wounding a number and losing none. 

6, 1899. — Companies A, B, and C, Third IT. S. Infantry, detachments 25 men 
each from Companies B, C, D, E, F, G, I, K, L, M, and all of 
Company H, Sixteenth U. S. Infantry, and detachment Third 
U. S. Artillery, strike the insurgents again near San Ildefonso, 
Luzon, P. I., without loss, the insurgents losing a number. 

6, 1899. — Detachment of the Forty-ninth Infantry, U. S. V., sails from San 
Francisco, Cal., for Manila, P. I., on transport Sherman. 
Companies A, B, and C, Third U. S. Infantry, detachments 25 men 
each from Companies B, C, D, E, F, G, I, K, L, M, and all of 
Company H, vSixteenth U. S. Infantry, and detachment Third 
U. S. Artillery, encounter the insurgents at Maasin, Luzon, P. I. 
No losses on either side. 

7, 1899. — Company M, Sixth U. S. Infantry, under First Lieut. J. V. Heidt, 
in an engagement with 450 insurgents at La Granja, P. I., kills 
17, wounds many, and loses First Lieut. A, C. Led yard, killed, 
and 2 men wounded. 

8, 1899.— Detachments Thirty-second Infantry, U. S. V., and Third U. S. 
Infantr>', have an engagement with insurgents at Olongapo, P. I. 
Casualties to insurgents unknown; to Americans none. 

9, 189t). — First Battalion, Twenty-fifth U. S. Infantry, under Capt. Joseph 
P. O'Neii, strikes a party of insurgents at Iba, Luzon, P. I., and 

1 man is wounded. Loss by insurgents unknown. 

10, 1899. — Companies E and M, Thirty -second Infantry, U. S. V"., and 50 
men eac^h from Companies E and H, Third U. S. Infantry, Capt. 
J. H. McRae commanding, engage upon landing the insurgents 
at Subig, Subig Bay, Luzon, P. I., killing 1 and losing none. 
United States forces occupy Olongapo and Subig, Luzon, P. I., 
with little resistance. 

11, 1899. — Twenty-five men from each of the following Companies B, C, D, 
E, F, G, I, K, L, M, and 100 men of H, Sixteenth U. S. Infantry, 
under Col. Charles C. Hood, and detachments Third U. S. 
Artillery and Third U. S. Infantry, engage the insurgents at San 
Ildefonso, Luzon, P. I., defeating and inflicting considerable 
damage upon them. No casualties among United States forces. 
Lieut. Col. Robert L. Howze, Thirty-fourth Infantry, V. S. V., 
reports his arrival at Laoag, Luzon, P. L, after having had sev- 
eral engagements with insurgent General Tinio's army, which 
he drove before him over the mountains, killing about 50, 
wounding many, capturing 100, also 200 rifles, 7 cannon, and 
about 80,000 ]K)unds of rice and other supplies. Our casualties, 

2 wounded. 

Maj. Thomas G. Carson, Eleventh Cavalry, U. S. V., with scouting 
party, engage a detachment of insurgents near Norzagaray, 
Luzon, P. I., killmg 2, mortally wounding 3, and capturing 11, 
also 21 rifles. No casualties to United States forces. 


Dec. 12, 1899. — The insurant stronghold, Biacnabato (Split Rock), located south 

of Mount Madlom, P. I., is captured by 6 troops Fourth U. S. Cav- 
alry, commanded by Lieut. Col. E. M. Hayes, together with 10 
rifles, 30,000 pounds of rice, uniform cloth and clothing to the 
value of $600, and a large and varied collection of tools and 
material for the manufacture of explosives, medical supplies, 
etc. This place was held on January 4, 1897, by 16 insurgents 
against 900 Spaniards. 

13, 1899. — Detachment Fourth U. S. Cavalry encounters the insurants of San 
Miguel, Luzon, P. L No casualties. 

16, 1891K — Sixty men under Lieut. Col. R. L. Howze, Thirty-fourth Infantry, 
U. S. v., and battalion Twenty-third U. S. Infantry, find and sur- 
prise, near Dingras, P. I., a party of insurgents occupying several 
nipa huts, killing 5 and capturing 12. 

17, 1899. — Company L, Thirty-second Infantry, U. S. V., engages a party of 
insurgents at Morong, Luzon, P. L, without loss. Insui^gent 
casualties unknown. 

18, 1899. — Company I, Twenty-fifth U. S. Infantry, engages at long range 
the insurgents occupying Iba, Luzon, P. I., compelling them to 

19, 1899. — Headquarters, Second and Third Squadrons, Eleventh Cavalry, 
U. S. v.. Troop I, Fourth U. S. Cavalry, Companies A, B, and C, 
Twenty-seventh Infantry, U. S. V., and Companies E, F, G, and 
H, Twenty-seventh Infantry, U. S. V., all under Maj. Gen. H. W. 
Lawton, attack and capture the town of San Mateo, Luzon, 
P. I., sustaining a loss of 1 oflBcer (Maj. Gen. Henry VV. Lawton) 
killed, and 1 officer and 7 enlisted men wounded. Losses of 
insurgents unknown. 

20, 1899. — Company F, Seventeenth U. S. Infantry, First Lieut. E. D. Bricker, 
commanding, on a scout to Cantapang, Luzon, P. I., engages 
small band of insurgents, killing 1 . No casualties. 

21,1899.— The Thirty-sixth Infantry, IT. S. V., under Lieut. Col. William 
R. Grove, in advancing from Balincaguin, via Alos, P. L, to 
Alaminos, P. I., engages the insurgents near Alos, scattering 
and pursuing them; midway between Alos and Alaminos, cap- 
turing a number and putting remainder to rout, and at Ala- 
minos, P. I., capturmg 20 rifles, 16 prisoners, killing 8 and 
wounding several. 

22, 1899. — One hundred and seventy-five insui^gents, armed with rifles, and 
300 bolo men, under Colonel Solis, attack the town of Lara, 
Island of Panay, P. I., garrisoned by Company D (90 men), 
Twenty-sixth Infantry, U. S. V., under command of Capt. C. 
M. Browneli, and are completely routed with a loss of 25 killed 
and 100 wounded, including Colonel Solis; the United States 
forces suffering 1 casualty. 

23, 1899. — Company E, Thirty-fourth Infantry, U. S. V., under command of 
Capt. William E. Dame, encounters a large body of insurgents, 
under Colonel Simon, and a running fight along the road lo 
Bone ensues, in which 2 insurgents are killed and 7 wounded. 
No casualties among Americans. 

24,1899. — Companies C and E, Thirty -seventh Infantry, U. S. V., capture 
insurgent outposts near Calamba, Luzon, P. I. No casualties. 

WAR lyOU — VOL 1, FT V 2 


Dec. 27, 1899.— Capt. E. W. Tanner, Thirty-fifth Infantry, U. S. V., with 25 men, 

capture, in a barrio near Baliuag, Luzon, P. L, 1 major, 1 cap- 
tain, and 47 privates of the insurgent force. 
First and Second Squadrons, and Troop D, Third Squadron, Elev- 
enth Cavalry, U. S. V., Company M, Twenty-seventh Infantry, 
U. S. v., Companies A, D, F, and 1, Twenty-ninth Infantry, 
U. S. v., and Companies A, B, C, and L, Forty-fifth Infantry, 
U. S. v., attack the insurgents at Montalbon, near San Mateo, 
Luzon, P. I., losing 1 man drowned, 1 officer and 6 men 
wounded, and killing 80, wounding many of the insurgents and 
capturing 24. 
29, 1899.— Company G, Twenty-fourth U. S. Infantry, First Lieut. Hunter 

B. Nelson, commanding, attacks insurants strongly intrenched 
on opposite bank of a tributary of the Rio Grande del Pam- 
panga, near Bongabon, Luzon, P. I., inflicting considerable 
loss and sustaining a loss of 2 wounded. 

Jan. 1, 1900.— Left platoon, Light Battery F, Fifth U. S. Artillery, Firet Lieut. 

C. P. Summerall commanding, with Second Battalion, Thirty- 
ninth Infantry, U, S. V., under Maj. George T. Langhome, 
near San Cristobal, Luzon, P. I., engage the insurgents occu- 
pying an intrenched position, and after three hours* fighting 
force them to retreat. They are pursued through Cabuyao and 
beyond to Santa Rosa (11 J miles from Calamba), which is 
taken after a short and stubborn fight. Casualties unknown. 

2, 1900.— Detachment Light Battery F, Fifth U. S. Artillery, First Lieut 

C. P. Summerall commanding, with Second Battalion, Thirty- 
ninth Infantry, IT. S. V., under Maj. Greorge T. Langhome, 
engage and defeat the insurgents at Binan, Luzon, P. I.,. driv- 
ing them through San Pedro and Carmona. 

3, 1900. — Two squads Company L, Thirty-ninth Infantry, U. S. V., under 

Capt. F. S. Long, on reconnoissance toward Carmona, P. I., are 
surrounded by insurgents and compelled to cut their way out. 
Reenforcements are brought up and a fight lasting 2^ hours is 
had, the insurgents finally retreating toward Carmona. 

5, 1900. — Forty-first Infantry, U. S. V., on Transport Logan, arrives at 

Manilla, P. I., from New York City. 
Companies B, K, L, and detachn^ents Companies F and M, 
Twenty -fifth U. S. Infantry, meet insurgents 500 strong at 
Mount Arayat, Luzon, P. I., having 3 men wounded, 1 mor- 
tally, and inflicting severe punishment upon the insurgents. 

6, 1900. — Bolo men and armed insurgents, from Zambales Mountains, 

attack 2 companies, Twenty-flfth U. S. Infantry, under Capt. 
J. P. O'Neil, at Iba, Luzon, P. I., and are defeated with a loss 
of 50 men. No casualties among United States forces. 
General Schwan's expeditionary brigade, consisting of the Thir- 
tieth Infantry, U. S. V., Forty-sixth Infantry, U. S. V., 1 
squadron Fourth U. S. Cavalry, 1 squadron Eleventh Cavalry, 
U. S. v., 1 Battery mountain artillery, 1 company Engineer 
Battalion, detachments Signal Corps and Hospital Corps and 
2 companies Macabebe Scouts, moving alongshore of Laguna de 
Bay, comes in contact, near Binan, Luzon, P. I., with the rear 
guard of General MiniePs force of 800 insurgt-nts, and engages 
it, killing 18, wounding 2, and capturing 25 prisoners, 8 rifles, 
1 pistoli 2 flags, and sustaining a loss of 2 wounded. 


Jan. 7, 1900. — Two battalions of the Twenty-eighth Infantry, U. S. V., strike 

the insurgents near Imus, Luzon, P. L, killing and wounding 
140. Colonel Birkhimer with other battalion of the Twenty- 
eighth strikes insurgents at Binacayan, Luzon, P. I., killing 
65, wounding 40, and capturing 32 rifles. 
8, 1900.— Two 3.2-inch guns and two 1.65-inch guns, Light Battery G, Sixth 
U. S. Artillery (the former under Sergeants Weeks and Crotty 
and the latter under First Lieut. E. D*A. Pearce), Companies 
B, G, H, and K, under Major Leefe, and Companies D, I, and M, 
under Major Woodbury, all of the Nineteenth U. S. Infantry, 
Company M, Twenty-third U. S. Infantry, Capt. W. H. Allaire 
commanding, and Com panics I, K, and M, Forty-fourth Infantry, 
U. S. v., Maj. H. B. McCoy commanding, attack the insurants 
occupying forts and intrenchments on Sudlon Mountain, island 
of Cebu, P. I., and, "after a four hours* fight drive them out, 
killing 10, wounding many, and capturing 12 fieldpieces and 
32 small arms of various patterns, and losing only 4 men 
9, 1900.— The Thirty-ninth Infantry, U.S. V., and a detachment of the 
Thirty-seventh Infantry, U. S. V., Col. R. L. Bullard command- 
ing, attack a large body of insurgents near Calamba, Luzon. 
P. I., killing and wounding 74; our loss being 1 man killed and 
2 officers wounded. 
Squadrons of the Fourth U. S. Cavalry and the Eleventh Cavalry, 
U. S. v., commanded by Lieut. Col. E. M. Hayes, Fourth U. S. 
Cavalry, encounter near Naic, Luzon, P. I., about 200 insur- 
gents, killing 13 of them and losing 1 man killed and 2 wounded. 

10, 1900.— Companies K and L, Thirtieth Infantry, U. S. V., Maj. T. L. Har- 
tigan commanding, engage, on the march to Magallanes, Luzon, 
P. I., 50 insurgents, capturing a colonel, and, then proceeding 
to Magallanes, encounter and defeat the insurgents 200 strong, 
killing 3 and capturing 20, also several rifles. No casualties to 
United States forces. 

11, 1900. — Detachment of Company A and Company C, Thirty-seventh 
Infantry, U. S. V., left platoon, light Battery F, Fifth U.S. 
Artillery, Lieut. C. P. Summerall commanding, and Third Bat- 
talion, Thirty-ninth Infantry, U. S. V., under Maj. W. L. Mur- 
phy, attack insurgents occupying position on hill 2 miles south 
of Santo Tomas, Luzon, P. I., defeating and forcing them to 
retreat. American loss, 1 man killed. 

12, 1900. — Two noncommissioned officers and 22 privates. Troop C, Third 
U. S. Cavalry, sent out to patrol country in vicinity of Bangan, 
Luzon, P. I., on returning from Sidupin are ambushed and 2 
men killed and 3 wounded. 

13, 1900. — Lieut. W. L. Lowe with detachment of the Thirty-third Infantry, 
U. S. v., engages a band of 20 insui^gents on the trail from Ban- 
gued and Bana, Luzon, P. I., killing 2 and capturing 2. Fol- 
lowing up the next day, he kills the lieutenant and captures 3 
more of their force. 
The Thirty-eighth and Thirty-ninth Infantry, U. S. V., and the 
Fifth U. S. Artillery encounter the insuigents holding an 
intrenched position near Lipa, P. I., and drive them through 
Lipa, killing 8, wounding 13, capturing a number, and liberate 
ing 130 Spanish prisoners. Proceeding to Rosano, in pursuit of 
insurgents, 70 more Spanish prisoners are released and 119,699.50 
(Mexican) captured. The Americans lose 1 man wounded. 


Jan. 14, 1900.— One squadron Fourth U. S. Cavalr>' and 1 squadron Eleventh 

Cavalry, IT. S. V., under Lieut. Col. E. M. Hayes, attack 
insurgents holding San Pablo, Luzon, P. I., driving them back, 
killing 8, and capturing several prisoners and some property. 

15, 1900. — One squadron Fourth U. S. Cavalry and 1 squadron Eleventh 
Cavalry, U. S. V., under Lieut. Col. E. M. Hayes, overcome 
intrenched resistance 3 miles from Tiaon, Luzon, P. L, and 
occupy that place. 

16, 1900. — Schwan's expeditionary brigade moves upon Batangas, Luzon, P. 
I., defeating the insurgents stationed there, killing 3, wounding 
8, and taking 74 of them prisoners. Sixty-nine Spanish prison- 
ers, including 3 priests, are liberated. 

18, 1900.— Companies A, C, E, and L (Second Battalion), Nineteenth U. S. 
Infantry, attack and defeat the insurgents holding the town of 
Panique, Panay, P. I., one American being wounded. 

19, 1900.— Second Battalion Forty-fifth Infantry, U. S. V., Lieut. Col. James 
Parker commanding; first squadron Eleventh Cavalry, U. S. V., 
Maj. T. G. Carson commanding; all under Colonel Dorst, one- 
half mile from Magallanes, Luzon, P. I., meet and engage a 
body of 60 insurgents, killing 4 and wounding 2. Cajsualties 
among United States forces, 2 wounded slightly. 

21, 1900.— A detachment Sixth U. S. Artillery, the Thirtieth Infantry, U. 
S. V. ; 2 battalions of the Thirty-seventh Infantry, U. S. V., 
and 1 battalion of the Thirty-ninth Infantry, U. S. V., attack 
the insurants, well intrenched on crest of hills near barrio of 
San Diego, which is 4 miles from San Pablo, Luzon, P. I., and 
defeat them with a loss of 1 killed and 14 wounded, the insur- 
gent loss being 37 killed. The number of their woimded could 
not be ascertained. 

22, 1900. — Maj. W. H. Bishop, with 25 men from each of Companies D and 
G, Thirty -sixth Infantry, U. S. V., Hotchkiss mountain gun 
and 5 mounted men, encounters a party of Insurgents strongly 
intrenched at Balincaguing, Luzon, P. I., 5 miles northwest of 
Alaminos, and captures the town with 10 prisoners, 6 Mauser 
and 16 Remington rifles, 3,000 rounds of anmiunition, 2 horses 
with equipments, killing 9 and wounding 4 insurgents. The 
United States forces lose 3 men wounded. 
Twenty-four men of Company E, Seventeenth U. S. Infantry, 
under Second Lieut. R. Waldo, leave Malasiqui and march to 
Tubuc, Luzon, P. I., where they engage a band of ladrones, 
killing its leader and wounding 11. 

23, 1900. — From 3,000 to 5,000 insurgents intrenched at Majayjay, Luzon, 
P. I., are flanked and forced to retire without more than a 
skirmish by the main column of Schwan's expeditionary bri- 
gade, consisting of brigade headquarters, the engineers, the 
Artillery, the Thirtieth Infantry, IT. S. V., 2 battalions of the 
Thirty-ninth Infantry, U. S. V., and 1 battalion of the Thirty- 
seventh Infantry, U. S. V. 

24, 1900.— Third Battalion, Forty-fifth Infantry, U. S. V., Maj. T. K. Birk- 
haeuser commanding, and First Squadron, Eleventh Cavalry, 
U. S. v., Maj. T. G. Carson commanding, engage the insurgents 
ne^r Magallanes, P. 1. Canualtic^ unknown. 

25, 1900. — Transport (Iniut, with the Forty-eighth Infantry, U. S. V., arrives 
at Manila, P. 1., from Angel Island, San Francisco Harbor, 


Jan. 25, 1900. — Companies F and H, Thirty-eighth Infantry, U. S. V., Maj. W. A. 

Holbrook commanding, attack insurgents at Lipa, Luzon, P. I. , 
and 1 Fihpino is captured and a quantity of ammunition and 
11 ponies secured. 

26, 1900. — Donsol, Luzon, P. L, is attacked by Companies F and H, Forty- 
seventh Infantry,!!. S.V.,and is partially burned by insurgents, 
who are finally forced to retreat. 
Second Battalion, Forty-third Infantry, U. S. V., Maj. John C. 
Gilmore, jr., commanding, lands and occupies Calboyok, island 
of Samar, P. I., without resistance, and, on penetrating into the 
interior, northeast of the town, encounters the insui^gents in a 
running fight, killing 10, wounding a number, and capturing 10 
small cannon. 

29, l^KX). — Companies A, B, C, and D, Thirty-seventh Infantry, U. S. V., and 
Companies E, F, G, and H, Thirty-ninth Infantry, U. S. V., 
encounter and defeat insurgents at Sampaloc, Luzon, P. I. 

30, 1900. — Donsol, P. I., occupied by the Forty-seventh Infantry, U. S. V., is 
attacked by insurgents who, set fire to the buildings by means 
of burning arrows and partially bum town. After a short fight 
insurgents withdraw. 
Transport Thomas SLrrivea at San Francisco, Cal., with the remains 
of Maj. Gen. Henry W. Lawton, U. S. V., who was killed in the 
fight before San Mateo, Luzon, P. I., on December 19, 1899. 

31, 1900.-- Company A, Thirty-fourth Infantry, U. S.V., Capt. C. M. Carr 
commanding, captures, near San Isidro, Luzon, P. I., 4 prisoners, 
2 Remington rifles, and 75 cartridges. 
Feb. 1, 1900. — Three squads Company A, Twelfth U. S. Infantry, Second Lieut. 

Greoi^ge S. Tiffany commanding, engage 15 insurgents at Sulina, 
Luzon, P. I., defeating them without casualty. 
2, 1900. — Maj. C. H. Muir, commanding one platoon of Company A, and 
Companies B, C, and D, Thirty-eighth Infantry, U. S. V., 9 
officers and 234 men, on reconnoissance from Batangas to Ililan 
and return, assaults, near Talumpoc, P. I., an insurgent strong- 
hold, and 1 rapid-fire Nordenfeldt gun, caliber 1 inch, 800 
rounds of ammunition for same; 2 brass mountain guns, caliber 
2 J inches, 80 rounds of powder and slugs for same; 700 Rem- 
ington rifle cartridges, and a quantity of bayonets, provisions, 
lead, sulphur, salt, etc., are captured; also 1 prisoner. Four 
Americans are missing. 
Company E, Forty-seventh Infantry, U. S. V., Capt. A. U. Betts 
commanding, engage the insurgents at Legaspi, P. I. Sergeant 
Craig and 3 others wounded. Insurgent casualties not ascer- 
3, 1900. — Detachment Company E and all of Company H, Thirtieth 
Infantry, U. S. V^., Capt. E. H. Fitzgerald commanding, have 
a skirmish with insurgents at Lanot, Luzon, P. I., 4 miles from 
Lucban, in which 2 are killed. No casualties to United States 
4, 1900. — Company H and detachment Company E, Thirtieth Infantry, 
U. S. v., commanded by Capt. E. H. Fitzgerald, 2 miles from 
Sampaloc, Luzon, P. I., engage the insurgents, killing 4 and 
losing 2 wounded. 
5, 1900. — Escort of 11 enlisted men, under command of Sergeant Wallace, 
all of Company G, Thirty-second Infantry, U. S. V\, are sur- 
prised near Dinalupijan, Luzon, P. I., by about 50 insurgents, 
who kill 6 of them and escape without loss. 


Fel). 6, 1900.— Company C;, Forty-seventh Infantry, \\ S. V., Capt. L. H. 

Simons commanciing, in atta(!ked by insurgents, some armed 
with bolos only and many with rifles, at Albay, P. I., who are 
defeated with a known loss of 44 killed. 
Transport Venus arrives at Manila, P. I., having on board 26 
Americans who had been prisoners in the hands of the Fili- 
pinos, including Lieutenant Gilmore and the survivors of the 
Yorktmim^s crew and 3 of the Urdaneta survivors. 
7, 1900. — Fourteen men. Fourth U. S. Cavalry, escorting 2 wagons and 
some sick men, are attacked 2 miles north of Magdalena, Luzon, 
P. I., by about 30 insurgents in ambush, and an engagement 
lasting fifteen minutes takes place, in which 3 Americans are 
wounded and 1 insurgent killed. 
9, 1900. — Col. W. Howe, with four companies Forty-seventh Infantry, 
U. S. v., and 2 pieces of artillery, ha\dng sailed on previous 
day from Legaspi, P. I., for Tabaco, P. I., lands his infantry, 
and, attacking the insurgents intrenched in vicinity, kills 35 
men and 1 oflBcer and extinguishes the lire which the insur- 
gents had started in the town with the object of destroying it. 

10, 1900. — A guard patrol of Companies E, F, and G, Second Battalion, 
Forty-seventh Infantry, U. S. V., kills near Tabaco, P. I., 4 
insurgents and brings in 1 severely wounded. 

11, 1900. — Lieut. J. A. Moss, with Company I, Twenty-fourth U. S. Infan- 
try, scouting near Buloc, Luzon, P. I., encounters a band of 50 
insurgents, killing 1, capturing 6 rifles, 300 rounds of ammu- 
nition, and destroying a considerable quantity of camp equipage 
and provisions. No casualties to our forces. 

12, 1900. — Twenty men of Company G, Lieut. J. M. Wheeler commanding, 
and wagon escort of Company H, Fortieth Infantry, U. S. V., 
are attacked by insurgents near Albay, P. I., and 1 man 
wounded. Loss to insurgents unknown. 

13, 1900. — Lieutenant Morrow's company of Macabebes, at barrio San 
Pablo, Luzon, P. I., kills 1 insurgent, captures 12, with 6 
Mauser and 4 Remington rifles and several hundred rounds of 
ammunition. Lieutenant O'Connor, of same organization, 
captures Julian Bitug, captain, reported insurrec^to presidente 
of Lubao. 
Four companies. Twenty-seventh Infantry, U. S. V., Maj. C. D. V. 
Hunt commanding, have skirmish with insurgents intrenched 
at the barrio of Bartolome, P. I. No casualties. 

14,1900. — Company L, Forty-seventh Infantry, U. S. V. (55 men); Com- 
pany E, Fortieth Infantry, U. S. V. (60 men) ; 15 men of 
Company F, Fortieth Infantry, IT. S. V., and Company 
H, Fortieth Infantry, U. S. V., a total of 205 men, under 
Col. Walter Howe, Forty- seventh Infantry, U. S. V., attack 
about 1,000 insurgents intrenched about 2 miles from 
Malabog, P. I., driving them from their trenches a distance of 
a mile and a half. Loss to insurgents unknown, but 21 dead 
and 2 mortally wounded were seen on the field. One Ameri- 
can killed and none wounded. 

15, 1900.— Col. J. H. Smith, Seventeenth U. S. Infantry (with Lieut. T. L. 
Smith), Lieutenant Bushfield and 50 men of Company B, 
Seventeenth U. S. Infantry, surprise a band of 30 ladrones 
near Alcaba, Luzon, P. I., killing 12, mortally wounding 2, and 
taking 2 prisoners. No casualties to ITnite<i States troops. 


Fi ]). IH, 1900. — Company K, Thirty-seventh Infantry, U. S. V., encounters insur- 
gents at Magdalena, P. I. No casualties. 

17, 1900. — Companies K and M, Forty-fourth Infantry, U. S. V., under 
Capts. E. A. Stuart and K. T. Smith, on night expedition 
against insurgent Gen. Emilio Verdeflor, capture 9 field pieces 
and a quantity of ammunition near Balamban, Cebu, P. I. 

18, 1900. — Companies A and B, Thirtieth Infantry, U. S. V., go on a recon- 
noissance through Lucena, Sariaya, thence near cove of 
Tayabas, when they return to Lucena, P. I., 5 guns having 
been captured and 3 Spanish prisoners released. No casualties. 

19, 1900. — Companies A and B, Thirtieth Infantry, U. S. V., are fired upon 
at Lucban, P. I., by about 30 insurgents, who are dispersed by 
Company H, of the same regiment, on outpost duty at the time. 

20,1900. — Headquarters and First Battalion, Fortieth Infantry, U. S. V., 
land at town of Barceloneta and proceed immediately to Lib- 
manan, P. I., where a large force of insurgents are encountered 
and a stubborn resistance made. The town is entered at sun- 
down, the insurgents having retreated after losing 64 killed, 11 
wounded, and 10 prisoners. The United States forces lose 1 
officer killed and 8 enlisted men wounded. 
Lieut. J. R. R. Hannay, with Company K, Twenty-second U. S. 
Infantry, at a barrio of Candaba, Luzon, P. I., captures 52 
prisoners, several rifles, and considerable ammunition. 

21, 1900. — Capt. Samuel Van Leer, Thirty-seventh Infantry, U. S. V., with 
detachment First Battalion of that regiment, encounters 6 
insurgents 3 miles northwest of Majayjay, P. I., killing 1 and 
wounding another. 

22, 1900.— Lieut. E. McGowan, Thirty-sixth Infantry, U. S. V., with 30 
men, surprises about the same number of insurgents at 
barrio between Alaminos and Sual, Luzon, P. I., killing the 
officer in command, wounding 2 others, taking 7 prisoners, and 
capturing 4 Remington rifles and 200 rounds of ammunition. 

23, 1900.— Maj. B. F. Cheatham, Thirty-seventh Infantry, U. S. V., reports 
that at Majayjay, P. I., patrol is fired on by about 15 insurrec- 
tos. Private William T. Kensell, Company D, Thirty-seventh 
Infantry, U. S. V., being severely wounded. 

24,1900. — Seventy men, Twenty-eighth Infantry, U. S. V., under Capt. 
Peter Vredenburgh, encounter 200 insurgents between Lemeri 
and Calaca, P. I., routing them after a brisk fight, killing 3, 
wounding many, and losing none. 

25, 1900. — Company I, Thirty-seventh Infantry, U. S. V., under Maj. H. B. 
Orwig, makes a reconnoissance northeast of Pagsanjan, P. I., 
and Second Lieut. Domingo Ejea (Spainard), of the insurgent 
army, is captured. 

2^^ 1900.— Company B, Thirtieth Infantry, U. S. V., captures 3,000 pounds 
of rice 5 miles west of Tavabas, P. I. 

27, 1900. — Companies C and D, Fortieth Infantry, U. S. V., under Maj. M. 
M. McNamee, attack the insurgents 4 miles from Tigaon, P. I., 
and finally dislodge them from their sheltered position, killing 
7 and woimding a number. The United States forces lose 1 
man killed and 3 wounded. 

28,1900. — Two companies of the Thirty-seventh Infantry, U. S. V., under 
Maj. B. F. Cheatham, encounter 70 insurgents 2 miles south of 
Nagcarlang, P. I., routing them and killing 7, wounding 5, and 
capturing 3 Mauser rifies. No casualties to United States forces. 


Feb. 28, 1900.— Col. William H. Beck, Forty-ninth Infantry, U. S. V., rei>orts 

the capture of Lieut. Col. Tomas Aguinaldo, of the insurgent 
army, near Bacon, P. I. 
Mar. 1, 1900. — Seventy-five enlisted men of Company B, Sixteenth TJ. S. Infan- 

try, Maj. Henry C. Ward commanding, en route to Linao, P. I., 
on 2 steam launches and 1 caaco, are fired upon at mouth of Linao 
River by insurgents occupying a commanding position on shore. 
A heavy sea is running and one of the launches is capsized 
while crossing the bar. In this predicament the men in the 
boats that remain upright drop into the water and, using the 
vessels as breastworks, reply to the fire of the insurgents 
with good effect. A landmg is soon accomplished and the 
insurgents driven out of their works with a loss of 8 killed and 
2 wounded, who are captured, l>esides several more who escape. 
The Americans lose a soldier kille<l, 1 oflicer, 5 soldiers, 1 
quartermaster* H employee and pilot wounded. 
Capt. G. E. Gibson, with 34 men of Company C, Thirty-fourth 
Infantry, U. S. V., surrounds the barrio of Magung, near San 
Isidro, Luzon, P. I., and t^ptures 37 insurgents, 13 Remington 
rifles, and 650 rounds of ammunition. 

2, 1900. — ^Two officers and 60 men of Company C, Forty-fifth Infantry, 
U. S. v., engage at Antipolo, Luzon, P. I., 300 insurgents under 
Colonel Pena, defeating them and liberating 43 Spaniards, 
prisoners in their hands. 

3, 1900.— Thirty-five men of Company K, Thirtieth Infantry, U. 8. V., 
under First Lieut. A. E. McCabe, on reconnoissance south of 
Atimonan, Luzon, P. I., kill 2 insurgents, wound 1, and capture 
10 prisoners. 

4, 1900. — Capt. G. G. Scranton, commanding Company G, Thirtieth Infan- 
try, U. 8. v., captures, on reconnoissance toward Luisiana, P. I., 
the insurgent Major Permanillo, of the regiment under Alosis, 
and releases 3 Spaniards, prisoners on Alobal Island. 

5, 1900. — Eleven men of Company I^, Thirty-third Infantry, U. S. V., under 
Capt. Edward Davis, encounter 50 insurgents 2 miles from 
Cabugao, Luzon, P. I., routing them and losing 1 man wounded. 

6, 1900. — ^McGee's company of Macal^ebe scouts is attacked by insurgents 
in ambush along road near Dazol, Luzon, P. I., and 1 man is 
killed and 2 others wounded. 

7, 1900.— Lieut. W. G. Miles, Thirty-seventh Infantry, U. S. V., with 30 
men guarding wagon train, encounters 60 insurgents in two 
detachments on either side of the road, 2 miles north of Mag- 
dalena, P. I., and with 12 men charges 30 of them in a trench, 
killing 2, wounding 3, and capturing 1 gun. The United States 
forces lose 1 man slightly wounded. 

8,1900. — Company H, Forty-third Infantry, U. S. V., near Matiginao, 
Samar, P. I., encounters the insurgents, losing 2 men killed, 1 
officer and 3 men wounded. Loss by insurgents could not be 

9, 1900. — Company H, Eighteenth U. S. Infantry, Capt. E. L. Butts com- 
manding, is attacked by insurgents at Bugason, P. I. , who are 
easily repulsed. No casualties. 
10, 1900. — Maj. H. B. McCoy, with a detachment of 35 men each from Com- 
panies I and L, attack the insurgents under General Godinez, 
in the vicinity of Guimanon, P. I., and defeat them, killing 5 
and wounding 3. 


Mar. 1 1 , 1900. — Eleven men Ijelonging t4j t he Third BattaHon, Forty-third Infantry, 

U. S. v., the garrison at Paranas, Samar, P. I., are attacked by 
150 insurgents, armed with bolos and rifles, and for forty-five 
minutes a hand-to-hand struggle takes place, in which 30 insur- 
gents are killed and wounded and 3 Americans wounded. The 
l)and is finally driven off. 

13, 1900.— Capt. C. 8. Nettles, Forty-first Infantry, U. S. V., with detachment, 
captures 5 lad rones, 15 bolos, and 2 rifles at a barrio near Orani, 
Luzon, P. I. 
Capt. W. R. Standiford, with a company of the Forty-first Infantry, 
U. S. v., captures at Barrio Ibus, P. I., 6 ladrones, 6 rifles, and 
100 rounds of ammunition. 

14, 1900. — A scouting party, composed of Macabebe scouts and detachment 
Thirty-second Infantry, U. S. V., goes to Puenta Rivas, P. I., and 
has a skirmish with a band of ladrones, and Lieut. J. M. Shook, 
Thirty-second Infantry, U. S. V., coming up from Pilas, P. I., 
meets same band and engages it. In the two fights 10 men 
were killed and 10 were wounded. No casualties to United 
States forces. 

15,1900. — Companies A, C, E, and L (Second Battalion), Nineteenth U. S. 
Infantry, Maj. J. F. Huston commanding, and Company H, 
Eighteenth U. S. Infantry, engage the insurants at Guisyan, 
P. 'I., driving them from their stronghold and completely 
destroying same. 

16, 1900. — Lieut. James H. Johnston, Forty-sixth Infantry, U. S. V., with 30 
men, strike 40 armed insurgents at Barrio Bancal Binan, P. I., 
Silang road, and disperse them, wounding 2 and capturing a 
considerable quantity of ammunition and a number of bolos. 

18, 1900. — Companies A, D, K, and M, Forty-fifth Infantry, U. S. V., and com- 
pany G, Thirty-seventh Infantry, U. S. V., engage a large force 
of insurgents at Polangui, P. I., killing 25, capturing 36 with 22 
rifles, and losing 1 man wounded. 

19, 1900. — First Lieut. B. P. Lukens, with 30 men of Company M, Forty-sixth 
Infantry, U. S. V^., secretly moving out of Silang, P. I., surprises, 
6 miles south, 1 (company of insurgents and captures 45. 
Capt. H. A. Hutchings, commanding 50 men. Thirty-seventh 
Infantry, U. S. V., captures, 4 miles south of Santa Cruz, Luzon, 
P. I., First Lieut. Juanario Francisco, jefe militar de columna 
volante (military chief of the flying column), and Antonio 

20, 1900.— Companies A, D, K, and M, Forty-fifth Infantry , U. S. V., and Com- 
pany G, Thirty -seventh Infantry, U. S. V., in a succession of 
engagements with insurgents on the march from Guinobatan to 
Legaspi, P. I., kill a number of insurgents, capture 60, also 36 
rifles and 1,200 rounds of ammunition, and lose 1 man woimded. 

21, 1900. — A detachment of the Forty-third Infantry, U. S. V., under First 
Lieut. C. M. Seaman, is attacked at La Granja, Samar, P. I., by 
about 19 insurgents, who wound 1 man and lose a number. 

22, 1900.— Company K, Thirty-seventh Infantry, U. S. V., Capt. M. Flaherty 
commanding, on scout from Magdalena, takes a northeasterly 
direction toward Cavinti, P. I., and when 5 miles from camp is 
fired on by insurgents, whose fire is retured and 1 man killed. 
The insurgents retreat without further resistance. 


Mar. 23, 1900.— Companies A, D, K, and M, Forty-fifth Infantry, U. S. V., and Com- 
pany G, Thirty-seventh Infantry, U. S. V., are met at Camalig, 
P. I., by a furious fire from insurgents on hills to right of road, 
and again near Darago. Two insurgents are killed, a number 
wounded, and 1 rifle captured. 

24, 1900.— Companies A, D, K, andM, Forty-fifth Infantry, U. S. V., and Com- 
pany G, Thirty-seventh Infantry, U. S. V., capture at Ligao, 
Luzon, P. I., 40 insurgents and 1 rifle, and, proceeding to Oas, 
kill 1 insurgent and capture a mounted scout. 

25, 1900. — Sixteen men of Company A, Eighteenth U. S. Infantry, returning 
to Capiz, P. L, surprise a party of 30 insurgents and kill 2, wound 
several, and take 1 prisoner. 

26, 1900. — Companies K and M, under Capt. C. P. Newberry, and I and L, 
under Maj. T. L. Hartigan, all of the Thirtieth Infantry, U. S. V., 
leave Atimonan, P. I., by different routes for Malosa, where the 
commands meet and together under Major Hartigan make a 
night march through mountains near that place and attack the 
insurgents at daybreak under Colonel Malolos and rout them, 
killing 28, wounding 70, capturing 30 privates, 5 ofl&cers, 33 
rifles, 3,000 rounds of ammunition, and the official papers of 
insurgent command, and sustain a loss of 1 man wounded. 

27, 1900.— Second Lieut. G. McCaskey, Twenty-fifth U. S. Infantry, with 
detachment from Botolan, P. L, captures 7 ladrones and bums 
barrio near that place, which they had used as their headquarters. 

28, 1900. — Lieut. S. H. Hopson, commanding a detachment of Company C, 
Forty-sixth Infantry, U. S. V., captures at barrio of Santa Cruz, 
P. I., 5 insurgents, 1 carabao and cart, 10 rifles, 1 carbine, 1 revol- 
ver, and over 600 rounds of ammunition. 

29, 1900. — By General Orders, No. 38, Headquarters of the Army, publishing 
orders issued from the War Department on March 27, 1900, the 
Division of the Philippines, to comprise all the island^ ceded to 
the United States by Spain by the treaty of Paris, ratified April 
11, 1899, is created under command of Maj. G«n. E. S. Otis, with 
headquarters at Manila, P. I. The Division is to be composed 
of the Departments of Northern Luzon, Southern Luzon, Visayaa, 
and Mindanao and Jolo. 
Four men of Company B, Forty-third Infantry, U. S. V., under 
Sergeant Bradford, are ambushed near Alang-Alang, Leyte, 
P. L, by 150 bolomen, and during the one hour's fight that 
ensues kill 92 and wound a great many. 
Sixty-nine enlisted men, under Capt. J. V. Cunningham, Forty- 
second Infantry, U. S. V., ascend mountains east of Paete, P. I., 
and have skirmish with insurgent forces, driving them from 
their intrench men ts, wounding 1 and occupying the town. 

30,1900. — Companies A, C, and E, Nineteenth U. S. Infantry, and Com- 
pany E, Eighteenth U. S. Infantry, engage the insurgents at 
Barbasa, P. I. No casualties. 

31, 1900. — During the morning 5 mounted men of Company K, Ninth U. S. 
Infantry, while patrolling railroad track between Mabalacat, 
P. I., and Angeles, P. I., are fired into from ambush by about 
30 insurgents, and Sergt. Alonzo L. Johnson is killed by first 
volley. The 4 men return the fire with good effect, killing 7 of 
the enemy and driving them off to the southwest. 
Apr. 1,1900. — Maj. Joseph Wheeler, jr., Thirty-fourth Infantry, U. S. V., de- 

stroys in storehouse of insurgents near Pefiaranda, P. I., 5,000 
pounds of rice. 


Apr. 1, 19()U. — First Battalion, Companies A, B, C, and D, Fourteenth U. S. 

Infantry, Capt. R. T. Yeatman commanding, leaves Manila, 
P. I., for San Francisco, Cal., on transport Sherman. 

2,1900. — Company L, Forty-seventh Infantry, U. S. V., in command of 
First Lieut. J. E. Stedje, on march to San Nicolas and Union, 
P. I., engages a party of insurgents, kills 7, wounds 4, and cap- 
tures 7. No casualties in company. 

8, 1900. — Companies A and L, Nineteenth U. S. Infantry, have a skirmish 
with insurgents at Cavitan, P. I. No casualties. 

4, 1900. — Second Lieut. E. C. Bolton, Seventeenth U. S. Infantry, with two 
squads from Companies L and M, scouting in mountains west 
of Camilig, P. I., strikes party of 40 insurgents belonging to 
Macabulos's command and kills 5, wounds 10, captures 4 Rem- 
ington rifles and a quantity of ammunition. No casualties. 
Capt. J. M. Arrasmith, with 14 mounted men of Company F, 
Thirteenth U. S. Infantry, and Lieut. W. C. Sweeney, with 16 
men of the Twenty-fourth U. S. Infantry and 20 native police 
from Tayug, P. I., leave Tayug to search for guns secreted near 
San Vicente, P. I., and encounter near there a band of ladrones 
under the leadership of Francisco Cabo, capturing 6. No guns 

5, 1900. — Cvompany G, Twenty-sixth Infantry, TJ. S. V., under Capt. John 
Bordman, jr., on reconnoissaiu^e to Lambunao, P. I., engages 
the insurgents near that place, killing 4 and capturing 1 Krag- 
Jorgensen rifle and bayonet, 2 shotguns, 100 rounds of ammu- 
nition, 10 pairs military trousers, 2 sewmg machines, and 800 
canvas bags filled with rice. 

6. 19(X). — Thirty-one men of Company C, Third U. S. Cavalry, encounter 
in mountains near Boloang, P. I., a party of insurgents. No 

7, 19(X). — Company M, Forty-first Infantr>% U. S. V., captures at Mabalacat, 
P. I., 69 Filipinos suspected of being insurgents. 
Maj. James Regan, commanding Companies E and G, Ninth U. S. 
Infantry, on scout to Matatalait, near Tarlac, P. L, arrests 64 
suspicious characters, 38 of whom are identified as insurgents. 
Lieut. Col. Charles F. Robe, commanding Companies A, D, I, L, 
and M, Seventeenth U. S. Infantry, attacks insui^gents under 
General Macabulos, near Camilig, P. I., driving them from their 
trenches after a thirty minutes' fight, killing 5 and capturing 
22 rifles and 15,000 rounds of ammunition. Lieutenant Morrow 
severelv woimded. 

8, 1900. — Maj. L. M. O'Brien, commanding Companies A, D, and I, Seven- 
teenth U. S. Infantry, destroys, near the scene of the encounter 
with General Macabulos' s command on preceding day, near 
Mayantoc, P. I., rendezvous of insurgents, consisting of about 
iiO houses, and captures 8 prisoners, a quantity of arms and am- 
munition, and 20 tons of rice. 

9, 1900. — Three soldiers of Company B, Thirteenth U. S. Infantr>', are fired 
upon by ladrones near San Manuel, P. I., and 1 ladrone is 
killed. ' 

10, 1900. — Fifteen men of Company E, Forty-third Infantry, U. S. V., imder 
First Lieut. C. M. Seaman, encounter the insurgents at Lavazares, 
P. I. , killing 6 and wounding many. 


Apr. 11, 1900. — About 3(K) insurgeutn, under Oberto Gra7.a, attack Asingaii, P. I., 

and are repulsed by a few volleys from Company F, Thirteenth 
U. S. Infantry, with a loss of 2 killed and many wounded. 
The United States forces suffer no loss. 

12, 1900. — First Lieut. Henry J. Stewart, battalion adjutant; Second Lieut. 
M. L. Avery, and 17 men from Company E, and 5 men from 
Company G, Forty-third Infantry, U. S. V., are attacked near 
Niporo, Samar, P. I., by insurgents and an engagement lasting 
one hour and a half ensues, in which 26 insurgents are killed 
and wounded and no Americans. 

13, 1900.— Second Lieut. William H. Noble with 3 squads of Company F, 
Thirteenth U. S. Infantry, w hile searching houses in barrio of 
Sanchez and Barro, both of Aaingan, P. I. , for concealed arms 
and ammunition, encounters a party of ladrones and kills 1. 

14, 1900. — Second Lieut. A. C. Wright, commanding detachment 25 men, 
Twelfth U. S. Infantry, strikes band of insurgents near San 
Augustin, P. I.,and routa them, killing their commander and 
3 others and capturing 1 horse. 
15,1900. — Thirty-one men of Company H, Forty-third Infantry, U. S. V., 
under Sergt. D. L. George, are attacked at Catubig, Samar, 
P. I., by about 600 insurgents, who for three days besiege 
the garrison, which, on the 18th, is forced to abandon the 
barracks, it having been set on fire, and intrench themselves 
on the bank of the river. On the 19th First Lieut. J. T. 
Sweeney, with 10 men, succeeds in effecting a landing and 
relieving the hard-pressed soldiers, 19 of whom have been killed 
and 4 wounded. The insurgents lose over 200 killed and many 

The barracks at Jaro, Leyte, P. I., occupied by a detachment of 
Company B, Forty-third Infantry, U. S. V., Second Lieut. C. C. 
Estes commanding, is attacked at 4 a. m. by 1,000 insurgents, 
who, after a four hours' fight, in which they lose 125 killed, 
are repulsed. No casualties among Americans. 

Troop F, Third U. S. Cavalry, Capt. G. A. Dodd conunanding, 
on approaching the district of Cullenbeng, P. I., strikes 200 
insurgents, 80 of them carrying rifles, the rest being armed 
with bolos, under Aglipay, and a fight lasting one hour ensues, 
in which 53 insurgents are killed (including a captain), 44 cap- 
tured, also a quantity of ammunition, 12 horses with saddles, 
and a large cuartel (storehouses and officers' quarters) and 
large quantities of stores are burned. 

Detachments of Companies F and H, Thirty-fourth Infantry, 
U. S. V. , under First Lieut. A. G. Duncan, on reconnoissance to 
Vintar, P. I.,encounter a large party of insurgents and defeat 
it, killing 22 and taking 30 prisoners, without loss. 

16,1900. — Company G, Thirty-fourth Infantry, U. S. V., commanded by 
Capt. C. J. Rollis, is attacked at Batac, P. I., by 85 riflemen 
and 300 bolo men of the insurgent army, and a fight lasting 
from 10.30 a. m. to 7 p. m. ensues. At 2.45 p. m. Troop A, 
Fourth U. 8. Cavalry, by forced march from Laoag, arrives at 
Batac with 10,000 rounds of ammunition to relieve and supply 
the garrison. At 7 p. m. the insurgents are driven out of the 
town, leaving 180 dead, 50 wounded, and 135 prisoners. The 
United States forces lose 2 killed and 3 wounded. 


Apr. 16,1900. — Detachment of Company H, Thirty-fourth Infantry, U. S. V., 

Capt. F. L. French commanding, encounters a party of about 
100 insurgents near Vintar, P. I., killing 39 and wounding 4, 
without loss. 

17, 1900. — The town of Laoag, P. I., garrisoned by Companies F, G, and H, 
Thirty-fourth Infantry, U. S. V., in command of Lieut. Col. R. 
L. Howze, is entered by 200 insurgents armed with 20 rifles, 
rest with bolos and clubs. Insurgents suffer loss of 44 dead, 23 
wounded, and 85 men made prisoners. No casualties among 
Second Lieut. P. Mowry, with 30 men of Company B, Thirty- 
second Infantry, U. S. V., and one company of Macabebe 
scouts, all commanded by Maj. M. J. Henry, northwest of 
Orion, at barrio Copat, P. I., attack the insurgents occupying 
an intrenched position and defeat them, killing 6 and captur- 
ing 2, also 3 rifles. 

19, 1900. — Capt. L. M. Koehler, with detachment of 40 men. Troop G, Fourth 
U. S. Cavalry, strikes insurgent camp near Peilaranda, P. L, 
kills 3 and captures 4, also 7 guns, 285 rounds of ammunition, 
and destroys barracks containing lot of clothing, camp equipage, 
and rice. 
Lieut. Col. R. D. Walsh, commanding Companies F and M, 
Thirty-fifth Infantry, U. S. V., and Troop H, Fourth U. S. 
Cavalry, leaves Pulilan, P. I., at same time Maj. W. L. Geary, 
with Companies B and D, Thirty-fifth Infantry, U. S. V., 
leaves San Isidro, P. I., and Maj. A. Laws, with Company K, 
Thirty-fifth Infantry, U. S. V., and Troop F, Fourth U. S. Cav- 
alry, leaves San Roque, P. I. (each command accompanied by 
detachment Macabebe scouts), to scour the Candaba swamps. 
Expedition clears this country of insurgents and ladrones, cap- 
turing 23 rifles and 1 shotgun. 

20, 1900. — The quatermaster's department relinquishes its control over the 
Manila and Dagupan Railway and turns it over to its owners. 

21, 1900.— Fifteen men from Troop A, Third U. S. Cavalry, strike 200 insur- 
gent riflemen 2 miles south of San Nicolas, P. I., and defeat 
them, with a loss of 5 killed. No casualties to Americans. 

22, 1900. — Capt. W. H. Ickis, with Second Lieut. J. M. Craig and 18 men of 
Company G, Thirty-sixth Infantry, U. S. V., surround 4 houses 
at Anda, P. I., and capture Lieut. Col. Manro Ortiz, Lieut. 
Felipe de Quintos, and the presidente local, Santiago Cocha, 
and Lieut. Col. Juan Elvena surrenders on being assured of 

23, 1900. — Second Lieut. C. C. Caldwell, commanding 25 men Company 
F, Forty-eighth Infantry, U. S. V., has a brush with 30 insur- 
gents near Castro, P. I., and wounds several and kills 2. The 
United States forces sustain no loss. 
Near barrio Monat, 5 miles west of Aliaga, P. I., Gen. Frederick 
Funston, commanding Third Brigade scouts, meets 12 armed 
men and runs them down, killing 8, capturing 8 rifles, 1 revolver, 
and 270 rounds of ammunition. No casualties. 

24, 1900. — Capt. Joseph V. Cunningham, Second Lieut. W. P. Kitts, and 65 
men Company L, Forty-second Infantry, U. S. V., leave Paete, 
P. I., and, scouting north and east of Santa Ana, surprise an 
insurgent outpost, killing 2 of them and capturing some am- 


Apr. 25, 1900.-— Eleven men under Sergt. Alfred Williams, Company L, Forty- 
second Infantry, IT. S. V., are attacked by insurgents from 
mountains east of Paquil, P. I., and a skirmish lasting six 
minutes ensues, when the insurgents retreat in the direction of 
Pangil. Casualties to insurgents unknown; to Americans., none. 
Capt. John Buck, with 30 men of Company L, Forty-eighth In- 
fantry, U. S. v., captures, without casualty, near La Trinidad, 
P. I., Pedro Paterno and 3 other insurgents and wounds 1, who 
Capt. G. A. Dodd, commanding Troop F, Third U. S. Cavalry, 
near Batac, P. I., encounters 325 insurgents, 75 of whom have 
rifles, and, succeeding in getting between main body and line 
of outposts unobserved, attacks them from four different points 
simultaneously. In the hour' s fight that ensues 12 insurgents are 
killed (including Lieutenant Lopez), 5 captured, also 12 horses 
and many knives, bolos, etc., and a large cuartel (with oflficers' 
quarters), containing clothing and many other supplies, is 
burned. The United States forces lose 1 man wounded. 

26, 1900.— Companies A, B, C, and D (First BattaUon), Fourteenth U. S. 
Infantry, Capt. R. T. Yeatman commanding, arrive at San 
Francisco, Cal., from Manila, P. I., on the transport Sherman, 

27, 1900. — Capt. Austin F. Prescott, with 30 men from Company F, Thirty- 
fifth Infantry, U. S. V., reconnoitering in mountains east of 
Angat, P. I., captures 20 prisoners, 37 rifles, and a quantity of 
ammunition. No casualties. 
Detachment of Company C, Thirty-second Infantry, U. S. V., 
under Second Lieut. Benjamin R. Wade, and company of 
Macabebe scouts, under First Lieut. A. C. G. Williams-Foote, 
on a reconnoissance west of Samal, P. I., near Mount Samal, sur- 
prise a band of insurgents, and a running fight ensues. Ten 
insurgents are killed, 3 captured, also 34 rifles and 1,500 pounds 
of rice. No loss sustained by United States forces. 

28, 1900. — The camp at Muntinlupa, P. L, occupied by Companies A and C, 
Twenty-first U. S. Infantry, is fired on during the night by 
insurgents, who are driven off. No casualties. 

29, 1900.— Maj. Lloyd M. Brett, with First Lieuts. W. O. Reed, W. A. Castle, 
and DeAVitt W. Chamberlin, and 26 enlisted men of Company 
H, Thirty-first Infantry, U. S. V., go to Malabon, P. I., from 
Cotta Bato, P. I., to investigate report concerning depredations 
committed by band of Moros under Dato Udasson, and, while 
holding a conference with Dato Ame Copal, who had sheltered 
Udasson, are fired upon from blockhouse. The fire is returned 
and several men are killed. No casualties among Americans. 
Capt. W. A. Hankins, commanding Company F, Forty-eighth 
Infantry, U. S. V., attacks a party of insurgents occupying two 
large barracks well covered by intrenchments and a stone wall. 
The barracks being fired, the insurgents are forced out and, 
after a twenty minutes* fight, the position is won. The insur- 
gents lose 50 killed, also 3,000 pounds of rice, 500 pounds of 
sweet potatoes, and 300 pounds of salt captured. No casualties 
to United States forces. 
30, 1900.— Company F, Forty-third Infantry, U. S. V., Capt. John Cooke 
commanding, is attacked at Catarman, Samar, P. I., by 1,000 
insurgents, and an engagement lasting six hours takes place, in 
which the insurgents are routed with a loss of 154 men killed 
and many wounded. Our loss, 2 wounded. 


Apr. 30, 1900. — A pack train, in charge of Corporal Wilber, with 6 men from 

Company G and a detachment of Company E, Thirty -third 
Infantry, U. S. V., is attacked at Salcedo, P. I., by 150 insur- 
gents, one-third of whom are armed with rifles and the rest with 
bolos, and, after an hour's sharp fighting, during which the 
Americans make two charges, the insurgents withdraw with a 
loss of 25 men killed. Number of wounded unknown. 

May 3, 1900. — Second Lieut. D. C. McClelland and 13 men from Company G, 

Thirty-third Infantry, U. S. V., inarch from Candon, P. I., 11 
miles eastward, and on arriving at a little barrio encounter Maj. 
Isabel Abaya with 10 men. After a ten minutes' fight Abaya 
is killed, 3 men captured, and the remainder dispersed. No 
casualties to United States forces. 

5, 1900. — Corporal Rostan, with 8 men of Company K, Twenty-fourth U. 
S. Infantry, engages near San Quintin, P. I., 20 insurgents, who 
are routed, 10, including a lieutenant, being captured; also, 1 
rifle and 100 rounds of ammunition. One American slightly 
Maj. Gen. E. S. Otis, U. S. A., relinquishes, and Maj. Gen. Arthur 
MacArthur, U. S. V., assumes, command of the DiNdsion of the 

6,1900. — Capt. Emeste V. Smith, assistant adjutant-general Fourth U. S. 
Infantry, with 40 men from Troop G, Fourth U. S. Cavalry, 
20 of these under First Lieut. R. C. Day, Thirty-fourth Infantry, 
U. S. v., captures Gen. Pantaleon Garcia and Major Hilario in 
the town of Jaen, Luzon, P. I. 
Twenty men and First Lieut. Frank W. Cheek, Company A, 
Forty-eighth Infantry, U. S. V., First Lieut. John W. Brown 
commanding, encounter, 16 miles from Alilem, P. I., a band 
of insurgents and kill 10, capture 8 Remington rifles, 1 Colt's 
revolver, and about 500 rounds of ammunition. 

7, 1900. — Capt. Alexander V. Richardson, commanding 76 men of Company 
B, 46 men of Company K, Forty -eighth Infantry, U. S. V., 

9 men of Troop M, Third U. S. Cavalry, and 24 scouts, leaves 
Rosario, P. I., for insurgent intrenchment 2 J miles from Rosario 
and arrives at 5.30 a. m. Thirteen houses, 75,000 pounds of 
rice, 2,000 pounds of salt, 4 sets barracks, 1 guardhouse and 
stockade are destroyed, and 7 horses captured. 

Detachment of Company I, Twenty-second U. S. Infantry, First 
Lieut. I. W. Leonard commanding, leaves San Antonio, P. I., 
for San Julian, on the Rio Grande, and captures 1 lieutenant and 

10 men of the insurgent army. No casualties. 

8, 1900.— Capttf. F. S. Wild and H. D. Styer, with 7 men of Company B, 
Thirteenth U. S. Infantry, accompanied by 2 policemen as 
guides, proceed to Valdit, a barrio of Pozorrubio, P. I., and, 
dashing up to and surrounding the house in which Vincente 
Prado is supposed to be, captures that person and 16 other men. 

9, 1900.— Second Lieut Paul Draper, with 20 men of Company I, Twenty- 
second U. S. Infantry, and 2 natives, surprise, in the early 
morning a large force of insurgents under Garciano Garcia at 
Santa Barbara, Nueva Ecija, P. I., killing 3, wounding a large 
number, and ciipturing a number of arms, a quantity of ammu- 

' nitiou, and 1 horsf . 


May 10, 1900. — Sixteen men under First Sergt. John F. Murphy, Company G, 

Thirty-fourth Infantry, IT. S. V., in foothills near Batac, P. I., 
encounter a troop of insurgent cavalry and kill 6 men and 24 
ponies, and capture 6 ponies with saddles. 

12, 1900. — Joaquin Luna, commissary of funds for Aguinaldo, and Maj. 
SantiiH Noras, insurgent president of Baloan, P. I., surrender to 
Maj. P. C. March, Thirty-third Infantry, U. S. V., at Candon, 
Luzon, P. I. 
Capt. AVilliam A. Hankins, commanding Ck)mpany F, Forty-eighth 
Infantry, U. S. V., leaves Balioang, P. I., at 3 a. m., and 
encounters the insurgents a short distance from that place, kill- 
ing 6, wounding 1, and capturing 10 rifles and a quantity of 
Fifth Company of Macabebe Scouta, First Sergt. Pio Perez com- 
manding, captures, in Talboyag, a barrio of Pozorrubio, P. I., 
Capt. Vincente Salman and Lieut. Gregorio Prado; also a num- 
ber of rifles with a large quantity of ammunition. 

13, 1900. — Second Lieut. William H. Noble, with a detachment of Company 
F, Thirteenth U. S. Infantry, captures 2 insurgents and 2 rifles 
in barrio of San Manuel, P. I., just north of Asingan. No 

14, 1900. — Twenty-five men of Company C, Fortieth Infantry, U. S. V., Capt. 

W. McK. Lambdin commanding, are attacked by about 30 insur- 
gents, who kill 7 and wound 4 of our men before they can 
reach their arms. Immediately after, a general attack follows 
by a force from 200 to 300 strong and a fight, desperate and 
short, ensues, the result being a complete rout of the insurgents 
with a loss of 57 killed and 20 wounded, who are captured. The 
United States forces lose, in addition to those already mentioned, 
1 corporal killed. 

15, 19lX). — First Lieut. James C. Hixson, commanding 60 men of the Thirty- 

second Infantry, U. S. V., engages 125 insurgents in mountains 
west of Abucay, P. I., and after an hour and fifteen minutes' 
heavy firing the insurgents are routed with a loss of 9 killed and 
16 wounded. No casualties among United States forces. 

16, 1900. — ^Twenty-five men of Company F, under First Lieut. W. K. Naylor, 

and 27 mounted men, under Second Lieut. George W. Wallace, 
all of the Ninth U. S. Infantry, capture, at Bonoba, P. I., 4 
insurgents, also 36 rifles and 1,000 rounds of ammunition, and 
destroy their barracks. 
Second Lieut. Frank A. Jemigan, commanding 19 men of Com- 
pany K, Thirty-fourth Infantry, U. S. V., on a scout to Licap, 
Luzon, P. I., captures Col. Pablo Padilla and Lieut. Col. Case- 
marco Tinio, insurgent leaders. 
19, 1900. — Maj. P. C. March, commanding 100 men of the Thirty-third Infan- 
try, U. S. v., strikes Aguinaldo's rear guard near Sagad, P. I., 
and kills 3 insurgents, captures 2, also 5 rifles and 4 ponies and 
wounds a mounted officer, whose horse is captured. The saddle- 
bags on horse contain Aguinaldo's papers since November 1, 1899. 
Thirty-one men of Company D and 19 men of Company C, Thirty- 
third Infantry, U. S. V., Capt. L. P. Rucker commanding, dis- 
covered, in Maliabong, P. I., a band of insurgents, which is 
charged and routed, leaving Captain Tinio and 21 men dead on 
the field. Two prisoners, 21 rifles, 12 horses, and a lot of ammu- 
nition and clothing are captured. 


May 20, 1900. — Maj. Charles H. Muir, commanding 57 men of Company D, Thirty- 
eighth Infantry, U. S. V., engages 125 insurgentB on the island 
of Marinduque, P. I., and kill 6 and wound many. No casual- 
ties to United States forces. 

22, 1900. — One captain, 2 first lieutenants, 2 second lieutenants, and 168 men, 
with 163 guns and small quantity of ammunition, surrender 
voluntarily, at Tarlac, P. I., to Col. Emerson H. Liscum, Ninth 
U. S. Infantry. 

24, 1900.— Capt. A. F. Prescott, with 50 men of Company F, Thirty-fifth 
Infauitry, U. S. V., has skirmish with insui^gents 10 miles east 
of Angat, P. I., capturing 2, including an insurgent major. 

24,1900. — Brig. Gren. Frederick Funston, commanding Troop G, Fourth 
U. S. Cavalry, and scouts, encounters near San Miguel, P. I., 
the insurgents in camp, killing 1, capturing 15 rifles and 700 
rounds of ammunition. 

25, 1900. — Second Lieut. Charles B. Turner and 30 men of Company I, 
Forty-eighth Infantry, U. S. V., in vicinity of Atoc, P. I., cap- 
tures Capt. Juan Corifio, fugitive insurgent governor of Benguet 
province, together with 2 soldiers, 2 rifles, and some ammunition. 
Company F, Thirty-second Infantry, U. S. V., Capt. Amos W. 
Brandt commanding, at Abucay, P. I., is attacked from all sides 
by 300 insurgents in the early morning and, after a fight which 
lasts two hours and ten minutes, drives them out of the town, 
killing 8 and wounding 30. No Americans wounded or killed. 

27, 1900. — Capt. Tiburcio Ansolan, with 23 men, bearing 23 rifles, and Capt. 
Lorenzo Mendoza, with Second Lieut. Leonardo Mendoza and 
33 men, bearing 23 rifles, surrender unconditionally at Paniqui, 
Luzon, P. I., to Lieut. Col. John W. Bu bb, Twelfth U. S. Infantry. 

28, 1900. — Three insurgent officers and 46 men, with 55 rifles, surrender to 
Col. E. H. Liscum, Ninth U. S. Infantry, at Tarlac, P. I. 

29, 1900. — First Lieut. Fred E. Smith, commanding mounted detachment of 
Company F, Thirty-sixth Infantry, U. S. V., encounters the insur- 
gents in vicinity of Mangatarem, P. I., and captures 13 guns and 
1 pistol. 
Maj. William H. Bishop, with Company L, Thirty-sixth Infantry, 
U. S. v., captures near Agno, Zam bales, P. I., 2 cannon and 3 rifles 
belonging to the insurgents, and 25 men of Company G, Ninth 
U. S. Infantry, scouting from Tarlac, P. I., capture 5 carbines, 
some ammunition, 1 prisoner, and a quantity of papers belong- 
ing to the insurgent Lieutenant-Colonel Gilino. 

30, 1900. — First Lieut. Fred E. Smith, commanding mounted detachment of 
Company F, Thirty-sixth Infantry, U. S. V., captures in barrio of 
San Carlos, P. I. , 27 Remington and 4 Mauser rifles, also the chief 
of Ladrones, Francisco Orden. 

Lieut. Bemado Vacho, of the insurgent forces, with 11 men, bear- 
ing 4 Mauser and 2 Remington rifles, surrenders at Cuyapo to 
Capt. Frank L. Winn, adjutant Twelfth U. S. Infantry. 

Second Lieut. James E. Abbott, commanding 28 men of Company 
F, Forty-second Infantry, U. S. V., strikes a party of 250 insur- 
gents near Siniloan, P. I. , killingSand woimding 6. One Ameri- 
can is killed. 

WAR 1900 — VOL 1, PT V 3 


May 30, 1900. — Companies I and L, Twenty-ninth Infantry,!!. S. V., under Maj. 

E. M. Johnson, capture on the island of Tablas, P. I., 4 insur- 
gent officers and 37 soldiers with arms, ammunition, and equip- 

31, 1900. — Capt. Frank A. Sullivan, with 8 men of Company K, Thirty-fourth 

Infantry, U. S. V., on reconnoissance to Santiago, Santa Maria, 

and Licap, P. I., captures 6 rifles and a quantity of ammunition. 

Second Lieut. F. J. McConnell, commanding Macabebe scouts at 

Cuyapo, P. I., captures near that place 7 rifles and 6 insurgents. 

June 1,1900. — Capt. Ambrosio Sandoval, with 1 lieutenant, 29 men, 26 rifles, 4 

revolvers, and 700 rounds of ammunition, surrenders at Cuyapo, 
P. I., to Second Lieut. F. J. McConnell, Twelfth U. S. Infantry. 
Maj. E. Z. Steever, commanding Troop E, Third U. S. Cavalry, 
strikes a band of insurgents at Mount Parayan, near Badoc, 
P. I., and kills 27. The troop loses 1 man killed and 2 wounded. 

2, 1900. — Four rifles, 2 revolvers, and some ammunition are surrendered to 
First Lieut. Glenn H. Davis, Twelfth U. S. Infantry, at San Juan 
de Guimba, P. I. ; 3 rifles are surrendered at Camiling, P. I., to 
Maj. L. C.Allen, Twelfth U. S. Infantry; First Lieut. Fred E. 
Smith, Thirty-sixth Infantry, U. S. V., captures 3 Remington 
and 3 Mauser rifles and 1 shotgun in a barrio of Mangatarem, 
P. I. ; Lieut. Mariano Quinson and 19 men of the insurgent forces 
surrender at Cuyapo, P. I. ; First Lieut. Joseph Matson, Thirty- 
fourth Infantry, U. S. V., captures, near Santo Domingo, P. I., 23 
rifles without stocks, a large quantity of artillery ammunition, 
and parts of ammunition factory; and Capt. C. P. Newberry, 
commanding 15 men of Company L, Thirtieth Infantry, U. S.V., 
captures the insurgent Maj. Antonio Mavina, at Unisan, P. I. 

3, 1900. — Eighteen men of Company A, Thirty-fifth Infantry, U. S. V., First 
Sergt. Donald W. Strong cpmmanding, while scouting near Bus- 
tos, P. I., engage a band of ladrones, killing its captain, severely 
wounding 1 man, and capturing 3 rifles. 
Philippine commission arrives at Manila, P. I., on transport Han- 

4, 1900. — Detachment of 35 men of Company E, Thirty-fifth Infantry, 
U. S. v., under Second Lieut. Allan Lefort, encounters, 4 miles 
northeast of Norzagaray, P. I.,a party of insurgents and loses 
4 men wounded, 1 mortally. Insurgent casualties unknown. 

5, 1900. — The insurgent Captain Versola turns in 4 rifles at Cuyapo, P. I., 
and Lieutenant Quinson, at same place, brings in 13 insurgents, 
8 rifles, and some ammunition. Three rifles are surrendered at 
Aguila, P. I. 

6, 1900. — Insurgent Captain Mendoza surrenders, at Cuyapo, P. I., 10 guns, 
and, on same date, 10 rifles and 3 shotguns are surrendered at 
Camiling, P. 1. 

7, 1900. — Capt. John P. Grinstead, commanding 20 men of Company A, 
Thirty-second Infantry, U. 8. V., on an expedition into the 
foothills northwest of Mariveles, P. 1., encounters an insurgent 
outpost and kills 1 insurgent. Following direction taken by 
insurgents their barracks are found and destroyed. 


June 8, 1900. — Lieut. Col. Valentine Diaz, of Greneral Macabulos's force, surren- 
ders to the United States forces at Camiling, P. I. 

9, 1900. — The insurgent General Pio del Pilar is arrested opposite San Pedro 
Macati, P. L, by Captain Lara of the Manila police force, in 
command of detachment of the Twenty-first U. S. Infantry; 
Lieut. Col. Manuel de Leon, with 1 captain, 2 lieutenants, 36 
men, and 64 guns surrenders at Tarlac, P. I. ; Capt. Frank A. 
Sullivan, commanding 20 men of Company K, Thirty-fourth 
Infantry, U. S. V., on scout to Licap and Victoria, near Aliaga, 
Nueva Ecija, P. I., captures Cols. Queripalto Medina and 
Oboldo Yango; and Second Lieut. E. C. Bolton, commanding 
detachment of Company L, Seventeenth U. S. Infantry, in an 
engagement with insurgents near Alcala, P. I., captures Caves- 
tany and Maj. Nicolas Perez, also 12 rifles and 1,080 rounds of 

10, 1900. — Maj. Ynocencio Catlas surrenders to the United States authorities 
at Camiling, P. I. 

11, 1900. — Brig. Gen. F. D. Grant, U. S. V. (accompanied by Brig. Gen. F. 
Funston, U. S. V. ), commanding a column consisting of Troops 
H and G, Fourth U. S. Cavalry, 2 guns of Battery E, First U. S. 
Artillery, 9 companies Twenty-second U. S. Infantry, detach- 
ment Thirty-fourth Infantry, U. S. V., 6 companies Thirty-fifth 
Infantry, U. S. V., Company M and scouts Forty-first Infantry, 
U. S. v., scouts of Fourth and Fifth districts, and 1 company 
of Macabebe scouts attacks 500 insurgents under Colonel Claro, 
occupying fortified positions on Mount Bulubad and two adja- 
cent hills, near Sibul, province of Bulacan, Luzon, P. I., and 
forces them, with great loss in dead and wounded, to evacuate 
the positions which had been considered impr^nable. Twenty- 
three buildings are destroyed, great quantities of rice captured, 
and growing com pulled from the ground. The United States 
forces lose 1 man wounded. 

First Lieut. John S. Johnston, with 4 enlisted men of Company 
E, Forty -first Infantry, U. S. V., captures at San Jose de Mex- 
ico, Pampanga, Luzon, P. I., the insurgent General Hizon. 

12, 1900. — First Lieut. William S. Mapes, in conmiand of 15 men of Com- 
pany M, Thirty-second Infantry, U. S. V., in mountains west 
and south of Porac, P. L, captures 1,000 pounds of powder, 200 
cannon balls, 250 1 -pound shells (Hotchkiss), 20 13-pound 
shells, 50 6-inch shells, 100 pounds of dynamite, 20,000 Mauser 
shells and clips, 50 gallons of chemicals, and 1 Mauser cartridge 
machine complete. 

13, 1900. — First Lieut. Walter Harvey, with detachment of Company I, Forty- 
first Infantry, U. S. V., captures at Magalang, P. I., 5 insur- 
gents, 5 rifles, and considerable ammunition; Maj. John Q. A. 
Braden, Thirty-sixth Infantry, U. S. V., secures 2 rifles at 
Mangatarem, P. I., and First Lieut. Fred E. Smith, command- 
ing detachment of Company F, Thirty -sixth Infantry, U. S. V., 
captures 17 rifles near same place. 


June 14, 1900.— Brig. Gen. Frederick Funston, U. S. V., commanding column 

consisting of detachment Fourth District Scouts, Troop G, 
Fourth U. S. Cavalry, Capt. Lewis M. Koehler commanding,- 
and Maj. Joseph Wheeler, jr., with 60 men of Company I, 
Thirty-fourth Infantry, U. S. V., under First Lieut. Leonard 
L. Deitrick, attack, just after noon, 200 insurgents, under Col- 
onel Lacuna, occupying a ridge 2 miles south of Papaya, a bar- 
rio of Pefiaranda, P. I., and charge them. The insurgents are 
completely routed when pursuit is made, and continued until 
darkness renders further effort useless. The insurgents lose 
44 killed and 16 captured. The United States forces lose 1 man 
killed and 1 man wounded. 

15, 1900. — Maj. Edgar Z. Steever, with First Lieut. A. E. "Williams in com- 
mand of 67 men of Troop E, Third U. S. Cavalry, strikes a band 
of insurgents in mountains of MaroduUon, northeast of Cabugao, 
P. I., and defeats it, killing 4, capturing 1; also much clothing, 
some ammunition, Tinio's quarters, which are burned, and let- 
ters signed by him, and destroys 6 cuarteles, 4 outpost stations, 
and a number of isolated shelters. 
General Macabulos, with 8 officers, 134 men, and 124 guns, all of 
the insurgent forces, surrenders to Col. E. H. Liscum, Ninth 
U. S. Infantry, at Tarlac, P. I. ; Lieut. Genero Moreleas sur- 
renders at Camiling, P. I., and Major Mateo de la Cruz, and 
Dionisio Loredos, secretary to Colonel Stana, with implicating 
documents, are captured during the night at Cainta, P. I., by 
31 men. Company H, Forty-second Infantry, U. S. V., under 
First Lieut. James H. Little. 

16, 1900. — A detachment of the Twenty-fourth U. S. Infantry, in command 
of Maj. Henry Wygant, sent out on the 15th instant, returns to 
San Jose, P. I., from mountains in vicinity, bringing 120 Mau- 
ser and 85 Remington rifles, found in cache, and 13 bull-cart 
loads of machinery for making powder. 
Capt. Victorio Milo and Lieut. Catalino Alnas, with 10 men and 
10 rifles, surrender to the United States forces at Villasis, P. I. 

17, 1900. — Eight insurgents, with 9 Remington rifles and 1 revolver, surren- 
der to Capt. John J. Crittenden, Twenty -second U. S. Infantry, 
at Candaba, P. I. 

20, 1900. — First Lieut. Paul Giddings, commanding mounted scouts. Third 
U. S. Infantry, captures near Porac, P. I., 13 rifles and 1,000 
rounds of ammunition. 

21, 1900. — Maj. Gen. Arthur MacArthur, U. S. V., commanding the division 
of the Philippines, publishes the amnesty proclamation of the 
President of the United States, giving amnesty, with complete 
immunity for the past and liberty of action for the future, to all 
persons who have been in insurrection against the United States, 
and who will, within ninety days, formally renounce all con- 
nection with such insurrection and accept the sovereignty and 
authority of the United States in and over the Philippine 

22, 1900. — First Lieut. Frank S. Burr, Fifteenth U. S. Infantry, commanding 
detachment 15 men, Fifth District scouts, encounters a band of 
50 insurgents near Calulut, P. I., and kills 9, captures 2 wounded, 
also 2 ponies, 2 rifles, and a quantity of ammunition. 
Capt. Garviana Garcia, with 5 rifles, surrenders at Cabanatuan, 
P. I., to the United States forces. 


June 23, 1900.— First Lieut. Frank S. Burr, Fifteenth U. S. Infantry with 23 scouts, 

Fifth District Scouts, finds and destroys in mountains west of 
Mabalacat, P. I., an insurgent stronghold and magazine con- 
taining 20 tons of ordnance stores, machinery of all kinds for 
manufacturing ordnance, chemicals for making explosives, and 
24 cases of 200 pounds each of powder. 

24, 1900. — Twenty-two men, under First Lieut. James M. McManus, Com- 
pany G, Thirty-fifth Infantry, U. S. V., scouting near Santa 
Maria, Bulacan, Luzon, P. I., engage 20 insurgents and defeat 
them, killing 5, wounding 4, and taking 5 prisoners and 7 guns. 
No casualties to detachment. 
Detachments of Companies E, F, and H, Twenty-fourth U. S. 
Infantry, commanded by First Lieut. William P. Jackson, en- 
counter a party of insurgents near the junction of the Agno 
and Amburayang Rivers, and scatter it, killing 6, wounding 4, 
and capturing 9 rifles and 3 ponies equipped. 

25, 1900. — First Lieut. Joseph Matson and Second Lieut. Frank A. Jemigan, 
Thirty-fourth Infantry, U. S. V., commanding a detachment of 
the Thirty-fourth and scouts, encounter a band of 40 insurgents 
near Aliaga, P. I. , killing 3, and capturing 1 rifle. 

26, 1900. — Bangued, P. I., garrisoned by Companies A, B, C, and D, Thirty- 
third Infantry, U. S. V., commanded by Capt. Charles W. Van 
Way, is attacked by insurgents in force at 1.30 a. m., and a fight 
lasting half an hour takes place. The attack is renewed at 5 
a. m., and the insurgents are routed with a loss of 7 killed, 10 
wounded, and 20 captured. No loss sustained by garrison. 

28, 1900. — Sergt. Chester D. Smyth, commanding 10 men of Company H, 
Thirty-fifth Infantry, U. S. V., encounters a band of insurgents 
on the Guiguinto and Santa Rita road, near Santa Rita, P. I., 
killing one insurgent and wounding another. No casualties to 
United States forces. 

29, 1900. — The insurgent general, Aquino, with 64 rifles and 1,122 rounds of 

ammunition, surrenders to the United States authorities at 
Angeles, P. 1. 

30, 1900. — Maj. Walter C. Short, commanding Company C and 35 men of 

Company E, Thirty-fifth Infantry, U. S. V., strikes a body of 
insurgents in mountains southeast of Norzagaray, P. I., and 
captures Major Sinfrose de la Cruz and 15 rifles. 

July 1, 1900. — Second Lieut. Frank A. Jemigan, Thirty -fourth Infantry, U. S. V., 

in command of Uocano Scouts, strikes a band of ladrones near 
Talavera, P. I., killing 14, capturing 4 rifles and 222 rounds of 
Gren. Artemio Ricardo de Zibora, the leader of the threatened 
uprisings in Manila, P. I., is captured at Manila by native police. 

2, 1900. — A party of 50 ladrones secrete themselves on the coastwise steamer 

Filipino at Manila, which, when opposite Gotong, is hailed by 
armed men in two bancas, who, in conjunction with those on 
board, seize and plunder the ship, taking away a goodly portion 
of a valuable cargo. 

3, 1900. — A detachment of the Third U. S. Infantry, under Second Lieut. 

John H. Page, jr., strikes a party of ladrones near Hagonoy, 
P. I., and disperses it, killing 12 and capturing 6 rifles. Our 
casualties, 3 men killed and 2 wounded. 


July 3, 1900. — A detachment of 20 men of Company H, Third U. S. Infantry, 

under Sergt. Alfred W. Merriam, scouting country in vicinity 
of Hagonoy, P. I., in search of the robbers of the steamer 
Filipino J are attacked 1 J miles from Tibaguin by insurgents in 
ambush and an engagement lasting until 10.30 a. m. ensues, 
when reinforcements, under Sexiond Lieut. J. H. Page, jr.. Third 
U. S. Infantry, arrive and the insurgents are defeated with a 
loss of 12 killed. Six rifles are captured and 6 more destroyed. 
Our casualties, 3 men killed, including Sergeant Merriam, and 
2 men wounded. 

4, 1900. — Seven hundred insurgents, under Lacuna, attack simultaneously 

Peflaranda, P. I., garrisoned by Company I, Thirty-fourth 
Infantry, U. S. V.; Gapan, P. I., garrisoned by Company C, 
Thirty-fourth Infantry, U. S. V., and Maniclin, P. I., garri- 
soned by a detachment of Company C, Twenty-fourth U. S. 
Two insurgent oflBcers and 20 men surrender to the United States 
forces at Magalang, P. I. 

5, 1900. — The 700 insurgents, under Lacuna, who attacked simultaneously 

Pefiaranda, Gapan, and Maniclin, on preceding day, are 
defeated with a loss, at Maniclin, of 22 killed and 96 wounded. 
The loss by insurgents at the other points of attack is unknown, 
but must have been heavy. The United States forces lose 1 
man killed and 1 officer and 2 men wounded. 

6, 1900. — Six men of Company A, Thirtieth Infantry, U. S. V., Capt. Frank 
D. Newberry, commanding, with the insurgent Major Maximo 
as guide, returned to Lucena, P. I., from pursuit of the gang of 
Tulisanes, who had tortured, killed, and robbed the family of 
Major Maximo, at Unisan, P. I., having killed and buried 9 of 
the gang, taken 13 prisoners, captured 9 rifles, and recovered a 
portion of the stolen jewelry and $1,200. 

Capt. David F. Allen, with Second Lieut. Rowland B. Ellis and 43 
men, all of Company I, Thirty-eighth Infantry, U. S. V., 
encounters, while marching from Bauan, P. I., to the relief of 
the garrison at Taal, a large party of insurgents near that place 
and engages it, killing 21 and wounding 50. One American 
from Captain Allen's detachment is wounded and 6 at Taal. 

7, 1900. — Second Lieut. Frank I. Otis, commanding a company of Maca- 
bebe Scouts, while scouting near the town of Paombong, P. L, 
strikes a party of insurgents and routs it, killing 5 and wound- 
ing many. No casualties among United States forces. 

8, 1900. — Capt. J. H. McRae, commanding detachments of Companies A, E, 
and M, Third U. S. Infantry, makes a scout to Ubijan, P. I., 
and captures 3 ladrones, 4 rifles, and 195 rounds of ammunition. 
Capt. G. R. Fowler, commanding 9 men of Company F, Thirty- 
third Infantry, U. S. V., is attacked, about 2 miles south of 
Lapo, P. I., by a body of armed insurgents, who kill 1 man and 
wound another, and lose 5 men killed. 

9,1900. — Col. William E. Birkhimer, commanding a detachment of the 
Twenty-eighth Infantry, U. S. V., raids San Luis, P. I., killing 
1 insmgent and capturing 36, among them Maj. Abbacapa Ban- 
guaniban, collector of the insurgent contributions, and Lieut. 
Ricardo Cabrear. 


July 9, 1900. — Capt. Orginan Coronal y Rosal, formerly ''aide-de-camp for Val- 

doraces Aguinaldo and on duty at the office of the secretary of 
war of the insurgent government," surrenders and takes the 
required oath of allegiance to the United States. 

10, 1900. — First Lieut. Lewis M. Smith and 30 men of Company I, Forty- 
eighth Infantry, U. S. V., engage a band of insui^nts at Bal- 
engoag, P. I., and kill 2 and capture 12; also 13 rifles and 330 
rounds of ammunition. 

12, 1900. — Six hundred insurgents attack Oroquieta, Mindanao, P. I., gar- 
risoned by Company I, Fortieth Infantry, U. S. V., under First 
Lieut. K. C. Masteller, and are repulsed with a loss of 89 killed 
and 12 wounded, who are captured. The United States forces 
lose 1 sergeant killed, 1 sergeant wounded, and a sailor on 
the U. S. 8. CallaOf which rendered valuable assistance during 
engagement, mortally wounded. 

13, 1900. — Second Lieut. G. H. Williams, commanding mounted detachment. 
Thirty-ninth Infantry, U. S. V., captures a captain of the insur- 
gent army. 

14, 1900. — First Battalion, Eighteenth U. S. Infantry, Capt. Edson A. Lewis 
commanding, arrives at San Francisco, Cal., from Manila^ P. I. 
Second Lieut. William H. Clopton, jr., commanding 50 men of the 
Thirty-second Infantry, U. S. V., attacks a cuartel occupied by 
insurgents, in mountains near Liana Hermosa, Bataan, P. I., 
and captures it. Our casualties are 2 slightly wounded. 

15, 1900. — Maj. William H. Johnston, Forty-sixth Infantry, U. 8. V., reports 
the release, at Ramblan, P. I., of 8 insurgent officers and 72 pri- 
vates, who took the oath of allegiance to the United States. 
Companies E, F, and I, Twenty-fifth U. S. Infantry, stationed at 
Cabangan, P. I., is attacked at 4 a. m., by insurgents, who retire, 
after an hour's fight, leaving 1 dead. Our casualties are 2 men 
killed and 1 man wounded. Six native residents are killed 
and 4 wounded. 

16,1900. — Brig. Gen. Frederick Funston, U. 8. V., commanding a column 
consisting of two companies, Thirty-fourth Infantry, U. 8. V. ; 
two companies Twenty-second U. S. Infantry; three companies 
Twenty-fourth U. 8. Infantry; Troop G, Fourth U. 8. Cavalry; 
detachment of district headquarters scouts, and Squadron of 
Philippine Cavalry attacks and destroys, near Mount Corona, 
in mountains of Bulacan, P. I., Lacuna's camp, including 21 
buildings used as barracks. Two Macabebes are slightly 

17, 1900. — Col. William E. Birkhimer, in command of 100 men, 16 mounted, 
selected from Com panics A, B, C, and D, Twenty-eighth Infantry, 
U. S. V. , the U. S. gunboat ViUalobos cooperating, marches against 
200 insurgents bearing rifles, and many bolomen. Col. Ramon 
Atienze commanding, occupying intrenchments 1} miles out on 
the Bauan road from Taal, P. I., and after a flght and pursuit 
lasting three and a half hours completely disperses them, killing 
38, counted, and wounding a great many. Quantities of rice 
are destroyed and medical supplies contained in insurgent hos- 
pital captured. 
Capt. Frank S. Long, commanding a detachment of Company L, 
Thirty-ninth Infantry, U. 8. V., captures 28 insurgents, includ- 
ing 2 officers, near Talisay, P. I. 


July 18, 1900. — First Lieut. Asa F. Fisk, commanding 45 men of Company F, 

Thirty-seventh Infantry, U. S. V., while scouting in vicinity of 
Pangil, P. I., captures 20 insurgents, 20 bolos, and several rifles. 

19, 1900. — Second Lieut. John R. Thomas, in command of detachment of 
Company M, Seventeenth XJ. S. Infantry, captures 1 lieutenant 
and 5 men at barrio Babuval. P. I. 

20,1900.— Maj. Walter C. Short, in command of detachment Thirty-fifth 
Infantry, XJ. S. V., engages band of insurgents near Norzagaray, 
P. I., and kills 2 and captures 1 officer, who leads the detach- 
ment to a camp of about 40 insurgents, which is attacked, cap- 
tured, and destroyed. Two dead insuigents are found and 2 
rifles captured. No casualties to United States forces. 

21, 1900. — Seventeen men of Company G, Twelfth U. S. Infantry, accom- 
panied by newspaper reporter Ingram, and escorting supply 
train, are ambushed near Badoc, P. I., by about 40 armed 
insurgents, who kill Ingram and Sergeant Billman, Signal 
Corps, wound 4 men, and capture train. 

22,1900.— Maj. Joseph Wheeler, jr.. Thirty-fourth Infantry, U. S. V., with 
Companies A, C, and I, of that regiment, and Company F of 
the Twenty-second U. S. Infantry, encounters 50 insuigents, 
under Colonel Tecson, near Mount Corona, Luzon, P. I., and 
drives them from their position, losing 1 man wounded. The 
insurgents are pursued to a high and steep semicircular ridge, 
where they are reenforced by 250 men occupying intrenchments 
and rifle pits. A charge up a slope 300 yards long and at an 
angle of 45 degrees is made by the United States forces, and the 
insurgents are utterly routed, with a loss of 50 men killed and 
many wounded. Our casualties are 1 man killed and Capt. 
George E. Gibson and 5 men wounded. 

23, 1900. — Capt. John L. Jordan in command of Company D, Thirty-eighth 
Infantry, V. S. V., has an engagement with about 200 insur- 
gents near San Miguel, Luzon, P. I., in which 5 insurgents are 
killed, 1 wounded, and 1 captured. A private of Company D 
is wounded. 

24, 1900. — Second Lieut. Frank A. Jemigan, Company I, Thirty-fourth 
Infantry, U. S. V., with Ilocano scouts and 15 soldiers, strikes 
a band of insurgents in the vicinity of Talipapa, P. L, killing 1 
and capturing 1 rifle. On same day the band is again encoun- 
tered and 10 insurgents are killed and 5 rifles captured. No 
casualties to United States forces. 

25, 1900. — A detachment of Company L, Thirtieth Infantry, U. S. V., Capt, 
Charles P. Newberry commanding, captures, on scout from 
Tayabas, Luzon, P. I., south of Candelaria, Col. Branlio Villa 
Disumal, Maj. Jusa Ramos, 13 soldiers, and 2 guns. 

26, 1900. — One sergeant and 8 men of Company F, Thirtieth Infantry,U. S. V., 

are attacked, 4 miles from Sariaya, Luzon, P. I., by a large force 
of insurgents, and lose 2 men killed and 1 man wounded. Loss 
by insurgents unknown. 

27, 1900. — First Lieut. Orville R. Perry, in command of 20 men of Company 

K, Forty-fourth Infantry, U. S. V., surprises, at Malabuyoc, 
Cebu, P. I., a body of insurgents having about 65 rifles and 
defeats it, killing 15, wounding many, and capturing 3 rifles, 7 
bolot<, 5 horses, a quantity of rice, and a number of important 
papers. No casualties sustained by the United States forces. 


July 28, 1900. — First Lieuts. Albert C. Dalton and Ivers W. Leonard, Twenty- 
second U. S. Infantry, capture, in barrio of Cabiao, Luzon, P. I., 
a captain of ladrones named Santos and 4 men, with 1 Reming- 
ton carbine, 1 Winchester shotgun, 1 revolver, and quantity of 
29, 1900. — Sergt. Charles S. Howe, commanding 10 men of Company G, Sev- 
enteenth XJ. S. Infantry, surprises, near barrio Mobolitie, San 
Miguel, Luzon, P. I., a band of insurgents, capturing 3, also 5 
rifles and 35 rounds of ammunition, without casualty. 
31, 1900. — First Lieut. Howard K. Bane, acting adjutant. Second Battalion, 
Thirty-ninth Infantry, U. S. V., with mounted scouts from San 
Pablo, meets and charges, in barrio of San Mateo, Luzon, P. I., 
a band of insurgents, killing 5 and putting to flight remainder. 
The death of the insurgent General Tinio, at Magsutwan, in the 
mountains of Ilocos Norte, Luzon, P.I., from gangrene ilBSult- 
ing from wounds received by him in engagements with United 
States forces, is announced. 

Aug. 1, 1900. — Transport Meade sails from San Francisco, Cal., for Manila, P. I., 

with Company E, engineer battalion, U. S. A., four troops of 
the Third U. S. Cavalry, and four companies of the Fifteenth 
U. S. Infantry. 

2, 1900. — Capt. Austin F. Prescott, commanding a detachment of Company 

F, Thirty-fifth Infantry, U. S. V., in mountains northeast of 
Angat, Luzon, P. I., encounters a band of insurgents belonging 
to Tecson's command, and kills 2, captures 9 rifles, 400 rounds 
of ammunition, and bums barracks containing 1 ton of rice and 
40 uniforms. 

3, 1900. — Sergt. William J. Schmidt, with detachment of Company M, 

Twelfth U. S. Infantry, from San Juan de Guimba, Luzon, P. I., 
trails band of ladrones 18 miles, when it is overtaken, attacked, 
and 5 are killed; 7 rifles and considerable ammunition are cap- 
tured. No casualties sustained by detachment. 

4, 1900. — First Lieut. Edward H. Andres, commanding 26 men of Company 

H, Thirtieth Infantry, U. S. V., is attacked, 3 miles west of Can- 
delaria, Luzon, P. I., by about 200 insurgents, who are driven off, 
but renew the attack several times. The United States forces 
lose 2 men killed and 4 wounded. The insurgents have 16 killed 
and many more wounded. 

5, 1900. — Troop A, Capt. Edward L. Glasgow, commanding; 20 men of 

Troop G, Capt. Edward A. Sturges, commanding; all of the 
Eleventh Cavalry, U. S. V., and a detachment of the Thirty- 
seventh Infantry, U. S. V., Col. Frank B. Cheatham, com- 
manding, find and destroy, 10 miles east of Pagsajan, Luzon, 
P. I., the stronghold of the insurgent General Cialles — defended 
by 300 men, 100 armed with rifles — consisting of a building used 
as an arsenal, the house of Cialles, and 20 houses used as quar- 
ters. Four insurgents are killed, 5 wounded, 3 rifles and 1,000 
rounds of anmiunition captured. The United States forces lose 
2 men wounded. 
7, 1900. — Transport Garrone leaves Seattle, Wash., for Manila, P. I., with 
headquarters and eight troops of the First U. S. Cavalry. 
First Lieut. Robert T. Crawford, with a detachment of Company 
K, Thirty-second Infantry, U. S. V., encounters a band of insur- 
gents southwest of Baruia, Pampanga, Luzon, P. I,, and kills 
an insurgent lieutenant and 3 soldiers; wounds 5, 4 of whom 
escape, and captures 4 rifles, 1 saber, 1 revolver, and 1 pris- 
oner. No casualties to detachment. 


Aug. 8, 1900. — First Lieut. Edward H. Andres, with a detachment of Company 

H, Thirtieth Infantry, XJ. S. V. , surprises an insurgent outpost 
west of Candelaria, P. I., and kills 1 man, wounds another, and 
captures a quantity of ammunition. No casualties among United 
States forces. 

10, 1900. — Capt. Carl L. Stone, commanding a detachment of Company I, 

Thirty-sixth Infantry, XJ. S. V., kills in action, near Urbis- 
tondo, Luzon, P. I., 3 ladrones; captures 2; also 3 rifles, and 
burns shack used by band. 

11, 1900. — Capt. Harry J. Collins, commanding Company M, Thirty-second 

Infantry, U. S. V., at Porac, Luzon, P. I., finds and destroys, 
in mountains west of that place, 700 rounds of rapid-fire 
ammunition, 1,000 small solid shot, 300 hand grenades, and 
about 10,000 rounds of Remington ammunition. 
Thirty-five men of Company G, Thirty-eighth Infantry, U. S. V., 
Capt. Robert M. Nolan commanding, are attacked near Lipa, 
liUzon, P. I., by 50 insurgents, who are repulsed with a loss of 
8 men killed; 9 men, 1 Remington and 50 Mauser cartridges cap- 
tured. No loss by United States forces. 

12, 1900. — Insurgent Lieut. Col. Roberto Grassa, Maj. Inocencia del Prado, 

5 captains, 6 lieutenants, 100 men, with 101 rifles, 800 rounds of 
ammunition, and 50 bolomen, surrender to Col. Henry B. Free- 
man, Twenty-fourth U. S. Infantry, at San Nicolas, Luzon, P. I. 

13, 1900. — Eight men of Company I, Thirty-ninth Infantry, U. S. V., under 

Capt. William L. Murphy, meet near barrio of Natata, P. I., 
a small party of insurgents and disperse it, killing 2 men. 
Captain Murphy is instantly killed. 

15, 1900. — Second Lieut. William M. True, with 16 men of Company H, 
Thirty-third Infantry, U. S. V., encounters, near Villavieja, 
Luzon, P. I., about 80 armed insurgents occupying intrench- 
ments and flanks them, killing 5 and losing 2 men wounded. 

16, 1900. — ^Transport Warren sails from San Francisco, Cal., for Manila, P. I., 
with headquarters and eight troops of the Ninth U. S. Cavalry. 
Insurgent Capt. Nicolas Slamos, formerly under Paciano Rizal, 
with 4 insurgents, 3 rifles, and 3 carabaos, is captured 3 miles 
south of Calamba, Luzon, P. I., by Col. Robert L. Bullard, 
Thirty-ninth Infantry, U. S. V., in command of Company C 
and 25 men of the Third Battalion. Slamos takes the oath of 
allegiance to the United States. 

17, 1900. — ^Maj. Dennis E. Nolan, with a detachment of the Eleventh Cavalry, 
U. S. v., destroys the house of the presidente of Ragay, Cama- 
rines Sur, Luzon, P. I., with 6,000 pounds of palay and quan- 
tity of cigarettes. 

18, 1900. — First Lieut. Charles M. McLester, Thirty-seventh Infantry, U. S. V., 
in charge of the U. S. gunboat Florida^ arrests Felipe Belarmino, 
who takes oath of allegiance to the United States. 

19, 1900. — ^Two Mauser rifles, 1 Mauser carbine, 1 Remington rifle, and 1 
pistol are surrendered to United States forces at Bayombong, 
Luzon, P. I. 

20, 1900. — Company E, Thirty-seventh Infantry, U. S. V., stationed at Pag- 
sajan, P. I., is attacked by about 150 insurgents, who are 
repulsed after a loss of 3 killed and many wounded. 

21, 1900. — Trvma^ri Sherman sails from San Francisco, Cal., for Manila, P. I., 
with 4 companies each of the Second, Fifth, and Eighth U. S. 


Aug. 23, 1900. — Detachment of CJompany G , Forty-sixth Infantry, U. S. V. , encoun- 
ters, nedr Indang, P. L, about 50 ladrones and defeats them, 
killing 1 and wound 'ng 3. No casualties among Americans. 

24, 1900. — First Lieut. Ernest Van D. Murphy, with 20 men of Company L, 
Thirty-seventh Infantry, U. S. V., scouting from Similoan, P. I., 
near Pangil, is attacked by 75 insurgents, who retreat with a 
loss of 2 men killed and 6 wounded. The detachment loses 1 
man killed and 2 men wounded. 

26, 1900. — First Lieut. George H. Shields, jr., commanding a detachment of 
Company D, Twelfth U. S. Infantry, captures 5 ladrones, 1 Mau- 
ser rifle, and 3 revolvers at Morioues, P. I. 

27, 1900. — Col. Robert L. Bullard, commanding detachments of Companies I, 
K, L, and M, Thirty-ninth Infantry, U. S. V., encounters at 
Tranca, P. I., 20 insurgents occupying a cuartel. The insurgents 
retreat, leaving 2 wounded on the field and their cuartel, con- 
taining 50 bushels of com, 500 pounds of rice, and a quantity of 
clothing, is burned. No casualties among United States forces. 

28, 1900. — Three officers, of the staff of Ludovico Arejola, and 5 soldiers, with 
7 rifles, surrender to the United States authorities at Pili, P. I. 
Second Lieut. Gideon H. Williams, Thirty-ninth Infantry, U. S. V., 
captures the insurgent presidente of Alaminos, P. I. 

29, 1900. — Capt. Thomas Hardeman, quartermaster. Thirty-ninth Infantry, 
U. S. v., arrests Antonio Bautista at Santa Ana, P. I. This man 
had harbored an emissary from Malvar and delivered an order 
from Aguinaldo to Emilio Malolos. 

31, 1900. — First Lieut. Theodore Levack, commanding 27 men of Company C, 
Forty-fourth Infantry, U. S. V., is attacked near Carmen, Luzon, 
P. I., by about 120 ladrones. In the fight that ensues 100 insur- 
gents are killed. The Americans lose 1 man killed and 6 
wounded, 2 seriously. 


SEPTEMBER 1, 1900. 


[Consisting of all the territory within the geographical limits of the Philippine group of islands.] 
Maj. Gen. Arthur MacArthur, U. S. V., Brigadier-General, U.S.A., commanding. 

Headquarters, Manila, P. I. 


[Embracing all that portion of the island of Luzon lyjng to the northward of the Pasig River and the 

f>rovince8 of Morong and Infanta, to&:ether with all t 
ines, excepting the Calaguas group. J 

)rovince8of Morong and Infanta, together with all the Philippine Islands lying northward of those 

Maj. Gen. LOYD WHEATON, U. S. V., commanding. 
Headquarters, Manila, P. I. 


Sixth U. S. Artillery, Light Battery D. 

Third U. S. Cavalry, headquarters and 8 troops. 

Fourth U. S. Cavalry, 6 troops. 

Third U. S. Infantry, headquarters and 12 companies. 

Ninth U. S. Infantry, headquarters and 12 companies (detached service in China). 

Twelfth U. S. Infantry, headquarters and 12 companies. 

Thirteenth U. S. Infantry, headquarters and 12 companies. 

Sixteenth U. S. Infantry, headquarters and 12 companies. 

Seventeenth U. S. Infantry, headquarters and 12 companies. 

Twenty-second U. S. Infantry, headquarters and 12 companies. 

Twenty-fourth L^. S. Infantry, headquarters and 8 companies. 

Twenty-fifth U. S. Infantry, headquarters and 8 companies. 

Twenty-seventh Infantry, U.S. V., headquarters and 12 companies. 

Thirty -second Infantry, U. S. V., headquarters and 12 companies. 

Thirty-third Infantry, U. S. V., headquarters and 12 companies. 

Thirty-fourth Infantry, U. S. V., headquarters and 12 companies. 

Thirty-fifth Infantry, U. S. V., headquarters and 12 companies. 

Thirty-sixth Infantry, U. S. V., headquarters and 12 companies. 

Forty-first Infantry, U. S. V., headquarters and 12 companies. 

Forty-second Infantry, U. S. V., headquarters and 12 companies. 

Forty-eighth Infantry, U. S. V., headquarters and 12 companies. 

Forty-ninth Infantry, U. S. V., headouarters and 8 companies. 

Squadron Philippine Cavalry, U. S. V,, 4 troops. 

I locos scouts. 


Napindariy Capt. Samuel G. Lareon, Eleventh Cavalry, IT. S. V., commanding. 


[Embracing province of Abra, Bontoc, Benguet, Lepanto, Ilocos Snr. Ilocoa Norte, and Union, 

Iglana of Luzon.] 

Brig. Gen. SAMUEL B. M. YOUNG, U. S. A., commanding. 

Headquarters, Vigan, province of Ilocos Sur, Luzon. 




Third IT. S. Cavalry, headquarters and 8 troops. 

Twelfth U. S. Infantry, 2 companies. 

Thirty-third Infantry, U. S. V., headquarters and 12 companies. 

Thirty -fourth Infantry, U. S. V., 4 companies. 

Forty-eighth Infantry, U. S. V., headquarters and 12 companies. 

Native scouts. 


[Embracing provinces of Cagayan, Isabela, and Nueva Vlscaya, island of Luzon.] 

Col. CHARLES C. HOOD, Sixteenth U.S. Infantry, commanding. 

Headquarters, Aparri, province of Cagayan, Luzon. 


Sixteenth U. S. Infantry, headquarters and 12 companies. 
Forty-ninth Infantry, U. S. V., headquarters and 8 companies. 


[Embracing provinces of Zambales, Pangasinan.and Tarlac, island of Luzon.] 

Brig. Gen. JACOB H. SMITH, U. S. V., commanding. 

Headquarters, Dagupan, province of Pangasinan, Luzon. 


Fourth U. S. Cavalry, 3 troops. 

Twelfth U. S. Infantry, headquarters and 8 companies. 
Thirteenth U. 8. Infantry, headquarters and 12 companies. 
Seventeenth U. S. Infantry, headquarters and 10 companies. 
Twenty-fourth U. S. Infantry, headquarters and 3 companies. 
Twenty-fifth U. S. Infantry, headquarters and 8 companies. 
Thirty-sixth Infantry, U. S. V., headquarters and 12 companies. 
Forty-first Infantry, U, S, V., 2 companies. 


[Embracing provinces of Nueva Ecija and Principe, island of Luzon.] 

Brig. Gen. FREDERICK FUNSTON, U. S. V., commanding. 

Headquarters, San Isidro, province of Nueva Ecija, Luzon. 


Fourth U. S. Cavalry, 2 troops. 
Twelfth U. S. Infantry, 2 companies. 
Seventeenth U. S. Infantry, 2 companies. 
Twenty-second U. S. Infantry, 6 companies. 
Twenty-fourth U. S. Infantry, 5 companies. 
Thirty-fourth Infantry, U. S. V., 8 companies. 
Ilocos scouts, 150. 


[Embracing provinces of Bataan, Pampanga,and Bulacan, island of Luzon.] 

Brig. Gen. FREDERICK D. GRANT, U.S.V.. commanding. 

Headquarters, Angeles, province of Pampanga, Luzon. 


Fourth U. S. Cavalry, 1 troop. 

Third U. S. Infantry, headquarters and 12 companies. 
Twenty-second U. S. Infantry, headquarters and 6 companies. 
Thirty-second Infantry, U. S. V., headquarters and 12 companies. 
Thirty-fifth Infantry, U. S. V., headquarters and 12 companies. 
Forty-first Infantry, U. S. V., headquarters and 10 companies. 



[Embracing all that part of the province of Manila lying north of the Pa«ig River, the provinces of 
Morong and In/anta, and all islands lying eastward of the latter province, except tne Calaguas 

Col. J. MILTON THOMPSON, Forty-second Infantry, U.S. V., commanding. 
Headquarters, El Deposito, province of Manila, Luzon. 


Sixth U. S. Artillery, 1 light battery. 

Twenty-seventh Infantry, U. S. V., huidquarters and 12 companies. 
Forty-second Infantry, U. S. V., headquarters and 12 companies. 
Squadron Philippine Cavalry, U. S. V., 4 troops. 


[Embracing that portion of Luzon lying south of the Pasig River and of the southern boundaries of 
the provinces oi Morong and Infanta, and all the Philippine Islands situated to the south of those 
lines and northward of the lines passing southeasterlv through the west pass of Apo to the twelfth 
parallel of latitude: thence on said parallel to meridian 124° 19' east oi Greenwich; thence in a 
northerly direction through the Straits of San Bernardino, along southern line of channel of those 
straits; also all of the islands of Masbate and Samar.] 

Maj. Gen. JOHN C. BATES, U. S. V., commanding. 
Headquarters, Manila, P. I. 


Fourth U. S. Cavalrv, headquarters and 5 troops. 
Eleventh Cavalry, tJ. S. V., headquarters and 12 troopn. 
Fourth U. 8. Artillery, 1 light battery. 

Fifth U. S. Artillery, 1 light battery (detached ser\'ice in ('hina). 
Fourth U. 8. Infantry, headauarters and 12 companies. 
Twenty-first U. S. Infantrv, headquarters and 4 companies. 
Twenty-eighth Infantry, IJ. S. V., headquarters and 12 companieH. 
Twenty-ninth Infantry, U. S. V., headquarters and 12 companies. 
Thirtieth Infantry, U. S. V., headquarters and 12 companies. 
Thirty-seventh Infantry, U. S. V., headquarters and 12 companie.«. 
Thirty -eighth Infantry, U. S. V., headquarters and 12 companies. 
Thirty-ninth Infantry, U. S. V., headquarters and 12 companies. 
Forty-fifth Infantry, U. S. V., headquarters and 12 companies. 
Forty-sixth Infantry, U. S. V., headquarters and 12 companies. 
Forty-seventh Infantrv, U. S. V., headquarters and 12 companies. 
Forty-ninth Infantry, U. S. V. , 4 companies. 


Florida, First Lieut. Charles M. McLester, Thirty-seventh Infantry, U. S. V., (rom- 

Lngnrw de Bay, Second Lieut. George S. Simonds, Twenty-second U. S. Infantry, 

Oeste, Second Lieut. Nathan J. Shelton, Thirty-ninth Infantry, U. S. V., commanding. 


[Embracing the Province of Cavite and that portion of Manila lying southward of the Pasig River, 

the city of Manila excepted.] 

Brig. Gen. LUTHER R. HARE. U. S. V.. commanding. 

Headquarters, Cavite, Province of Cavite, Luzon. 


Fourth U. S. Cavalry, 3 troops. 

Fourth U. S. Infantry, heaaquarters and 12 companies. 
Twenty-first U. S. Infantry, headquarters and 4 companies. 
Fortv-sixth Infantry, U. S. V., headquarters and 12 companies. 
Forty-ninth Infantry, U. 8. V., 4 companies. 


[Embracing Provincesof Batangras, Taya1t>as,and Laguna, island of Luzon, and the island of Polillo.] 

Brig. Gen. ROBERT H. HALL, U. S. V., commanding. 

Headquarters, Calamba, Province of Laguna, Luzon. 


Eleventh Cavalry, U. S. V., 4 troops. 

Twenty-eighth Infantry, U. S. V., headquarters and 12 companies. 
Thirtieth Infantry, U. S. V., headauarters and 12 companies. 
Thirty -seventh Infantry, U. S. V., headquarters and 11 companies. 
Thirty-eighth Infantry, U. S. V., headquarters and 12 companies. 
Thirty-mnth Infwitry, U. S. V., headquarters and 12 companies. 


[Embracing Provinces of Albay. Camarines Norte, Camarinea Sur, and Soreogon, island of Luzon, 

and the island of Catanduanes, also the Calaguas group.] 

Brig. Gen. JAMES M. BELL, U. S. V., commanding. 

Headquarters, Nueva Caceres, Province of Camarines Sur, Luzon. 


Eleventh Cavalry, U. S. V., headquarters and 8 troops. 
Thirty-seventh Infantry, U. S. V., 1 company. 
Forty-fifth Infantry, U. S. V., headquarters and 12 companies. 
Forty-seventh Infantry, U. S. V., headquarters and 12 companies. 


[Embracing the islands of Mindoro, Tabla, Marinduque. Masbatc, and all island^ north and west of 
the same to the pass of Apo and the southern limit of Luzon, and island of Samar.] 

Col. EDWARD E. HARDIN, Twenty-ninth Infantry, U. S. V., commanding. 
Headquarters, Catbalogan, island of Samar. 


Twenty-ninth Infantry, U. S. V., headquarters and 12 companies. 
Fourth U. S. Artillery, 1 light battery. 


[Bounded on the north by the southern limits of the Department of .Southern Luzon, on the west by 
longitude 121° 45' east of Greenwich, on the south by the ninth parallel of latitude and extending 
east to include those islands of the Philippine group lying between the north and south lines herein 
described, but excluding all the island ot Mindanao and all islands east of the Straits of Duriago.] 

Brig. Gen. ROBERT P. HUGHES, V. S. V.. commanding. 
Headquarters, lioiio, island of Panay, P. I. 


Sixth U. S. Artillery, 1 light battery. 
Sixth U. S. Infantry, headquarters and 12 companies. 
Eighteenth U. S. Infantry, headquarters and 8 companies. 
Nineteenth U. S. Infantry, headquarters and 12 companies. 
Twenty -sixth Infantry, U. S. V., headquarters and 12 companies. 
Forty-third Infantry, U. S. V., headquarters and 12 companies. 
Forty-fourth Infantry, U. S. V., headquarters and 12 companies. 
Negros scouts (native). 


[Embracing the island of Leyte.] 

Col. ARTHUR MURRAY. Forty-third Infantry. U. S. V.. commanding. 

Headquarters, Tacloban, island of Leyte. 



Forty-third In&intry, U. 8. V., headquarters and 12 companies. 
Forty-fourth Infantry, U. 8. V., 2 companies. • 


[Embracing the islands of Bohol and Cebu.] 

Col. EDWARD J. McCLERNAND, Forty-fourth Infantry. U. 8. V., commanding. 

Headquarters, Cebu, island of Cebu. 


Sixth Artillery, 1 platoon of Li^ht Battery G. 
Nineteenth U. 8. In^itry, headquarters and 8 companies. 
Forty-fourth Infantry, U. S. V., headquarters and 6 companies. 


[Embracing the island of Negroe.] 

Brig. Gen. JAMES F. SMITH. U. S. V., commanding. 

Headquarters, Bacolod, island of Negros. 


Sixth U. S. Infantry, headquarters and 10 companies. 
Negros scouts (native) . 

[Embracing the island of Panay.] 
Col. EDMUND RICE, Twenty-sixth Infantry, U. S. V., commanding. 

Headquarters : Jaro, island of Panay. 


Sixth U. S. Artillery, 1 light battery. 

Sixth U. S. Infantry, 2 companies. 

Eighteenth U. 8. Infcantry, headquarters and 7 companies. 

Nineteenth U. 8. Infantry, 4 companies. 

Twenty-sixth Infantry, U. 8. V., neadquarters and 10 companies. 

Forty -fourth Infantry, U. 8. V., 4 companies. 

Native scouts. 


[Embracing all the islands of the Philippine group not included in the territorial boundaries of the 
Departments of Northern Luzon, Southern Luzon, and the Visayas.] 

Brig. Gen. WILLIAM A. K0BB£, U. S. V., commanding. 

Headquarters: Zamboanga, island of Mindanao. 


Twenty-third U. 8. Infantry, headquarters and 8 companies. 
Thirty-first Infantry, U. 8. V., headquarters and 12 companies. 
Fortieth Infantry, U. S. V., headquarters and 12 companies. 


[BmbiAciiig islands of Camiguin, Dlnlgat, and Siargao, and that portion of Mindanao lying north of 

the eighth parallel of latitude.] 

Col. EDWARD A. GODWIN, Fortieth Infantry, U. S. V., commanding. 

Headquarters: Cagayan, province of Cagayan, Mindanao. 
WAR 1900 — ^VOL 1, FT V i 



Fortieth Infantry, U. S. V., headquarters and 12 companies. 
Twenty-third U. S. Infantry, 1 company. 


[Embracing the islands of Basilian and Sarargani, and that portion of MindHnao. south of the eighth 

parallel of latitude.] 

Col. JAMES S. PETTIT, Thirty-first Infantry, U. 8. V., commanding. 
Headquarters: Zamboang^, province of Zamboanga, Mindanao. 


Thirty-first Infantry, U. S. V., headquarters and 12 companies. 
Twenty-third Infantry, 1 company. 


[Embracing the Jolo Archipelago.] 

Maj. OWEN J. SWEET, Twenty- third U. S. Infantry, commanding. 

Headquarters: Jolo, island of Jolo. 


Twenty-third U. S. Infantry, headquarters and 6 companies. 

[Embracing islands of Balbac, Paragua, and Calamianes.] 

Not occupied by troops. 


City of Manila. 

[Embracing the city of Manila, beginning at the Boca de Vitas, the line follows Maypajo Creek until 
it reaches the line of the Lico road produced, thence along said line and road to lico, thence to the 

t unction of the two roads in front of the Chinese Hospital, thence along the road in front of said 
loflpital to the north comer of the hospital wall, thence to Block House No. 4, thence bv Block 
Houses Nos. 6, 6, and 7 to San Juan del Monte Creek at the aqueduct bridge, thence down said creek 
and up the river Pa^ig to the mouth of Concordia Creek, thence by Concordia and Tripa de Gal Unas 
creeks to a point opposite where the road from Cingalon to Pineda (Pasai) turns sliarply to the 
right, thence by the road to Maitubig, and thence to the mouth of Malate Creek.] 

Brig. Gen. J. FRANKLIN BELL. V. S. V., commanding. 
Headquarters: Manila, Philippine Islands. 


Fourth U. 8. Cavalry, 1 troop. 

First U. S. Artillery, I battery. 

Third U. S. Artillery, 3 batteries. 

Sixth U. 8. Artillery, headquarters and 9 batteries. 

Twentieth U. 8. Infantry, heatlquarters and 12 companies. 

Twenty-first U. 8. Infantry, headquarters and 8 companies. 

mhitabt posts, oabbisoneb towns, with pbovinces, islands, and dis- 
tribution OF TBOOPS. 

[* Telegraph stations, f Railroad stations, f Ports oi>ened for coasting trade. | Ports of entry.] 


♦Abucay .. 

Abulug .. 

Abuyog . . 


♦Aguilar .. 



Alegria .. 
*Aliaga ... 



Angaqui . 


t* Angeles.. 


Bataan . . 

Zambales. . . 










Nueva Ecija. 











Pangasinan ... 


Camarines Sur. 




Bagabag . . 

Baganga .. 

Bagnotan . 






IIocos Norte . . . 
Nueva Vizcaya 

Balauang . . . . 











*Barotac Nuevo 





* Bauang 


Bayanan . . . . 




Batangas , 
Principe . 
Bulacan . , 
















Cebu . . 
Luzon . 





Luzon .... 










Nueva Ecija 



IIocos Norte. 


IIocos Norte 
Batangas ... 



Panay , 
Luzon . 

do do . 

Ptiiigasiiiaii do . 

do do . 



F, 32d Infantry. 
Detachment H, 49th Infantry. 
M, 43d Infantry. 
Detachment L, 36th Infantry. 

B, 36th Infantry. 
Q, 36th Infantry. 
Detachments B.C. D, 13th Infantry. 
M, 17th Infantry; C, 49th Infantry. 
Detachment K, 44th Infantry. 

K, 34th Infantry. 

G, 48th Infantry. 
Detachment H, 36th Infantry. 
Detachment A, 36th Infantry. 
M, 33d Infantry. 

F, 35th Infantry. 
Headquarters Fifth District, 
Northern Luzon; headquarters, 

C, D, 41st Infantry. 
H, 42d Infantry. 
Detachment K, 3d Infantry. 
Headquarters, Second District, 

Northern Luzon; headquarters, 
A, C, detachment D, 16th In- 

Headauarter8,E,F,G,22d Infantry. 

Detachment I, 44th Infantry. 

C, 48th Infantry. 
F, 13th Infantry. 
Detachments I, K, 30th Infantry. 
A, 45th Infantry. 
Headquarters Third District, 

Visayas; headquarters, K, 6th 

Detachment K, 41st Infantry. 
A, 4th Infantry. 
Detachment G, 12th Infantry. 
Detachment K, 16th Infantry. 
Detachment M, 3l8t Infantry. 
Detachment D, 3d Cavalry. 
1, 19th Infantry. 
Detachment I, 6th Infantry. 
M, 44th Infantry. 
Headquarters, C, G; detachment 

D, 32d Infantry. 
Detachment E. 48th Infantry. 
E, F, G, H, 28th Infantry. 

A, D, 34th Infantry. 
Detachment H, 36th Infantry. 
Headquarters, detachments A, B, 

C, D, 35th Infantry. 
Detachments C, E, 17th Infantry. 
H, 41st Infantry. 

D, 26th Infantry. 
K, 48th Infantry. 
Detachments B, C, D, 33d Infantry. 
Detachment F, 34th Infantry. 
Detachment L, 36th Infantry. 

C, 26th Infantry. 
H, 43d Infantry. 
Detachment G, 34th Infantry. 
Headquarters, A, B,D, 38th Infan- 
I, 38th Infantry. 
Headquarters K, 17th Infantry. 
A, Engineers; K, 4th Cavalry. 
Detacnment G, 6th Infantry. 



MUilary posta^ garrisoned loirruf, with provinces, islands, and distribution of troops — Cont'd. 


, Bigaa 

*Bin lonan . 



♦ Blnmaley 

Bojeador Light- 

* Bongabon 

H Bongao 







Ilocos Norte . 

Pangasinan . 
Nueva Ecija. 





* Bulacan 


Cabancalan . 

* Cabangan . . . 

Cabangan Nuevo 

♦ Cabaruan 


♦ Cabiao 


♦ Cabuyao 

♦Cadiz Nuevo 


♦Calaca .. 
* Calamba 

t*Calasiao . 


^ Calbayog. 




♦ Camiling 

* Camp Stotsenberg. 



^♦Candon .... 




*J Carcar 

♦fCarigara ... 





♦ CaviteViejo. 



♦ Compostela 

♦ Concepci6n 


Camarines Sur 



Nueva Ecija... 




Nueva Ecija. 
Ilocos Sur . . . 




Bulacan . 
Tarlac . . . 
Manila . . 

Zambales. . 

Ilocos Sur 

Nueva Ecija. 

Cavite . 





Luzon . 













Luzon . 




Luzon .... 






Siimar . 

Panay . 
Luzon . 










Samar .... 

Cebu . 

Cebu . 

E, 43d Infantry. 
Detachment G,3d Infantry- 
Detachment D,6th Infantry. 
M,4th Cavalry; headquarters, de- 
tachment E,13th Infantry. 
Headquarters, K, L, M, 28th In- 

B, 42d Infantry. 

Detachments E, K, 36th Infantry. 
A, 29th Infantry. 
Detachment F, 34th Infantry. 

D, 36th Infantry. 
B,34th Infantry. 

C, 23d Infantry. 

Detachments H, F, M, 26th Infan- 

E, 19th Infantry; F,44th Infantry. 
Detachment D, 16th Infantry. 

1, 45th Infantry. 

M, 3d Infantry. 

B,47th Infantry. 

Headquarters, M, L, 34th Infan- 
try; Ilocos scouts. 

Detachments L, M, 6th Infantry; 
detachment Native scouts. 

Detachments B, E, F, H, I, K, L, 
25th Infantry. 

E, 16th Infantry. 

Detachment E, 13th Infantry. 

H, 18th Infantry; H, 26th Infantry. 

H,22d Infantry. 

Detachment L,33d Infantry. 

Detachment 1, 28th Infantry. 

Detachment M,6th Infantry. 

Headquarters First District Min- 
danao and Jolo; B, 23d Infantry; 
headquarters, H, K, L, M, 40th 

D,28th Infantry. 

Headquarters 2d District South- 
ern Luzon; A, C, 39th Infantry. 

Detachment F, 17th Infantry. 

Deta(!hraent 1, 6th Infantry. 

H,M,29th Infantry; detachment 
F,4lh Artillery. 

A,C,6th Infantrv. 

Headquarters, A, B, C, D, Philip- 
pine Cavalry; L,42d Infantry. 

C,3d Infantry. 

Detachment B, 16th Infantry. 

Detachments G, L, 17th Infantry. 

E, G, 27th Infantry; detachment 
D,6th Artillery. 

K,M,22d Infantrv. 

Detachments E, F, H, L, 25th In- 

Headquarters, E, G, 33d Infantry. 

G,41st Infantrv. 

E, M,18th Infantry. 

Dettichnient L, 31st Infantry. 

Detachment 1, 44th lnfantr>'. 

Detachment B,43d Infantry. 

G,24th Infantry. 

Detachment K, 25th Infantry. 

Headquarters. Fourth District, 
Southern Luzon; detachment 
F, 4th Artillery; headquarters, 
D,E, 29th Infantry. 

L49th Infantry. 

Headquarters, First District, 
Soutnern Luzon; headquarters, 
I,K,4th Infantry. 

M, 4th Infantry. 

Headquarters, Second District, 
VLsayas; detachment G, 6th Ar- 
tillery; headquarters, 44th In- 
fantrv; headquarters, D, F, H, 
19th fnfantry. 

Detachment L, 49th Infantrv. 

C, 19th Infantry. 

Detachment B, 19th Infantry. 

A, 12th Infantry. 


MUilary poslSj garrisoned tow^nSf wilh provinces, islands, and distribution of troops — Cont'd. 


Cord6n or Estella 

* CoiTM^idor 

\ Cottabato 


* Cuyapo . . . 
fl Daet 

• Dagami . . . 
lit* Da^pan . . 



H Dapitan 





Depoeito . . . 


* Dingras 

• Dolores 

H Donsol 


H Dumanjuc 



* Echague 


♦ Escalante 

♦ Florida Blaiica. 







Guijulungan ... 


Guinayangun . . 


* Humingan 


H Ibajay 
11 Iligan . 


Indan . . 
*Iriga ... 

Isio .... 

Ja<^n ... 






♦ La Carlota . . . 

* La Casti liana 
\ Laguan 



Ilocos Norte 

Nueva Ecija 

Camarines Norte 




Zam bales. 



Ilocos Norte 

Nueva Vizcaya 





Nueva Ecija. 



Pampanga .. 




Nueva Ecija. 



Camarines Norte 



Camarines Sur . . 

Nueva Ecija. 



Mindanao . 













Cebu . . 
Panay . 
Luzon . 



Luzon . 









Luzon . 


Luzon . 











Luzon . 

Bohol . 

Panay . 


Jolo . . . 




Detachment L, 16th Infantry; A, 

49th Infantry. 
F, 21st Infantry. 

A, B. F, G, 3l8t Infantry; D, 23d 

Detachment G, 12th Infantry. 
L, 12th Infantry. 

B, detachment M, 45th Infantry. 
C,43d Infantry. 
Headquarters Third District, 

Northern Luzon; I, K, M, 13th 

Detachment E, 6th Infantry; de- 
tachment B, 19th Infantry. 

K, 18th Infantry. 

A, 40th Infantry. 

Detachment M, Slst Infantry. 

F, 47th Infantry. 

F, K,46th Infantry. 
Detachment A, 17th Infantry. 
I, K, Slst Infantry. 
Headquarters, Sixth District, 

Northern Luzon; headquarters, 

42d Infantry. 
L, detachment K,82d Infantry. 
A, ■'d Cavalry. 

Detachment A, 36th Infantry. 
Detachment G, 3d Artillery; A,D, 

47th Infantry. 
K,L, 43d Infantry. 
Detachments F, G, 6th Infantry. 
L,44th Infantry. 
L, 18th Infantry. 
Detachment K,16th Infantry. 
I, M, detachment L, 16th Infantry. 
Detachment D, 17th Infantry. 
Detachment E, 6th Infantry. 
I,32d Infantry. 
Detachment F, 49th Infantry. 

C, 34th Infantry. 
Detachment B, 16th Infantry. 
Detachment 1, 12th Infantry. 
A,B,4Lst Infantry. 

L,47th Infantry. 
Detachment G, 3d Infantry. 
Detachments F, G, 6th Infantry. 
Detachments L, M, 6th Infantry. 
C, 30th Infantry. 
H,I,3d Infantry. 
A, 44th Infantry. 
A, 24th Infantry. 
Headquarters,detachment M,25th 

H, 44th Infantry. 

G, H, 16th Infantry. 
E,F,G, 40th Infantry. 
Headquarters department of Vis- 

ayas; H, Signal Corps; detach- 
ment G,6th Artillery; F, 18th 
Infantry; E, F, 26th Infantry. 

D,4th Infantry; B,G,46th Infan- 

Detachment M,45th Infantrv. 

A, C,H, 1, 46th Infantry. 

Detachment A, 17th Infantry. 

Headquarters, C,G, 45th Infantry. 

Detachment D,6th Infantry. 

Detachment A,22d Infantry. 

Detachments B,C,44th Infantry. 

G, 26th Infantry. 

Headquarters lourth district Vis- 
ayas; headquarters, A, 26th In- 

Detachment B, 43d Infantry. 

DetachmentsD, F, G, 6th Infantry. 

Headquarters third district Min- 
danao and Jolo; headquarters, 
A, F, G, H, 23d Infantry. 

Detachment H,6th Infantry. 

Detachment B, 6th Infantry. 

G, K, 29th Infantry; detacnment 
F, 4th Artillery. 


Militart/ poHlity garrisojied tmviiSy rmth proxnnces^ wlandsj and distribution of troops — Cont'd. 



♦ Lallo 

* La Lomboy . 

♦La Paz.... 


*Las Pifias. 

* Leon 



* Libmanan 


*Lingayen . 


* Llanahermosa 





* Lucban 

♦I Lucena 



t* Mabalacat 





* Maiayjay 

t* Malasiqui 



* Mambusao 





* Mangatarem 


tt* Manila 

Anda st. sta 






llocos Norte 


llocos Sur 
Manila . . . 





Bataan . . 


Tayabas . . . 
Tayabas . . . 


Camannes Sur 


llocos Norte. 


Pangasinan . 





Calle Gral. So- 
lano, No. 384. 
Calle Noza- 

leda, No. 30. 
Calle Noza- 

Calles Palacio 

and Beaterio 
Cuartel de £s- 

Cuartel de In- 


Exposition bks 

Ft. Santiago . . . 


Herran st.sta. 
Malacafian . . . 


Mai ate con- 



San Fernando 

St. sta. 

San Miguel 

Santa Cruz 

Santa Lucia . . . 

Pangasinan . 

Nueva Ecija. 













Cebu . 
Luzon , 



Bohol . 





Luzon . 









Panay . 
Luzon . 
Cebu .. 
Luzon . 





Detachment D, 30th Infantry. 

Detachment B, 16th Infantry. 

A, 3d Infantry. 

K, Third Cavalry; H, detachment 
E,34th Infantry; Native scouts. 

H, 12th Infantry. 

Detachment F.33d Infantry. 

B,G, 49th Infantry. 

H, 1, 47th Infantry. 

Detachment 1, 26th Infantry. 

B,D,H, nth Cavalry. 

Detachment H, 49th Infantry. 

L, 45th Infantry. 

Detachment K, 19th Infantry. 

Headquarters, M, detachment K, 
36th Infantry. 

E,F,G,38th Infantry. 

Detachment K,32d Infantry. 

Detachments B, C, 44th Infantry. 

B,D, 39th Infantry. 

Detachments I, K,30th Infantry. 

Detachment L, 41st Infantry. 

G,H, 30th Infantry. 

A, B, 30th Infantry. 

Detachment H, 6th Infantry. 

G, 43d Infantry. 

M, 41st Infantry. 

1, 41st Infantry. 

Mounted detachment 45th In- 

K, 37th Infantry. 

Detachment F, 33d Infantry. 

A, F.M, 37th Infantry. 

Detachment H,17th Infantry. 

E,F,42d Infantry. 

L, detachment F,3d Infantry. 

1, 18th Infantry. 

Detachment C, 13th Infantry. 

Detachment M,6th Infantry. 

Detachment K,19th Infantry. 

L, 13th Infantry. 

F,36th Infantry. 

Detachment C,24th Infantry. 

G, 20th Infantry. 
Headquarters Division 

of the 

Philippines; H, 6th Artillery. 
1, 20th Infantry. 
Headquarters Department of 

Northern Luzon. 
E, F, Signal Corps. 

Headquarters Department South- 
ern Luzon. 
Headquarters Provost Guard. 

Headquarters, B, C, F, 6th Artil- 

A, Cth Artillery. 

Headquarters, E,G, H, K,2l8t In- 

L, 6th Artillery; A, 20th Infantry. 

Detachment D, 6th Artillery; B, 
4th Infanti-y. 

Headquarters, E, F, M,20th Infan- 

1, 21st Infantry. 


E. Ist Artillery*; 1, 4th Cavalry. 

B, Engineers. 

L, 21st Infantr>'; H, K, L, 3d Artil- 
B, 20th Infantry. 
L,20th Infantry; F,4th Cavalry. 
B, 21st Infantry. 

N, 6th Artillery. 
K,20th Infantry. 
D,20th Infantry. 
O.Gth Artillery. 


M'dlUirii posUy garrisoned tmvn«y with promicesy islandsy and distrihuUonof troopn — Cont'd. 


Manila— Contid. 
Santa Mesa 



Vaccine sta- 


* Mariquina 


Y Maslnloc 






t* Moncada 














♦ Novaliches 







♦ Pagsanjan 





\* Paniqui 

♦ Pantabangan 


Paombong , 

♦ Paraflaaue , 

Parang Parang 

♦| Pasacao , 

♦ Pasay cavalry bar- 


♦ Pasig 

♦ Peflaranda 








♦ Porac 

♦ Pototan 

♦ Pozomibio 

Pulilan , 

Pulupandan , 

♦ Pumping station . . . 




Manila . . , 


Bataan . . . 
Zambales . 

Tayabas . . . 
Bulacan . . . 


Manila . 
Tarlac . . 



Ilocos Sur 




Camarines Sur. 

Tarlac . 




Ilocos Norte . 




Ilocos Norte . . . 










Manila . 
Tarlac . . 

Nueva Ecija 


Luzon .... 
















Luzon . 
Cebu .. 
Luzon . 










Masbate . . 
















Romblon . 


H, 27th Infantry. 

E, 6th Artillery. 
C, 20th Infantry. 
D,2l8t Infantry. 

Detachment 49th Infantry. 
B, 27th Infantry. 

A, 32d Infantry. 
Detachment H,25th Infantry. 
Detachment L,3l8t Infantry. 
C,D, 37th Infantry. 

E, 41st Infantry. 
Detachment £,3d Infantry. 
M, 26th Infantry. 
Detachment G, 19th Infantry. 
C,D,40th Infantry. 

B, 17th Infantry. 
Detachment D, 6th Artillery; K, 

L, M, 27th Infantry. 
I, A, 42d Infantry. 

A, C,2l8t Infantry. 

C, 12th Infantry. 
Detachment B, 6th Infantry. 
E, 46th Infantry. 
Detachment G, 19th Infantry. 
Detachment M, 48th Infantry. 
B.C.D, 4th Cavalry. 

C, 3d Cavalry; detachment M, 48th 

H, 33d Infantry. 

E, 35th Infantry. 

L, 4th Infantry. 

1, 27th Infantry. 

Headauarters Third district 
soutnem Luzon; Headquarters, 
F,K,llth Cavalry; detachment 
Mountain Batterv G, 37th In- 
fantry; D, F, detacnment M,45th 

D, 12th Infantry. 

E, detachment H, 32d Infantry. 

B, 32d Infantry. 
1, 40th Infantry. 

D, 44th Infantry. 

E, 1, 37th Infantry. 

A, Q, 11th Cavalry. 
B,C, 29th Infantry-. 
Detachment F, 25th Infantry. 
Detachment A, 43d Infantry. 

F, 43d Infantry. 
E,G, 44th Infantry. 
F, 12th Infantry. 
Detachment C,24th Infantry. 
Detachment G, 34th Infantry. 
Detachment F, 3d Infantry. 
D, E, 49th Infantry. 

C, detachment D, 31st Infantry. 
H, 45th Infantry. 
Headquarters, % 4th Cavalry. 

Detachment F, 34th Infantry. 

D, K, 42d Infantry. 
I, 34th Infantry. 
Detachment M, 49th Infantry. 
Detachments B, C, D, 33d Infantry. 
Detachment D, 32d Infantry. 

1, 11th Cavalrv. 
Detachment D, 31st Infantry. 
Detachment E. 3d Infantry. 
Detachment H, 6th Infantry. 
M, 32d Infantry. 

B, L, 26th Infantry. 
Detachment B, 13th Infantry. 
M, 35th Infantry. 
Detachment H, 6th Infantry. 
F, 27th Infantry. 
Detachment 1, 12th Infantry. 
H, 36th Infantry. 

I, L, 29th Infantry. 
Detachments C, £, 17th Infantry. 


Military posts y garrisoned towiiSy with provinces ^ islands^ and distribution of troops — Cont'd. 


* Rosario 



*SaIa8a , 

* Salomagui 

* Samal , 


San Antonio . . 

♦San Antonio.. 

San Carlos 

♦fSftn Carlos 

Sanchez Mira . 

* San Clemente . 
San Enrique . 

* San Fabian ... 

San Felipe ... 
♦San Fernando . 


^♦San Fernando , 

San Francisco.. 
♦San Francisco 

San Gabriel ... 


♦ San Isidio. 

♦San Jacinto 

♦San Jos6 

^San Jos^ 

♦San Jos4 

^♦San Jos6 de Buena 

San Juan 

San Juan de Boc 
♦ San Juan de Guimba 

♦San Luis 

♦San Manuel 

♦San Marcelino 

♦ San Mateo 

♦San Miguel 

♦ Do 

♦ San Narcisco 

San Nicolas 

♦San Nicolas 


♦San Pablo 

♦San Pedro Macati 

♦ Do 

♦San Rafael 


♦Santa Ana 

♦ Do 

♦Santa Barbara 

♦ Do 

♦Santa Cruz 

♦ Do 

f* Santa Cruz..., 

Santa Cruz 

♦Santa Igrnacia 
♦Santa Maria.. 

♦ Do 

Santa Maria. . 

♦Santa Rita ... 
♦Santa Rosa 

* Do 

Santo Nifio .. 

♦Santo TomAs. 
Santo Tom&s . 



I locos Sur . . 

Nueva Ecija . 





Zambales . 



Camarines Sur. 



Union .. 

Nueva Ecija . 

Pangasinan ... 


Pangasinan ... 


Camarines Sur 

Nueva Ecija... 

Union . . . 

Nueva Ecija. 
Pampanga . . . 
Pangasinan . 


Bulacan .... 
Ilocos Norte 
Zambales . . . 

Ilocos Norte . 
Pangasinan . 




Nueva Ecija. 

Ilocos Sur . . 



Cavite . . 




Pangasinan . 
Ilocos Sur . - . 


Nueva Ecija. 



Nueva Ecija. 


Luzon . 


Luzon . 



Cebu . . 
Luzon . 


Luzon . 



Luzon . 














Cebu . 























E, 4th Infantry. 
Detachment B, 48th Infantry. 
Detachment E, 6th Infantry. 
Detachment £, 36th Infantry. 
Detachment L, 83d Infantry. 
Detachment H, 32d Infantry. 
Detachment K, 44th Infantry. 
I, 22d Infantry. 
Detachment L, 25th Infantry. 
Detachment I, 6th Infantry. 
Detachment H, 17th Infantry. 
Detachment L, 49th Infantry. 
Detachments G, L, 17th Infantry. 
Detachment H, 6th In&intry. 

A. 13th Infantry. 

Detachments H, I, K, M, 25th In- 

M, 42d Infantry. 

Headquarters, B, D, 3d Infantry. 

M, nth Cavalry. 

M, 3d Cavalry; headquarters, A, D, 
48th Infantry, native scouts. 

Detachment £, 48th Infantry. 

F, H, 4th Infantry. 

F, 48th Infantry. 

Detachments A, B, C, D, 35th In- 

Headouarters, fourth district, 
nortnem Luzon; A, G, 4th Cav- 
alry; B, C, D, 22d Infantry. 

Detachment C,36th Infantry. 

Detachment D,17th Infantry. 

Detachment D, 13th Infantry. 

K,L,M,38th Infantry. 

K, 45th Infantry; C, 11th Cavalry; 
detachment G, 37th Infantry. 

1, 24th Infantry. 

A, L, 19th Infantry. 

Detachment D,3d Cavalry. 
C,H, 38th Infantry. 

M, 12th Infantry. 

L,22d Infantry. 

H, 13th Infantry. 

Detachments B, F, I, K, 25th In- 

Detachment D, 6th Artillery; 
headquarters, A, C, D, 27th In- 

I, K,L, 36th Infantry. 

Detachment E, 12th Infantry. 

Detachment 1, 25th Infantry. 

M, 19th Infantry. 

Detachment E,12th Infantry. 

H, 24th Infantry. 

E, F, G, H, 39th Infantry. 
Detachment C, 4th Infantry. 
A, 33d Infantry. 
Detachment K, 24th Infantry. 

H, 4th Cavalry; detachment A, 

35th Infantry. 
Detachment native scouts. 
Detachment C, 4th Infantry. 

F, 4l8t Infantry. 
Detachment F, 17th Infantry. 
K, 26th Infantry. 

G, 4th Infantry. 

E,L, nth Cavalry; headquarters, 

B,H, 37th Infantry. 
Detaclimeut E, 25th Infantr>\ 

Detachments G, L, 17th Infantry. 
G, 35th Infantry. 
Detachment K, 24th Infantry. 
Headouarters, native scouts. 
Detacnment K,4l8t Infantry. 
Detachment 1, 28th Infantry. 
Detachment A,22d Infantry. 
Detachment M,49th Infantry' 
Headouarters, LjM, u9th Infantry. 
Detacnments C, £, 17th Infantry. 


Military postSy garrisoned towns^ ivith provinces^ islands^ and distribution of troops — Cont'd. 


t* Santo Tomds 
Santo Tom&8 










♦Solano .. 









Tagudln ... 




* Do 








♦Tigbauan .. 



♦JTubigon ... 


Tumauini . . 

UnifiiEtn , 

♦ Urbiztondo. 
♦Urdaneta ... 

Valladolid . 







-Zapote Bridge. 



Tayabaa . . . 



Nueva Viacaya 



Ilocos Sur 
Manila . . . 

Morong . 
Tariac . . . 




Benguet . 




Tariac . . . . 
Ilocos Sur. 

Ilocos Norte 



Luzon . 


Panay . 
Luzon . 


Cebu .. 
Luzon . 

Luzon . 








Bohol . 
Luzon . 


Cebu .. 
Luzon . 
Luzon . 
Luzon . 





Luzon . 
Bohol . 
Luzon . 


Bohol . 
Luzon . 



Luzon . 
Luzon . 



Mindanao . . . 



Detachment K,8d Infantry. 

Detachment B, 48th Infantry. 

Headquarters, G, 18th Infantry. 

Detachment M,6th Infantry. 

F, 30th Infantry. 

Detachment L, 4l8t Infantrj'- 

E, 23d Infantry. 

Detachment 1, 44th Infantrv. 

Headquarters, D, E, L, M, 46th In- 

Detachments L,M,6th Infantrv. 

L, 37th Infantry. 

Detachment K, 16th Infantrv. 

Detachment Q, 3d Artillery; Head- 
quarters, K, M, 47th Infantry. 

Detachment C, 36th Infantry. 

Detachment B,25th Infantrv. 

B, 40th Infantry. 

A, B,C, 28th Infantrv. 

Detachment G, 3d Artillery; E,G, 
47th Infantry. 

Headquarters first district Visa- 
yas; headquarters, D, I, 43d In- 

Detachment B 44th Infantry. 

H, 48th Infantry. 

M,2l8t Infantry, 

Detachment G, 19th Infantry. 

I, K, 39th Infantry. 

Detachment A, 43d Infantry. 

G,42d Infantry. 

Detachments F.I,6th Infantr\'. 

Headquarters, B, 12th Infantry; L, 
4th Cavalry. 

Headquarters, L, M, 30th Infantry. 

C,42d Infantry. 

Headquarters, E, F,24th Infantry. 

E, 30th Infantry. 
Detachment L 26th Infantry. 
Detachment E, 6th Infantry. 
I, L, 48th Infantry. 
Detachments B, C, 44th Infantry. 

F, 16th Infantrv; headquarters, 
K,49th Infantry. 

Detachment F, 49th Infantry. 

Detachment C,44th Infantry. 

Detachment D.SOth Infantry. 

1, 36th Infantry. 

G,13th Infantry. 

Detachment H,6th Infantrv. 

K, 12th Infantry. 

Detachment M, 6th Infantry. 

Headquarters first district north- 
eril Luzon: headquarters. E, F, 
L, 3d Cavalry; K, 1, 33d Infantry. 


Detachment E,34th Infantry. 

C, 47th Infantrv. 

Headquarters aepartment Minda- 
nao and Jolo; headquarters sec- 
ond district Mindanao and Jolo: 
headquarters, E, H, 3l8t Infan- 

Detachment 49th Infantrv. 


Hdqrs. Division of the Philippines and 
Office of the United States Military Governor 

in the Philippine Islands, 
Manila^ F. /., October i, 1900. 

Adjutant-General of the Army, 

Washington^ D, C, 

Sir: The last report of the armv in the Philippines was dated 
August 31, 1899. The undersigned came into the command and 
military governorship on May 5, 1900. The interval between ihe two 
dates will, it is understood, be discussed in a concluding report by 
Major-General Otis. The accompanying report, therefore, covers the 
time from May 5, 1900, to date; all subreports, however, appended 
hereto include the entire period subsequent to the report by (jeneral 
Otis, dated August 31, 1899. 

The current of events passing through and issuing from the division 
headquarters and the office of the muitary governor are so blended 
that one report only is respectfully submitted, embracing the work of 
the two administrations. 

At a council of war held at Bayambang, Pangasinan, about November 
12, 1899, which was attended by General Aguinaldo and manv of the 
Filipino military leaders, a resolution was ^opted to the enect that 
the insurgent forces were incapable of further resistance in the field, 
and as a consequence it was decided to disband the armj^, the generals 
and the men to return to their own provinces, with a view to organiz- 
ing the people for general resistance by means of guerrilla warfare. 

As anording an interesting, suggestive, and authentic glimpse of 
the proceedings of the council, a coot of an order bearing the auto- 
graph signature of Aguinaldo, found in possession of Gen. Pantaleone 
" LTcia, who was captured May 6, 1900, is respectfully inserted 
immediately below: 

In accordance with the present politico-military status in this, the center of Luzon, 
and using the powers I possess, in accordance with my council of government, I deci'ee 
the following: 

1. The politico-military command of the center of Luzon is hereby established, 
comprising the provinces of Bataan, Nueva Ecija, Bulacan, Pampanga, Tarlac, Zam- 
bales, and Pan^inan. 

2. The superior commander in question will have full and extraordinary powers 
to issue orders by proclamation, impose contributions of war, and to adopt all such 
measures as may seem for the good service of the country. 

3. The troops which will operate in all of the described district will maneuver in 
flying columns and in guerrilla bands; these will be under the orders of the aforesaid 
superior commander, to whose orders all the other leaders and generals will be sub- 
ject, reporting to him and receiving from him the orders and instructions of the gov- 
ernment; nevertheless, all orders received direct from the government will be obeyed 
and advice of same wHl be given to the superior commander aforesaid. 



4. Sr. Don Pantaleone Garcia, general of division, is appointed politico-military 
commander of the center of Luzon, and he will assume, m addition, the judicial 
powers which belong to me as Captain-General. 

Given at BayambMig, November 12, 1899. 
The Rresident. Emilio Aguinaldo.. 

Systematized regulations for the government of guerrillas have been 
compiled and published by the Filipino revolutionary committee in 
Madrid, Spain, a copy of which, translated into English, is respect- 
fully appended hereto, marked Appendix 1. 

In war relative situations frequently count as much as positive 
strength, a principle which, consciously or otherwise, the insurgent 
leaders possibly had in view in making such a change of methods, as 
the country affords great advantages for the practical development of 
such a policy. The practice of discarding the unifomi enables the 
insurgents to appear and disappear almost at their convenience. At 
one time they are in the ranks as soldiers, and immediately thereafter 
are within the American lines in the attitude of peaceiul natives, 
absorbed in a dense mass of sympathetic people, speaking a dialect of 
which few white men, and no Americans, have any knowledge. 

A widely scattered formation of the Filipinos quickly followed the 
adoption of the guerrilla policy above referred to, which led to a cor- 
responding dissemination of American troops, the rapidity and extent 
of which may be appreciated by reference to the fact that the fifty- 
three stations occupied in the archipelago on November 1, 1899, had, 
on September 1, 1900, expanded to 413. Of course, under the condi- 
tions described, all regular and systematic tactical operations ceased; 
but as hostile contact was established throughout the entire zone of 
activity an infinite number of minor affairs resulted, some of which 
reached the dignity of combats. As the actions themselves were iso- 
lated a connected narrative thereof is impracticable, and in view of the 
record of events which has been regularly transmitted by semimonthly 
instalments, it is not necessary for information of the Department. 
It may be stated, however, that the casualties arising from this irreg- 
ular warfare in the American army between November 1, 1899, and 
September 1, 1900, were 268 killed, 760 wounded, 55 captured. The 
Filipino losses for the same time, as far as of record, 3,227 killed, 694 
wounded, 2,864 captured. It also may be stated in conclusion of this 
paragraph that the extensive distribution of troops has strained the 
soldiers of the army to the full limit of endurance. Each little com- 
mand has had to provide its own service of security and information 
by never ceasing patrols, explorations, escorts, outposts, and regular 
guards. An idea seems to have been established in the public mind to 
the effect that the field work of the army is in the nature of police, in 
regulating a few bands of guerrillas, and involving none of the vicis- 
situdes oi war. Such a narrow statement of the case is unfair to the 
service, as in all things requiring endurance, fortitude, and patient 
diligence the guerrilla period has been preeminent. It is difficult for 
the nonprofessional observer to understand that apparently desultory 
work, such as has prevailed in the Philippines during tlie past ten 
months, has demanded more of discipline and as much of valor as was 
required during the period of regular operations against the concen- 
trated field forces of the insurrection. It is therefore a great privi- 
lege to speak warmly in respect of the importance of the service 
rendered aay by da}^ with unremitting vigilance, by the splendid men 


who have upheld the interests of the Republic, without adequate appre- 
(Mation of the labors, hardships, and dangers thereby incurred. 

The Filipinos are not a warlike or ferocious people. Left to them- 
selves a large number (perhaps a considerable majority) would gladly 
accept American supremacy, which thev are gradually coming to 
understand means individual liberty and absolute security in their 
lives and property. The people of the islands, however, during the 
past live years have been maddened by rhetorical sophistry and stimu- 
lants applied to national pride, until the power of discriminating in 
behalf of matters of public concern or private interest (never very 
strongly established among them), has for the time being been almost 
entirely suspended. As a substitute for all other considei^ations, the 
people seem to be actuated by the idea that in all doubtful matters of 
politics or war, men are never nearer right than when going with their 
own kith and kin, regardless of the nature of the action, or of its 
remote consequences. 

This peculiar psychological condition has raised practical difficulties 
in obstruction of pacification. For example, most of the towns 
throughout the archipelago, under the advice and control of military 
authority, have organized municipal governments, for which kind of 
local administration the people have evinced such intelligent capacity, 
as to encourage the expectation of rapid progress in the art of self- 
government, when the larger political administrations are organized. 

The institution of municipal government under American auspices, 
of course, carried the idea of exclusive fidelity to the sovereign power 
of the United States. All the necessary moral obligations to that end 
were readily assumed by municipal bodies, and all outward foi-ms of 
decorum and loyalty carefully preserved. But precisely at this point 
the psychological conditions referred to above began to work with 
great energy, in assistance of insurgent field operations. For this 
purpose most of the towns secretly organized complete insurgent 
municipal governments, to proceed simultaneously and in the same 
sphere as the American governments, and in many instances through 
the same personnel — that is to say, the presidentes and town officials 
acted openly in behalf of the Americans and secretly in behalf of the 
insurgents, and, paradoxical as it may seem, with considerable apparent 
solicitude for the interests of both. In all matters touching the peace 
of the town, the regulation of markets, the primitive work possible on 
roads, streets, and bridges, and the institution of schools, their open 
activity was commendable; at the same time they were exacting and 
collecting contributions and supplies and recruiting men for the Fili- 
pino forces, and sending all obtainable military information to the 
Filipino leaders. Wherever, throughout the archipelago, there is a 
group of the insurgent anny, it is a fact, beyond dispute, that all con- 
tiguous towns contribute to the maintenance thereof. In other words, 
the towns, regardless of the fact of American occupation and town 
organization, are the actual bases for all insurgent military activities; 
and not only so in the sense of furnishing supplies for the so-called 
flying columns of guerrillas, but as aflFordmg secure places of refuge. 
Indeed it is now the most important maxim of Filipino tactics to dis- 
band when closely pressed and seek safety in the nearest barrio; a 
maneuver quickly accomplished by reason of the assistance of the 
people and the ease with which the Filipino soldier is transformed into 


the appearance of a peaceful native, as referred to in a preceding 

The success of this unique system of war depends upon almost com- 
plete unity of action of the entire native population. That such unity 
IS a fact is too obvious to admit of discussion; how it is brought about 
and maintained is not so plain. Intimidation has undoubtedly accom- 
plished much to this end, but fear as the only motive is hardly sufficient 
to account for the united and apparently spontaneous action of several 
millions of people. One traitor in each town would effectually destroy 
such a complex organization. It is more probable that the adhesive 
principle comes from ethnological homogeneity, which induces men to 
respond for a time to the appeals of consanguineous leadership, even 
when such action is opposed to their own interests and convictions of 
expediency. These remarks apply with equal force to the entire archi- 
pelago, excepting only that part of Mindanao occupied by Moros, and 
to the Jolo group. There is every reason to believe that all of the 
Moros are entirely satisfied with existing conditions and are anxious to 
maintain them. 

As illustrating some of the methods resorted to to intimidate the 

Seople, attention is respectfully invited to the following copies of 
ocuments of undoubted authenticity, as the originals, with autograph 
signatures, are of record in the office of the Military Governor: 

Headquarters of the General Commanding the Center of Luzon. 

Now that the great American nation declines to recognize our undoubted rights to 
independence, and the Washington Congress having adjourned without having 
resolved anything regarding the future of our country, in virtue of my office as 
commanding general of the center of Luzon, I decree the following: 

Article 1. All the Filipino citizens within the limits of the territory of my com- 
mand, whatever their condition, who discharge duties for the government of occu- 
pation, shall give up their positions without any excuse or prot^t before the 30th of 
this month. 

Article 2. The Filipino citizens who after the said day continue to discharge such 
duties, will be considered as traitors to the (country; in consequence, the penalty pro- 
vided for by the existing law will be applied to them. 

Given at the headquarters of the center of Luzon, April 15, 1899. 

The commanding general, 

P. Garcia. 

Sr. Manuel Tinio y Bundoc, 

Brigadier' General and Commander in Chief of operations in the Ilocos regions- 
It being considered that already sufficient time has elapsed and that the most 
beni^ means that humanity can devise have been employed to admonish the many 
Filipmos led astray from the idea of their fatherland, and to uproot these frequent 
and reprehensible acts which many of them commit, not only to the detriment of the 
troops, but also to the cause which they are defending, and, having observed that 
such procedure has no favorable effect, but on the contrary that to-day they are still 
taking advanta^ of the lenity of the troops, I have by virtue of the power invested 
in me, deemed it expedient to dictate the following 


The only section: They will be subjected to a summary judgment and punished 
by death, 

1. All the local presidentes and other civil authorities of the towns as well as the 
barrios, ranches, and places within their respective jurisdictions, who do not give 
information to tne troops within said jurisdiction as soon as they have knowledge of 
the movements, plans, direction, and number of the enemy. 

2. Those, regardless of sex or age, who give information to the enemy of the camp, 
stopping places, movements, and direction of the revolutionists. 


3. Those who voluntarily offer to serve as guides to the enemy, unless it be to divert 
them from the true road, and 

4. Those who voluntarily or not capture without authority isolated revolutionary 
soldiers, or cause their presentation to the enemy. 

Given at the general Headquarters, March 20, 1900. 

Manuel Tinio. 

General Headquarters, April S4t 1900.^ 
Sr. Vicente Zotomayor, 

My Distinguished Friend: Have hope in the desire which animates me, and 
which can conduce to the tranquility of tne people; 

That there may be no loss of spirit and impediment to our holy cause of independ- 
ence which we pursue, I hasten to direct you to make every enort possible, at the 
same time being very reserved and cautious, to capture Vicente Pamligan, Salvador 
Reyes, and Captain (Enrique), the American who causes us so much harm. 

When this order is verified, terminate their lives along with their depraved acts. 

If this is done you will all see how alleviated, if it t^ only slightly, our troubles 
will become, which is the principal inconvenience. 

I therefore expect you to use every means in your reach to comply with this order. 

This is not against the commandments of God, as we but pursue our rights. 

Before I finish I call your attention to an individual who has lately arrived and 
who lives in Patimbao, by name Julian Pinon, who, according to reports I have 
received, is circulating felse reports which gives place to the people becoming dis- 
couraged in our cause. 

If this be so, he must be made away with as well as the two other traitors mentioned 

I am sorry to have to speak about private affairs, but what is to be done? Nothing, 
but continue to do so. 

Heaven cries for the blood of our martyrs, our Ijrothers, who have so voluntarily 
preferred death to slavery. 

Now that you have this information I expect you to comply with it, though it be 
our own brother, because our beloved country demands it. Nothing more. 

Iiet me know in what way I can serve you. 

Yours truly, Juan Cailles. 

The purpose of this extended discussion is not to magnify the diflS- 
culties of tne situation, but to make it apparent why the Filipino insur- 
gents have been able, under existing conditions, to prolong a struggle 
against the same American force that destroyed their organized armies. 
The truth is, the real effective opj)osition to pacification comes from the 
towns in the manner above described. ''The skulking bands of guer- 
rillas," as the remnants of the insurgent army have been called, are a 
mere expression of the loyalty of the towns. They could not exist for 
a month without urban support, and the suggestion naturally arises 
from such premises as to what action against tne towns is most fit. Of 
course everything is being done consistent with American civilization 
and the laws of war to terminate the crisis in its present form. In 
consequence of the vigilance and efficiency of the troops and the inhe- 
rent acuteness of the contest, it is believed that the situation in this 
respect will be determined in a short time. The strain on the natives 
is progressive and maintained by an excessive effort, and it is thought 
that at no very remote period the combined altruistic attitude of the 
towns will be substituted by individual action, in pursuance of personal 
convictions and self-interest. It is a great pleasure to report that all 
indications point directly to such a consummation, in which light it 
would seem that the interests of all concerned would be best subserved 

^ Juan Cailles is the insu^nt general commanding in the provinces east of the 
Laguna de Bay. Salvador Keyes, referred to as one of the men condemned to death 
by Cailles, was vice-president of Santa Cruz, in regard to whom Cailles' mandate 
was executed by his assassination on September 1, IwOO. 


by maintaining the present status and waiting for the silent but irre- 
sistible operation of time; which reduced to a working formula means 
amiability, patience, and — an adequate force. 

The subject of education is so intimately associated with reconstruc- 
tion, in its present progressive and remote consequences, that refer- 
ence thereto is made at this point, as for the present, at least, it forms 
an important factor in the military situation. Especially so, as in all 
matters touching schools there is a fortunate coincidence of American 
interests and Filipino aspirations, which in this important particular 
come into complete and harmonious focus. The Filipino p!eople are 
eager to receive at once all that can be imparted, and the tendency of 
American institutions is to concede all that is asked; and as the school 
work can go on in spite of the abnormal conditions of the country, 
the logic of the situation suggests that the archipelago be submerged 
immediately under a tidal wave of education, the scheme of which to 
be expanded as quickly as possible to include manual training. 

Considerable progress has been made already. Considering the cir- 
cumstances, the results are quite surprising. In most of the towns 
organized under military authority for municipal administration, 
schools have received immediate attention, and as the work so far 
accomplished has been to a great extent in consequence of native initi- 
ative, the result encourages the hope that the regeneration of the isl- 
ands and the constructive work of establishing cival institutions 
according to the American idea will be very rapidly accomplished 
when the armed insurgent is completely eliminated from the problem. 

This almost universal aspiration for education should appeal strongly 
to American sympathy; and the more specific but earnest desire 
to learn the English language must be regarded as an involuntary 
and therefore sincere expression of friendship, which amounts to a 
declaration of confidence in American motives and ulterior aims. 

The bands of insurgent guerrillas are not soldiers in the true sense 
of the word, but it is a mistake to classify them as ladrones or armed 
robbers. There is considerable evidence of record to the effect that 
the insurgent leaders have themselves suffered at the hands of the 
latter, who are outlaws pure and simple. The country has suffered 
from this criminal class from time immemorial, which the Spanish 
administration was unable to suppress, as the people were not permit- 
ted to organize for self-protection. All that Spain was willing to do 
in the premises was to distribute the army and civil guards in such 
small detachments throughout the archipelago that they were entirely 
inadequate to the end in view. 

As soon as the insurgent soldier is eliminated from the problem, 
the extirpation of robbers from the highways will, it is believed, be 
easily and quickly accomplished by the systematic organization of 
society to hunt them down. Initiatory steps to this end nave already 
been taken, as will be seen by reference to the following order: 

General Orders, ) Office United States Milftary Governor 

No. 87. j IN the Philippine Islands, 

Manila^ P. J. , June 18, 1900, 

In order to encourage among the people the idea of self-protection against robbers 
and roving bands of criminals, with wnich the country abounds, department com- 
manders are authorized to arm the local police in towns where such action would in 
their judgment be prudent and expedient. For this purpose requisitions may be 
submitted to the division headquarters for caliber .45 CJolt's revolvers and an adequate 
supply of ammunition. This arm will be replaced at an early date by a more suitable 


For the better performance of the duties contemplated, it is desired that the organ* 
ization of police oe systematized, and if possible trie scope of action extended so of 
to make these constabulary bodies, by means of mounted detachments, conservaton^ 
of the peace and safety of districts, instead of confining their operations to areas lim- 
ited by the boundaries of towns and barrios. 

Department commanders are empowered to enforce the provisions of this order by 
appropriate instructions. 

By conmiand of Major-General MacArthur: 

E. H. Crowder, 
Lieutenant- Colonel Thirty^nih Infantry, U, S. V., Secretary, 

From inquiry already made it is believed that many prominent 
leaders, formerly of the insurgent army, will, at the proper time, be 
ready and willing to take charge of constabulary districts to be organ- 
ized in accordance with the foregoing order; in which event there can 
scarcely be a doubt that these formidable bands of criminals would 
soon be destroyed. Filipino oflScers at present available for this employ- 
ment are reluctant to undertake the task, as long as there is any pos- 
sibility of collision with flying columns of General Aguinaldo's forces. 

As much apprehension has been expressed in this oehalf, the views 
herein set forth are submitted as suggesting the possibility of an 
effective remedy for what has been re^rded by many as one of the 
most difficult problems of future administration. 

With a view to afford an opportunity to all so disposed, to determine 
and terminate their connection with the insurrection in a dignified and 
becoming manner, the following notice of amnesty was published in 
English and Spanish, and there is no reason to doubt that it reached the 
entire audience to whom it was addressed: 


Manila, P. /., June$l, 1900, 


By direction of the President of the United States, the undersigned announces 
amnesty with complete immunity for the past and absolute liberty of action for the 
future, to all persons who are now, or at any time since February 4, 1899, have been, 
in insurrection against the United States in either a military or civil capacity, and 
who shall, within a period of ninety days from the date hereof, formally renounce 
all connection with such insurrection and subscribe to a declaration acknowledging 
and accepting the sovereignty and authority of the United States in and over the 
Philippine Islands. The privilege herewith published is extended to all concerned 
without any reservation whatever, excepting that persons who have violated the 
laws of war during the period of active hostilities are not embraced within the scope 
of this amnesty. 

All who desire to take advantage of the terms herewith set forth are requested 
to present themselves to the commanding oflBcer of American troops at the most 
convenient station, who will receive them with due consideration according to rank, 
make provision for their immediate wants, prepare the necessary records, and there- 
after permit each individual to proceed to any part of the Archipelago, according to 
his own wishes, for which purpose the United States will furnish such transportation 
as may be available either by railway, steamboat, or wagon. Prominent persons 
who may desire to confer with the military governor or with the United States 
Philippine Commission will be permitted to visit Manila, and will, as far as possible, 
be provided with transportation for that purpose. 

In order to mitigate as much as possible consequences resulting from the various 
disturbances which, since 1896, have succeeded each other so rapidly, and to provide 
in some measure for destitute Filipino soldiers during the transitory period which 
must inevitably succeed a general peace, the military authorities of the United States 
will pay thirty pesos to each man who presents a rifle in good condition. 

Arthur MacArthub, 
Major-General, U. S. V., United States MUitary Governor in the PhUippinea. 

WAR 1900 — VOL 1, PT V 6 


In pursuance of the above, all who accepted the terms thereof were 
required to subscribe to the following declaration: 

I, , hereby renounce all allegiance to any and all so-called revolutionary 

governments in the Philippine Islands and recognize and accept the supreme authority 
of the United States of America therein; and I do solemnly swear that I will bear 
true faith and allegiance to that Government; that I will at all times conduct mvself 
as a faithful and law-abiding citizen of said islands, and will not, either directly or 
indirectly, hold correspondence with or give intelligence to an enemy of the United 
States, neither will I aid, abet, harbor, or protect such enemy. That I impose upon 
myself this voluntary obligation without any mental reservation or purpose of evasion, 
so help me God. 

As a result, 5,022 persons of all grades of the civil and military 
service of the insurrection presented themselves and subscribed and 
swore to the obligation, a result hardly commensurate with the 
importance of the occasion or the beneficence of the terms offered. 

The immediate result of amnesty, however, was to induce many 
prominent Filipino officials confined in Manila to subscribe to the fore- 
going oath. Among these may be named Sefior Pedro A. Paterno, 
president of the Filipino cabinet; Gen. Ambrosio Flores, formerly 
secretary of war, and the Gens. Venancio Concepcion, Pantaleon Gar- 
cia, and, later, upon surrender from the field. Gen. Fi^ancisco Maca- 
bulos Soliman. In addition to these, 11 colonels, 10 lieutenant-colo- 
nels, and 10 majors accepted American sovereignty, and also 84 officers 
below the rank of major, and minor civil officials. 

For sometime preceding the issue of the amnesty much discussion 
had taken place among the leaders mentioned above, in conference 
with other gentlemen prominent in Philippine public life, looking to 
the possibility of some practical means of pacification. The initiatory 
steps were taken under the auspices of Sefior Felipe Buencamino, and 
the proceedings were subsequently conducted at several meetings pre- 
sided over by nimself and oeiior Paterno. As a result the following 
paper was presented, as indicated immediately below: 


The blood shed, the material losses suffered by the country during four years of 
war in defense of its rights and liberties, the humane desire spontaneously express^ 
by the military governor. General Mac Arthur, to terminate the present state of affairs 
by an honorable peace, the earnest wish of the Filipino people to enter as soon as 
possible upon the path of their social and political regeneration and engage in the 
peaceful labor of their respective development, the well-founded hope that the 
Philippine problem will be solved by a frank and loyal understanding with the 
American people, the assurance that the Star Spangled Banner will never be an 
emblem of tyranny, to quote the words of the American general himself, the cer- 
tainty that America will in due time recognize the independence of the Philippines, 
and that when peace is once established our people will enjoy the right to govern 
themselves, make their own laws, and constitute and organize their domestic admin- 
istration as they may deem best under the protection and superior direction of the 
United States with regard to the foreign relations of the islands with the right of 
intervention in case of absolute necessity, should essential American interests he 
seriously threatened by acts of the Filipino State, or its domestic peace be disturl)ed, 
or its exterior safety endangered, and finally, the desire that the generous blood of so 
many heroes, American and Filipino, be not shed henceforth except in the defense 
of a common cause and the sacrea rights of humanity, justice, and law — ^such are the 
high motives which have led the undersigned secretaries of the last Filipino Govern- 
ment, after a conscientious deliberation, to present to General MacArthur, the United 
States military governor in these islands, the following measures for the termination 
of the war: 

1. A general and absolute amnesty for the prisoners of both parties, including 
those who are under sentence or are now held for trial by the military authorities. 


2. A guarantee of safety for the persons and property of all revolutionists who have 
presented themselves or may do so hereafter, and the restitution, in consequence, of 
all confiscated property. 

3. Acknowledgment of the military rank of the generals, field and line oflBcers of 
the Filipino army, and of their right to be admitted into the armed forces which may 
be organized hereafter, in accordance with such laws as may be established. 

4. A reasonable allowance to be provided from the public funds of the Filipino 
(xovernment to disabled soldiers, and the widows and orphans of soldiers who may 
have died during the campaign. 

5. The guarantee of the free exercise of all the personal rights confirmed by the 
Constitution of the United States, and especially that of petition to the public powers 
of the Union. By virtue of this clause, immediately upon the adoption oi these 
measures, the Philippine political parties, including the Nationalist party, which 
aspires to independence, will be pennitted to operate freely, and two of them will 
be allowed to establish their clubs, committees, and press oi^gans, both in this capi- 
tal and in the provinces. 

6. Orders for the cessation of hostilities shall be issued simultaneously by both 
parties within their respective territories. 

7. The immediate establishment of civil government in this capital and in the prov- 
inces, with Filipinos in chaise, or if that should not be possible, the appointment of 
special comniissions of Filipinos whose duty it shall be to facilitate the presentation 
of the men in arms, apply the amnesty, with restitution of property, establish the 
municipalities in accordance with the law of March 29 last, and hasten the libera- 
tion of the American prisoners. 

8. The expulsion of the religious communities as foreign organizations eminently 
dangerous to the public order of the Philippines. 

It was intended that the foregoing paper should have been signed 
by the following ex-secretaries of theFuipino government, who were 
present at the meeting which adopted the resolution, but the signa- 
tures were to be appended only in the event of the adoption of the 
principles of the resolutions by the American authorities: 

Don Pedro Alejandro Patemo, ex-president of the cabinet. 

Don Leon Guerrero, ex-secretary of industry, commerce, and agriculture. 

Don Aguedo Velarde, ex-secretary of public instruction. 

Don Hugo Ilagan, ex-secretary of the treasury. 

Don Maximo Patemo, ex-secretary of public works. 

Don Ambrosio Flores, ex-secretary of war. 

Don Felfpe Buencamino, ex-secretary of foreign affairs. 

It was, of course, impossible to accept the eight measures presented, 
or even to discuss some of the propositions embodied therein, but it 
was deemed expedient to animate the public mind as much as possible 
in behalf of pacification, and as the effect of such discussion was in its 
very nature educational, encouragement was given to make further 
inquiry in the premises, to which end the following paper was sub- 
mitted for deliberation: 

Office United States Military (iovernor 

IN the Philippine Islands, 

Manila, P. /., July 2, 1900. 

The military governor is prepared to assure the native citizens of the Philippine 
Islands that the following provisions will be embodied in any form of civil govern- 
ment established in the archipelago bjr the United States: 

1. No person shall be deprived of life, liberty, or property without due process of 

2. Private property shall not be taken for public use without just compensation. 

3. In all cnminal prosecutions the people shall enjoy the right of a speedy public 
trial, to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation ; to be confronted with 
the witnesses against them; to have compulsory process of obtaining witnesses in their 
behalf, and to have the assistance of counsel in their defense. Excessive bail shall not 
be required; excessive fines shall not be imposed, nor cruel or unusual punishments 

4. No person shall l)e put twice in jeopardy for -he same offense, or be compelled 
in any criminal case to be a witness against himself. 


5. TJnreaflonable search and seizure shall not be practiced. 

6. Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude shall exist except as a punishment 
for crime. 

7. No bill of attainder or ex post facto law shall be passed. 

8. No law shall be passed abridging the freedom of speech or of the press or of the 
rights of the people to peacefully assemble and petition the Government for a redress 
of grievances. 

9. No disqualification to holding office, either civil or military, in the government 
hereafter to be established under the sovereignty of the United States in these islands, 
shall arise from service in the insurgent army. 

10. As, under the Constitution of the United States, complete religious freedom is 
guaranteed, and no minister of religion can be interfered with or molested in follow- 
ing his calling in a peaceful or lawful manner, and there must be complete separation 
of church and state, so here, the civil government of these islands hereafter to be 
established will give the same securitv to the citizens thereof and guarantee that no 
form of religion shall be forced by the Government upon any community, or upon 
any citizen of the islands; that no minister of religion, in following his (filing m a 
peaceful and lawful manner, shall be interfered with or molested by the Government 
or any person; that no public funds shall be used for the support of religious organi- 
zations or any member thereof, that no official process shall be used to collect con- 
tributions from the people for the support of any church, priest, or religious order; 
that no minister of religion, by virtue of his being a minister, shall exercise any 
public or governmental office or authority, and that the separation of church and 
state must }ye complete and entire. 

In his individual capacity the military governor makes himself responsible for the 

1. Upon the complete cessation of hostilities and the surrender of all arms now in 
the hands of the Filipino army, the private property now in the possession of the 
United States shall be returned, upon due identification, to the individual owners, 
or adequate rent paid for the use thereof, provided that the owners in each case take 
the prescribed oath of allegiance. This shall not involve the payment of damages 
for property heretofore used, destroyed, or consumed. 

2. An money now held in these islands or in the hands of any Filipino agent in 
Hongkong or elsewhere, for the use of the insurgent army, shall, upon being depos- 
ited in the United States treasury in the city of Manila, become a trust for the benefit 
of the widows and orphans of insurgent soldiers killed in battle or who may have 
died from disease contracted in the service since the 4th day of February, 1899, and 
for the assistance of the disabled soldiers of such army. The said trust fund shall be 
distributed by a committee of Filipinos, to be appointed by the United States mili- 
tary governor upon the recommendation of General Aguinaldo or such other high 
authority as may be satisfactory to all concerned. The committee thus appointed to 
hold its meetings and perform its functions under the advice and control of the mili- 
tary governor; and the action of the committee in all particulars to be subject to the 
approval of the military governor. In consideration of the deposit of the funds as 
described above, the commanding general of the United States forces and military 
governor will release all claim to the possession and enjoyment of such funds in 
behalf of the United States, and further agrees to turn over to the committee above 
described, for the same purpose, the money which the Army of the United States 
has captured from the insurgent forces, provided that the amount so turned over by 
the miUtary governor shall not in any event exceed the amoimt captured by the 
United States forces during the period of hostilities. 

Arthur MacArthur, 
Major- General^ U. S. F., MUiiary Governor in the Philippines. 

A notable feature of Filipino character in its present state of devel- 
opment is inability to organize on a large scale, or for any pui'poso 
requiring unity of action or a prolonged effort. This unfortunate dis- 

f position supervened at this time, and personal animosities were given 
ull scope to the exclusion of public interests, with the result that the 
open deliberations of the Filipino leaders were suspended. 

Subsequently another effort was made to devise a pi*actical scheme 
of pacification, but as it was factional in its nature and somewhat mis- 
leading in its lorm, it terminated in rather a dismal failure; but as the 
transaction touched a matter of great interest to many millions of 
people, and also illustmtcs certain of Filipino methods, some details 
thereof are respectfully submitted. 


At an informal interview, touching an entirely different subject, 
Senor Patemo suggested the expediency of a public manifestation of 
thanks to the United States for the publication of the amnesty. The 
celebration was to take the form of a banquet and popular fiesta to last 
two days. Permission was accorded with the distinct understanding 
that everything of a political chaittcter should be excluded from the 
proceedings, especially from speeches, if any were to be made, and 
irom street decorations. A programme, a copy of which is appended 
to this report, marked Appendix 2, was submitted and approved, and 
everything seemed to incucate the possibility of a successful and pro- 
pitious event. 

One of the minor transactions of the occasion was an invitation to 
the undersigned to attend the banquet, presented by Senor Paterno, 
accompanied by a committee of 50 or more, representingall classes of 
Filipino society. During the formal proceeding Seiior Paterno made 
the following address in Spanish, wnich was immediately translated 
and repeated in English : 

General: We have come in the name of the Philippine people to congratulate you 
upon the publication of the notice of amnesty. This act signifies the gratitude of the 
people. So fervent is the flower of the gratitude of this people that it can not resist 
the impulse to make an external manifestation when it feels that it has received a 
benefit. Hence it is that the gentlemen present, genuine representatives of the liv- 
ing forces of the country, come as an organizing committee in honor of your excel- 
lency to offer you a popular banquet in which your excellency may form an idea of 
the aspirations of the rhilip^ine people. This act is inspired by no other idea than 
that of imison between the Philippine and American peoples, with no other object than 
the pacification of the country. Both of these purposes are guarantees that at no 
time and by no person will order be disturbed during the moments your excellency 
condescends to hsten to the people. 

In reply to Senor Paterno and committee, appreciation was expressed 
by the undersigned of the warmth of their address and the hospitality 
extended therem, and more formal remarks were made in English and 
immediately translated into Spanish, as follows: 

Many people assume that because we are powerful we are going to be unjust. In 
this connection I would like to speak from the American people to the natives of 
these beautiful islands, to the effect that while we are strong enough to do as we 
wish, we are self-restrained and just enough to do only what we should. No gov- 
ernment can be formed in these islands which does not embody the true principles 
of Americanism. We are going to plant here the institutions which have made the 
Mother Republic of the world so prosperous and happy; and I bespeak the same 
beneficent operation of our institutions m the Philippines as that which has attended 
the efforts of the American people at home. 

Notwithstanding the most minute prearrangement of details, with a 
view to excluding all possibility of misunderstandings, the decoration 
of the city was attended with many disagreeable incidents. Question- 
able mottoes, Aguinaldo portraits, and Filipino flags began to appear 
on the arches; and finalfy the extreme sentiments embodied in the 
speech prepared by Don redro to be delivered at the banquet (a copy 
of which is appended hereto marked Appendix 3) necessitated so much 
interference with the programme that tne organized demonstration was 
perfunctory, and all speeches were omitted therefrom. The people, 
nowever, were allowed unrestricted liberty and enjoyed the oppor- 
tunity to the full limit. As a popular hofiday the fiesta was a great 

The demonstration was premature, and as a consequence Don Pedro 
Patemo, when fully committed to the undertaking, found that he was 
condemned to the impossible task of making the celebration app^r as 


a spontaneous offering of the people to amnesty; and at the same time 
to satisfy the Filipino leaders that the ultimate result thereof would 
be independence with an American protectorate. The attempt to 
reconcile these conflicting interests could, of course, result in only 
one waj^. In spite of apparent sincerity of purpose, Don Pedro was 
the victim of an impossible situation, which in a moment of self-confi- 
dence he had deliberately created. 

If all factions in the capital could have been brought into accord it 
would ultimately have been necessary to deal with the men in the 
fidd. How far they would have yielded to advice it is not possible to 
say. Precisely what they want or expect is not apparent, as there 
has not yet appeared a Filipino publicist capable of formulating briefly 
a declaration which can be readily understood. 

Compiled from an infinite number of interviews with all classes, a 
composite statement something to the following eflfect might be con- 
structed, each of the sentiments of which have been uttered by one or 
more natives, but all of which, so far as known, have not been 
expressed by any one individual: 

The United States have acquired sovereignty by treaty, and in a way own the 
Philippine Islands, but they do not own the Filipino people; which is the same as 
saying the United States own a tenement, but do not own the tenants. Mutual con- 
trol 01 the premises is most important, as without it there can be no permanent pros- 
perity for either party of interest. America can rule by force, but the only way to 
realize American expectations in the islands is through conciliation. Amencans can 
do almost anything if the Filipino people are vnth them, otherwise unending discord, 
conspiracy, and strife. 

We are not fighting to drive America from the islands, but to convince them that 
we are not children ; that we have ideals, aspirations, and hopes which must be rec- 
ognized by giving us a government generally acceptable, ana in the construction of 
which we must be consulted. 

The problem is to reconcile American supremacy with the ambition of the native 
people; the necessary degree of American control, with the national aspirations the 
Filipinos have recently developed. America must furnish the solution. 

The foregoing is not precise in form, but is exact in interpretation, 
and is interesting and perhaps instructive as representing as nearly as 
possible the views of the great bulk of the so-called Nationalist party — 
that is to say, the men in arms and their supporters. 

The enormous volume of business passing through these headquarters 
may be seen by reference to the appended papers, to which attention 
is respectfully invited; especially to the reports of the department 
commanders, to the scope and importance of the work conaucted in 
the oflice of the military governor, and to the very instructive report 
in relation thereto submitted by the militar}^ secretarv. The complex 
details arising from the domestic and civil affairs oi a population of 
seven or eight millions of people all find a focus in this office, and when 
it is recalled that most of the subordinate civil offices reporting thereto 
are conducted by officers of the Army, detailed for special duty, it 
impresses the idea of the versatility of that branch of the public service. 
From the supreme court down, army officers are found evervwhere in 
the civil service, and not only so, but doing the novel and exacting 
work in an efficient and, in many instances, in a masterly manner. It 
would be difficult to express adequate appreciation oi the services 
rendered, and it is therefore a great pleasure to assure the Department 
of the fidelity and zeal of all concerned. 

The easy and convenient way of exercising sovereignty in the East 
has been, wherever possible, to govern and speak through the mouth 


or some organized native government or hereditary ruler, a method 
whereby perplexing problems have been easily solved by merely lety- 
ting things alone and allowing the old machine to run, subject to such 
observation and control only as was necessary for the material interests 
of the suzerain power. Iii the Philippines, however, the Spanish 
colonial administration has been swept away and must be substituted 
by something entirely new. That is to say, a republican machine must 
be created, as well as lubricated, managed, and repaired as necessary; 
manifestly a much more difficult task than starting an old machine, on 
substantially old lines, and to all intents and purposes letting it run 
itself. Being new construction of an original character, the inherent 
difficulties are greatly increased and empnasized by the fact that no 
nation can serve us as an exemplar, for none has encountered a problem 
of precisely the same kind. 

tJnder tfie very best results heretofore accomplished bv process of 
modern ingenuity in rehabilitating the old machines of the East, it is 
doubtful if there is one oriental establishment, created by western 
power, that could survive five years if the paramount energy should 
be withdrawn. In other words, the cohesive element, in all instances, 
arises exclusively from the constant application of external force. 

From the present posture of affairs it is inevitable that the expres- 
sion of American power in the Philippines must result in planting 
republican institutions throughout the archipelago, accompanied by aU 
the safeguards of personal, political, and religious liberty, which alone 
are possible under the auspices of the Constitution of the United States. 
From this premise the conclusion is unavoidable that in ultimate form 
the archipelago will sooner or later assume the appearance of one or 
more selt-supporting commonwealths with a population attached to 
their institutions, and capable of maintaining the same, even in the 
improbable event of the withdrawal of the creative power. 

In the light of existing conditions it is difficult to realize that there 
is any possibility of sucn a future for the islands, especially so as at 
present, and for many years to come, the necessity of a large American 
military and naval force is too apparent to admit of discussion. On 
the other hand, however, there are many encouraging conditions to 
sustain such a conviction. For example, in the Phifippines there is no 
dynasty to destroy; no organized system of feudal laws to eradicate; 
no principles inconsistent with republicanism, which have solidly insin- 
uated themselves into the national life, to displace; no adverse aspects 
of nature to overcome. On the contrary, nature, which is exuberant, 
balmy, and generous, has nourished into existence several millions of 
sensitive and credulous people, without allegiance to any existing 
institutions, but animatea by certain inchoate ideas and aspirations, 
which by some unfortunateperversion of thought they conceive to be 
threatened by America. T^iese people, fortunately, are intelligent, 

f generous, and flexible, and will probaoly yield quickly and with abso- 
ute confidence to tuition and advice wfien thoroughly informed of 
American institutions and purposes. 

As a future thought in the same direction, it may be suggested that 
the Aryan races are making their way back into the old continent, 
which as a consequence is likely, within a generation more, to become 
the theater of gigantic political activities. Up to this time, the practi- 
cal effect of repuolican institutions has not been considered in this con- 
nection; but the rapid extension of republican civilization in these 


islands, which is not only possible, but probable, must of necessity 
exert an active and potential influence upon the aflfairs of Asia; which, 
under the inspiration of American ideas, transmitted through Filipinos, 
may yet exhibit the greatest of political wonders. 

A rather broad conception, perhaps, but one well calculated to fix 
the attention of the most careless observer, and to warm the fancy of 
the most indifferent. 

Very respectfully, 

Arthur MacArthur, 
Major- General^ U, S.^ Fi, 
Commanding jDwimm of the PhUij^nes^ 
United States Military Oovemor in the Philippine Islands, 

Appendix 1. 

[Extracts from a pamphlet published under the auspices of £he Filipino Revolutionary Committee 

in Madrid by Isabelo de Los Reyes.] 

Madrid, July 15, 1900. 


The imperialists want to reduce us to slavery and confiscate our rich archipelaco, 
and, in order to hide their ^eed, they allege that without their interference anarchy 
would be general in the Philippines. 

The object of the guerrilla warfare is to show them their mistake; until they recog- 
nize our rights to independence, there shall be no rest for our unfortunate people, 
who shall never cease Hostilities against the ambitious invader, making rest impos- 
sible for him as well, as the quiet enjoyment of his spoils, so that, instead of making 
immense profits out of our natural resources, the United States will have to give 
rivers of blood and gold without any returns. It is undoubtful that if we keep up the 
war for a few years, as have done the nations who are now free. North America shall 
have to admit that it is better to be our military and commercial allies than to exert 
« sovereignty maintained at great cost by force of arms, and which is called upon to 
disappear, or to be a source of moral and material weakness for the metropolis in 
case of an international conflict. 

Our guerrillas will not have to give battle in the field; the diseases shall soon 
enough finish off the enemy; they snail be subjected to severe discipline, to show tKe 
falsehood of our enemy's alle^gations regarding supposed acts of barbarity, and to com- 
pel them to admit our capacity for self-government. 

Our guerrillas shall do their best to prevent the peaceful people from ^tting tired 
of the war and helping the invaders, which they would finish by doing if the latter 
were to stop persecuting us and take on themselves to represent order and prosperity, 
while our own guerrillas should be confounded with the bandits who prey on our 
peaceful people. 

For such reasons our guerrillas shall try and obtain the sympathies of the people, 
pursuing the bandits and robbers, and only asking for the strict necessities and a 
small contribution of war for the purchase of arms in foreign parts. It was thanks 
to his fanatical perseverance that the Sultan of Jolo obtained a relative independence 
from the Yankees, and yet Jolo is smaller than any province of Luzon. And it is 
only by a proper show of discipline on the part of our soldiers that we can prove that 
we are capable of independence and self-government. 

The purpose of the guerrillas shall m to constantly worry the Yankees in the 
pueblos occupied by them, to cut off their convoys, to cause all possible harm to 
their patrols, their spies, and their scouts, to surprise their detacnments, to crush 
their columns if they should pass in favorable places, and to exterminate all traitors, 
to prevent natives to vilely sell themselves for the invader's gold. 

On the other hand they shall protect the legal inhabitants, watch their properties, 
and defend them against bandits and thieves. 


The guerrillaa shall make up for their small numbers by their ceaseless activity 
and their daring. They shall hide in the woods and in distant barrios, and, when 
least expected, shall fall upon the enemy, and disappear at once to enjoy whatever 
spoils they may have taken from the Yankees; but they shall be careful never to 
rob their countrymen. 

Before going into action the guerrilla chief shall carefully review his forces, adding 
to them it necessary and leaving behind any men liable to interfere with the rapidity 
of his movements; he shall keep his men in good trim by giving them plenty of food 
and plenty of rest. 

The guerrilla chief must be clever and daring, but also prudent — as daring without 
proper caution is productive of disaster. Always in ambush and watching for an 
opportunity to cause some damage to the enemy, he shall never camp two days on 
the same grounds, in order to better thwart the enemy and his spies; he shall march 
at nieht, shall allow himself to be seen at places where he does not intend operating, 
to fall suddenly where least expected; he shall be on the watch when everybooy 
sleeps, and sleep in the daytime in distant and secure parts, protecte^l by vigilant 

When the guerrillas are resting the officer shall choose a strategic point, and desig- 
nate the places of assembly in case of surprise, after taking all the usual means of 

By his spies he shall be informed of the position and the tactics of the enemy, 
which shall be easy, as all the inhabitants are in our favor. 

The soldiers and horses of the guerrilla forces shall be carefully chosen. 

As a matter of precaution our soldiers shall draw their food at some distance from 
the place which they intend to surprise; they shall ask for contributions of war in 
the shape of rice, poultry, hogs, etc., but without taxing the pueblos too high, on 
account of the miserable condition due to the war, and shall only take what is abso- 
lutely necessary. They shall always let the natives believe that they are in great 
numbers, to make themselves better respected. 

When an attack is made on a pueblo occupied by the Yankees, our forces shall 
divide into three platoons: First, the most active men for the attack; second, men 
who are not so active; third, the heaviest men. The two last platoons shall be placed 
in ambush, in echelons, on our line of retreat to protect the men of the first platoon 
when they run away. Care shall be taken not to pass in muddy places for fear of 
betraying our movements by the tracks left in the mud. 

Five hundred Filipinos are sufficient for one province; we shall divide them between 
the different pueblos, with a base of operations chosen in strategic conditions in the 
mountainous part of the province. Each party shall only consist of a few men, so as 
not to call attention and to easily disappear when necessary. When the enemy 
attacks the small parties they shall retreat toward their base oi operations, and, once 
the enemy tired out, shall unite to fall upon him all together, with all the advantage 
of a position carefully studied beforehand. 

Having no telegraph, our chiefs shall teach the different parties an easy method of 
signal, by cuts on the trees, heaps of stones, stiips of cloth, balloons, fires, etc., chang- 
ing them frequently, as well as the password and countersigns, to prevent the enemy 
from discovering them. 

We must also be careful to hide our movements from the prisoners, who are likely 
to make excellent guides for the enemy. 

Our wounded, wnen they interfere with our operations, shall be turned over to the 
inhabitants of the country, the latter being threatened with severe penalties if they 
should not properly care for and conceal them. 

When our men are closely pursued in one part of the country they shall move to 
another, only to come back suddenly as soon as circumstances should allow it. 

We say again that a guerrilla warfare is easy to sustain and to keep up indefinitely, 
all the pueblos protecting, of course, our guerrillas, who are only deiending the com- 
mon cause and are satisfied with a handful of rice or corn, and we shall certainly do 
all we can for the men who are risking their lives for the honor of the nation, for our 
independence, and the future of our sons. 



Before starting on a surprise party a chief must have a well-studied plan, antici- 
pating all chances of danger so as to be prepared to avoid them or meet tnem before- 
hand, and never risk the lives of his men, his own life and reputation in the mixup 
and the confusion which are the fatal consequences of the lack of plan and calculation. 

A surprise, properly planned, always gives great results, and it often happens that 


a few guerrillas are enough to gain the most unexpected triumphs; for such reason 
we recommend the metho<l to our soldiers. 

A surprise is an attack with superior forces, brought forward by rapid marches, 
made on the enemy where he does not expect it. 

An ambuscade consists of a party of soldiers concealed in a proper place, and 
which suddenly falls upon the enemy while on the march. 

Surprises often give better results than ambuscades, as the enemy is likely to be 
on the lookout for the latter. 

The object of surprises and ambuscades is to prevent the enemy from extending his 
field of action by pushing on rapidly, as a few severe lessons shall teach him caution; 
also to cut off a convoy, to crusn a detachment, or to secure any real advantage, as 
we must not risk the lives of our men and waste ammunition to no purpose. 

Ambuscades are excellent to prevent convergent movements on the part of the 
enemy; a few of them should, then, be prepared in favorable points in anticipation 
of the enemy's attack on the flanks of our positions. 

We say again that the result of a surprise depends on the way the plan has been 
laid out, all contingencies being provided for and nothing being left out, as it often 
happens that an insignificant piece of negligence brings about a disaster. All pos- 
sible advantage must be taken of the position chosen, the men shall be properly 
posted and concealed and all measures taken to cause an immense loss to the enemy 
with as little as possible to us. 

The chief who takes charge of an ambuscade must be skillful, prudent, unmoved 
by danger, and resolute in the attack; before all, he must not lose his head, but 
quietly wait for the proper opportunity before giving the order to tire. The soldiers 
must be picked men, accustomed to warfare, who shall keep cool and reser\'e their 
energy for the moment of the attack. 

In an ambuscade it is a matter of *'Ri8k all to gain all; succeed or die;" neverthe- 
less the position shall be chosen so as to allow a chance of escaping in case of misfor- 
tune; our guerrillas are sure to feel better if they know that there is a way open 
behind them. 

The positions to Ije preferred are those commanding a narrow passage, where the 
enemy cannot deploy; also those with a way in for the attack and a way out to 
escape; if possible, the position should be at a certain distance from the road, far 
enough to escape discovery by the flankers of the enemy, but not too far, so as to 
allow our men to grab what they want and get off before the enemy is ready to fight. 

The Philippines are full of woods, mountains, passages, cailons, gullies, cocoa tree 
groves, inclosures, etc., which are excellent places for surprise. 

Rainy days and nights are the best to allow a party to approach the enemy without 
being discovered; darkness shall add to the confusion in the enemy's ranks and they 
may finish by fighting each other. 

It is a good plan to prepare an ambuscade when night is to overtake the enemy 
while on the march, or even to surprise detachments of 50 men in their own quarters, 
when they are least prepared for an attack. 

Ambuscades can be prepared by infantry, cavalry, or combined forces. The great 
point is always to have plenty of forces on hand. As we are the attacking party, our 
forces should be superior in number to those we intend to attack; in that way our 
soldiers shall feel confident of success, and such a feeling is a great advantage. If we 
have a strong chance of succeeding, the soldier shall not he impatient or become 
scared, and fire before ordered to. 

In order not to be discovered inopportunely, the men shall be forbiiden to fire 
before the order of their officer. At the order of ** Fire! " a general volley shall be 
fired, and the men shall rush on the enemy with bayonets and bolos, to take advan- 
tage of the first moments of confusion. And nothing can add more to the confusion 
than a vigorous mix up with bolos and machetes. If the ambuscade consists of cav- 
alry» it shall rush upon the rear guard, the flank, and the vanguard, or on several dis- 
tinct points at once, throwing everything into confusion by the attack and preventing 
the enemy from forming again. 

In a combined ambuscade by the two arms the cavalry shall rush into the foe, the 
infantry keeping its position and firing, at the same time serving as a re8er\'e and 
base of action. 

In case of victory our guerrillas shall not be allowed to throw themselves altogether 
on the spoils, as an officer of the enemy might rally his forces and change the victory 
to disaster; a large part of the guerrillas shall preserve their formation, to ser\'e as a 
support to the party which is pursuing and disarming the enemy. 

Uavalry is very useful for sudden ambuscades, with the purpose of arresting the 
progress of the enemy when they are pursuing us. In such cases the cavalry is hid- 
den while the enemy marches past, and makes its attack on the flanks or on the 
rear guard. 


To 8uq>rise a convoy the best moment is when the enemy are off their guard, as, 
for instance, when they are watering and feeding the cattle, when they have broken 
ranks to rest, or when they are most tired. 

The most favorable points are rough and hilly places, bridges, fords, gullies, woods, 
etc. . where the escort can not easily deploy and nas to fight on a reduced front. 

If our forces outnumber the escort, we could attack by the front and flanks, and 
occupy the two ends of a defile, to make a complete haul. But it shall be prudent 
for our chiefs not to attempt front attacks on troops as well organized as the Yankees. 

Even with inferior numbers we can be successful if we know how to take advan- 
tage of our positions, because the enemy is aware that surprising forces are generally 
superior in numbers to the attacked party; he shall suppose that our numbers are 
vastly superior and shall he ready to nm for it, especially so if our first volley has 
caused serious losses — for which purpose the best shooters are to be chosen. 

It is better to attack a convoy by the flank, and, if our forces are too small, we 
ehould attack by the rear, to take hold of the wagons which will surely be left 
behind. A front attack shall be made when it is necessary to cut off the advance of 
the enemy. 

An attack, by surprise or ambuscade, must be determined and perseverant Our 
chiefs shall never allow their soldiers to dispute over and take the stock of the spoils 
before everything has been placed in safety. 

For the ambuscades to give good results a good service of spies must be organized 
to avoid falling into some trap prepared by the enemy; before preparing a surprise 
it shall be necessary to know exactly the strength of the party which is to be sur- 
prised, what forces might come to its assistance, and what are the distances between 
the different forces of the enemy. 



Ill order to give or accept combats it is essential to have a plan of tactics, to thor- 
ouirhly reconnoiter the ground in order to take every advantage of its conditions, 
and to know the strength of the enemy. 

A reconnoissance shall always be made, if only a brief one, as it would be an act 
of temerity to engage an unknown enemy, or to escape when there might have been 
a chance of beating him. 

When two hostile columns accidentally meet, there is always a moment of aston- 
ishment and of expectancy. We must avail ourselves of that moment of indecision 
to reconnoiter and beat the enemy before he has made up his mind, if we have fair 
chances of success, or to escape in time, in the other case. 

Want of foresight is a cause of disasters, as is also the perplexity of a chief who 
does not know how to take a decision on the spot and avail himself of opportuni- 

Victories raise the spirits and defeats lower them, so that we must not engage raw 
and unseasoned troops without strong probabilities of a triumph, especially so when 
our object is only to protract the war, as in the actual campaign; good care must also 
be taken to support the recruits with a number of veterans. 

Artillerj', cavalry, and infantry shall be combined so as not to interfere with their 
respective actions, but to support each other; the sweeping fire of the artillery pre- 
pares the ground or defends our positions; the infantry sustains the brunt of the 
fi^ht, and the cavalry breaks the enemy's ranks, and follows in pursuit, or keeps 
him busy while we retreat. 

The troops, before the combat, shall occupy the best positions, in their proper order 
of battle, and execute the necessary marches according to tactics. 

It is essential to choose a strong position, well protected from the enemy's fire, 
and presenting obstacles which shall be in his way when he charges. On the 
?xtreme flanks of the position a place shall be clearea so as to allow our troops to 
maneuver freely. 

Above all, look out for the key of the position and reenforce it when necessary. 
In all positions we must consider the line of attack, the flank, the front, the space 
occupied by our troops, and the line of retreat. 

The lines of attack shall be interrupted as much as possible by ravines, hills, and 
woods, where we can place a few outposts to check the onward rush of the enemy. 
If, on the contrarjr, we are the attacking party, we shall choose a line free from any 
obstacles which might delay our onslaught. 

Let us see that our flanks are well protected, either by natural obstacles, or by 
breastworks and trenches placed in good positions, well hidden and well defended; 
our men shall feel more confident if thev Know that the flanks are safe. 


At the same time, an outlet must be disposed on each flank to allow our troo|)e to 
sally suddenly and crush the battalion which may be attacking the extreme points, 
if any opportunity should present itself, as we must not always remain on the defen- 
sive, but take the offensive as soon and often as possible, in order to better repel the 
assaults of the enemy. We must not forget that the tactics of the foreigners consist 
nearly always of flank attacks, so that good ambuscades shall always be prepared to 
surprise the enemy when he comes up on our flanks. 

It is of course understood that our front must be as strong as possible and domi- 
nate all lines of attack. Outside of its natural defenses our front shall be protected 
bv trenches, breastworks, and rifle pits. Inside the position the ground shall be 
clewed to allow the defending forces to maneuver easily. 

And finally, every position must be supplied with an excellent line of retreat with 
plenty of obstacles to hinder the advance of the enemy when he comes after us. 

We shall dispose our forces according to the nature of the ground, giving each arm 
the most suitable ground for its action; the different parties of guerrillas shall be so 
combined that, altnough acting independently, they shall support each other and 
concur in the proper execution of the plan agreed on. We shall always have suflS- 
cient reserves to support the troops that may require help, or to take a aecisive action 
in case of victory. 

We have said that the trooi)s of the different arms should be disposed according to 
the nature of the ground; generally the infantry occupies the center, the cavalry the 
wings or a position behind the infantry, and tne artillery is placed in advance, in 
echeloned batteries, separated by 250 meters (or 300 varas). 

Ther^ular order of battle should be in three consecutive lines, so as to present a 
reduced front to the good Yankee cannons and facilitate our movements. 

The first line, deployed as skirmishers, is intended to resist the first onslaught of 
the enemy, when on the defensive, and, in the offensive, to charge resolutely and 
throw him out of his positions. 

The second line, formed in column, and concealed by the sinuosities of the ground^ 
shall be the support of the first line, relieving it when necessary and filling up the 
blanks caused in the files. 

The third, or reserve, shall consist of picked men of the different arms, under the 
orders of the general in chief, who shall throw them forward to decide the victory or 
protect the retreat. 

We repeat that we must not give or accept combats with such a powerful foe if we 
have not the greats chances of success, as, even should we rout him three timep, 
or five times, at a heavy loss for ourselves, the question of our independence would 
not be solved. Let us wait for the deadly climate to decimate his files, and never 
foreet that our object is only to protract the state of war, although, of course, we 
shall avail ourselves of every opportunity to do all the harm we can to the enemy. 

The first thing to be done, before a combat, is to reconnoiter the weak points of 
the enemy; next, after ascertaining these points, we shall occupy his attention on 
other points, and, when he least expects it, we shall make a vigorous attack on the 
weak points, with all the forces which we have prepared beforehand. The princi- 
ple of a combat is at first a mere reconnoissance; if the results are good, the 
column of attack shall be strengthened; if not, the first plan shall be rectified as may 
be necessary; in case of retreat, our reserves shall protect it in order to avoid a 

To resume, the essential point in case of combat is to choose a strong position and 
to prevent all reconnoitering on the part of the enemy, and, if necessary for that pur- 
pose, to oblige him to deploy his forces before we decidedly accept the battle; to 
decoy him into places where ambuscades have been prepared by us, and to occupy 
his attention wherever it may be necessary, in order to facilitate our movements. 

Appendix 2. 

Proorama de la Manifestaci6n del Pueblo de Manila al Mayor General 
Arthur MacArthur, Gobernador Militar de los Eotados Unidos en 


sABADO 28 DE JULIO DE 1900. 

De 4 d 5, tarde. — Las bandas de mdsica filipinas y americanas recorrerdn las calles 
de Manila y arrabales. 

De 5 d 7, tarde. — £n las calzadas de Iris, Azairraga, se verificardn: 

Carrera de cintas. 

Carrera de lentitud de caballos. (Nota. — £n esta carrera los ginetes cambiardn de 
caballos. Obtendri el premio el caballo que quede el dltimo.) 


Oarrera de bicicletas de sefioras y caballeros. 

En el Rio Pasig, — Regatas de botes, del Puente Colgante al de Ayala. 

A las 7 y media, noche. — Banquete democrdtico en el teatro ** Zorrilla." (Nota. — 
Han sido mvitados & este banquete el Gobemador Militar, el General Preboste, la 
Comisi6n civil americana, y el Cuerpo consular.) 


A las 5, ma^ana. — Diana general por bandas de miisica americanaa y filipinas, que 
recorrerdn las 3alles principales de la poblaci6n de Manila. 

De 7 d 11 de la maiiana. — En varias plazas se organizar^ juegos populares, como 
cucaflas, gimnasia, etc., etc. 

A las 3, tarde. — En las calzadas de Avil^, MalacafLang y General Solano se orga- 
nizard la caba'gata popular, llevando el 6rden siguiente: 

Desde el Puente Colgante: 

1.^ Caballer^ americana con cometas. 

2.^ Furgones adomados, llevando bandas de miisica. 

3.** Camiones de la ''Cruz Koja" adomados. 

4.** Carros aleg6ricos. 

5.^ Coches de las comisiones filipinas. 

6.** Coches de damas filipinas. 

7.** Caballerfa de filipinos. 

8.** Coches de particulares, adomados de ramas y flores, etc., etc. 

Nota. — La cabalgata paaard por la Plaza de Quiapo. Calle San Sebastian, Plaza de 
Santa Ana, Calzada de Iris, Paseo de Azcdrraga, Calle Reyna Regente, Puente de 
Maura, Plskza de Calder6n de la Barca, Calle Rosario, Plaza de Moraga, Calle de la 
Escolta, y Plaza de Santa Cruz, donde se disolverd la cabalgata. 

Nota. — Los coches, caballos y bicicletas podrdn adomarse d gusto de los duefios, 
concedi^dose un premio artlstico al coche o caballo 6 bicicleta mejor adomado. 

Se concederd iguidmente & la mejor embarcaci6n empavesava 6 iluminada, un 
premio artfstico. 

La casa meior adomada 6 iluminada, tambi^n obtendrd un premio artfstico. 

Se repartiran, como premios, medallas conmemorativas. 

Los edificios ocupados por las autoridades y centros oficiales americanos ser^ 
engalanados 6 ilummados. 

La comisi6n organizadora de estos festejos suplica d 4ste vecindario, adome las 
fachadas de bus casas. 

De 5 d 8, noche. — Retreta popular formada por las comisiones de la capital y pue- 
blos limftrofes de Manila, acompaflados de bandas de miisica, faroles al^^ricos y 
antorchas pirot^cnicas. 

Se formard en la calzada de San Mfguel y Greneral Solano, tomando el itinerario 

Calle de Tanduay, Plaza de San Sebastidn, Calle de San Sebastidn, Calle de Crespo, 
Plaza de Quiapo, Oalle de Carriedo, Plaza de Goiti, Calle de la Escolta, Puente de 
Espafia, Puerta de Parian, Calle Real y Puerta de Santa Lucia, donde se disolvertl. 

Nota. — El municfpio 6 presidencia local 6 a8ociaci6n 6 persona que presente el 
mejor grupo 6 conjunto de jEaroles (por lo menos sesenta) variados y caprichosos 
obtendrd un premio artlstico. 

Todo premio artlstico podrd cambiarse por la cantidad de 300 pesos plata, d gusto 
del premiado. 

El ** Jurado de Premios'* es quien juzgard en primer t^rmino si ha lugar 6 no d 
recompensaen cada 8ecci6n, y en caso afirmativo decidird la entrega del premio 
artfstico al merecedor correspondiente, pudiendo crear en todos los grupos 6 secciones, 
2.0 y 3.0 premio en metalfco de 100 y 50 pesos plata, respectivamente, s^giin exijan 
de justieia el miraero 6 importancia del esruerzo de los limadores. 

A las 8, noche. — En la calzada de San f^ebastidn, concurso musical. 

La orquesta 6 banda que mejor interprcte una pieza musical, expresamente elegida 
por la misma orquesta 6 banda, obtenard un premio artfstico. 

Aprobado por 6rden del Greneral Preboste. W. K. Wilder. 

Appendix 3. 


Gentlemen: So sensitive are Filipinos to the voice of the patria that at the sound 
of its faintest echo, its weakest vibration, hearts are moved and spirits agitated. It 
is because the love of country inflames all the Filipino people. This is the explana- 


tion of the events whicli have been taking place during the last few days. This 
modest banquet having been initiated by us to express to General Mac Arthur, the 
United States military governor in the Philippines, our gratitude for our delivery 
from prison through the door of the amnesty, it has grown to such an extent that we 
now find ourselves far, very far, from the starting point, and are now in the squares 
and streets making a public manifestation, asMng the protectorate of the great 
Republic of North America. Hence the amazement, the fear of many that ideas niay 
become confused. 

We have asked our people to express their opinion concerning the means of 
making peace, and they respond imanimously, with calmness, with around negation 
if the amnesty is pointed out to them, because the prior acknowledgment of the 
sovereignty of America blots out and extinp:uishes its pacifying power; because it is 
cast in so narrow a mold that it does not include the political prisoners sentenced 
by courts-martial. On the other hand, there is a great explosion of ardent enthusiasm, 
there is entire frankness in declaring that the protectorate is the only means for 
making peace. 

Words fail me when I try to express my gratitude for your significant attitude 
toward my humble person. But I understand you * * * fear nothing. I shall 
never fail to be worthy of your confidence; my acts are linked to one another, and 
the lack of a single stepping stone will make the ascent to triumph diflScult. Fear 
nothing, beloved people, for I have consecrated to you my entire existence. I have 
defended and will defend your ideals in the fields, upon the mountains, and in the 
cities — everywhere. It matters not that I succumb and die, for just as the sun dies 
as the shades of night fail, to arise again with new heat and splendor on the follow- 
ing mom, so shall I arise again to impart to you all the fire of my new life, all the 
enei^es of my new existence. And to thee, beloved country. 

Give me in turn, O flower of my love, 
A grave to sleep among thy flowers. 

Let my last glance fall upon thy splendid sky, my last sigh be lost amid the echoes 
of thy triumph, my body rest in this l)eloved soil, that my lips may forever kiss it, 
that my body may feel tny patriot fire, and my spirit thy immortal nationality. 

Fear naught, beloved people, and follow mc. The sun of liberty has risen in our 
hemisphere. A black cloua hides its splendors, Imt it is not a storm cloud of death 
and destruction, but of life, of beneficent rain, l^t us make ready; let us prepare 
our mountains, our valleys, our towns, for without preparation the abundant rain 
may convert itself into desolation and ruin for us. 

Alas! that our fields, our mountains, should be strewn with dead bodies and with 
ruins, that in every home there should be an orphan — a widow — the fruit of war. 
Would that I might lead you along other paths than those of violence. 

On one side behold the American people, demanding the acknowledgment of their 
sovereignty to fulfill their international obli^tions. On the other the Filipino, at 
their heaa Aguinaldo, demanding their interior independence till the last drop of 
blood is shed. Are there any honorable means of uniting these two extremes? The 
Philippine people respond unanimously, the protectorate! Letthe American people, 
then, speak. 

I drink to the eternal fraternal alliance between the American and Filipino peoples, 
both free. I drink to the supreme authority of America, and that it may so direct 
our people that no Filipino will ever need to take up arms in defense of his rights and 
liberties. I drink that the amnesty may be more ample, more liberal, more gener- 
ous; that it may serve as the most eflficacious means of^pacification. I drink to peace 
and that it be not ephemeral and worthless, to endure but a day, but everlasting and 
eternal, founded on justice. 

Appendix A. 

Hkadqitarteks Division of the Philippines, 

Manila^ P, /., Augrist i, 1900. 

The Adjutant-General. 

Sir: I have the honor to submit the following report of my department covering 
the period since last annual report. 

The duties of a command covering an area of 114,000 square miles, which is the 
theater of active military operations carried on under new and diverse situations and 


conditions, situated at so great distance from the seat of Government, render nece» 
sary the prompt elucidation of many novel questions of civil and military affairs, 
while the expenditure of large sums of money and the administration of an army of 
63,000 men— a force more than twice as great as the strength of the military establish- 
ment prior to the war with Spain — have imposed abundant responsibility and labor 
upon this office. The work that pours in in ever-increasing volume, necessarily 
attendant upon the number of troops serving in the division, can be better under- 
stood by the following statistics, showing what has been accomplished by the several 
subdivisions of the clerical force from July 1, 1899, to July 31, 1900, despite the 
many embarrassments due to the diflSculty of securing ana holding a competent 
corps of clerks. The oflSce force consists at date of 60 clerks, of whom 15 are 
civilians, 8 being civil-service and 7 emergency clerks, and 45 enlisted men detailed 
from the different organizations serving in the division. The oflSce is divided into 
three divisions — record, returns, and orders — subdivided into three sections each, each 
division and section with its own chief, and one chief supervising all. This system 
of division of work, by which proper methods of routine are established and indi- 
vidual responsibility for the discharge of varied and intricate details fixed, has proven 
admirably adapted to the speedy and accurate disposition of public business. 


The work of the record division deals with the recording of all communications 
received and sent. Until August 31, 1899, all papers were entered in books, the 
indexes also being in book form, but the great volume of correspondence required 
the keeping of separate record books for arbitrary subdivisions of the work, and the 
system was not sufficiently elastic and certain to meet the requirements of a large 
correspondence where it was often impossible to differentiate the subjects involved. A 
partial card system, supplementary to the record books, was instituted as an experi- 
ment, and, as it provea satisfactory, the complete system, following so far as possible 
that in use in the War Department, was inaugurated. A thorough trial has proven it 
to be much superior to the book method, ana has resulted in furnianing a complete 
and compact record, combining celerity and accuracy. All recording is done on 
typewriters, which secures the greatest legibility and permanency, and few papers 
arriving in the office leave it without a verbatim reproduction being placed on the 
files. Fifty-five thousand letters and telegrams were received and 18,500 sent, mak- 
ing a total of 73,500. The greatest number of papers received, sent, and acted upon 
in one day was 450, and the least 150. The total number of indorsements placed 
upon the papers and entered on the records is somewhat over 220,000. 


The work of this division consists of the preparation of monthly returns, returns 
of casualties, the preparation and printing of a monthly list of the stations of troops 
in the islands, monthly report of the strength of each organization, record of trans- 
ports, division roster, and a register of officers. During the period mentioned returns 
have been prepared and rendered each month to the Adjutant-General of the Army, 
showing the strength and condition of the different organizations borne upon it. Tfie 
greatest iiuinb'»r of troops shown on any return embraced 540 organizations, or 2,298 
officers and 61,547 enlisted men, a total of 63,845, and the smallest, 277 organizations, 
or 1,142 officers and 30,126 men, a total of 31,268. Returns of casualties have been 
rendered, sh )wing that 28 officers and 215 enlisted men have been killed in action, 
23 officers and 588 enlisted men wounded, and 53 enlisted men missing. A station 
list of all tnx)ps in the Philippines, showing the composition of the several depart- 
ments and district*^, has been issued on the 1st of each month, giving the stations of 
all orjranizations by towns, provinces, islands, districts and geographical departments. 
A report of strength, present and absent, of troops in the division is prepared on the 
last day of each month, and the information cabled to the Adjutant-General of the 
Army. A rost?r of the division is issued at intervals, giving the organization of 
the commands, with the name, rank, duty, and station of each commissioned officer 
and of the noncommissioned staff. A complete card index, by name, of each officer- 
general, staff, and regimental — has been kept, showing orders and communications 
which in any way affect his station or duties, so that at any time his exact status is 
obtainable. A complete record showing the date of arrival and departure of all 
transports to arid from Manila, with the organizations carried thereon, is also kept. 
This work has been done under great difficulty and inconvenience bv reason of the 
large extent of territory occupied by our troops, as all the lai:ger islands of the Philip- 


pine Archipelago now contain frarrisons, the area of occupied teiTitor>' bein^ abont 
82,000 square miles. The whole numl)er of garrii»oned places is 423, of which 313 
are in Luzon, ^ in Negro?, 22 in Panay, 15 in Leyte, 15 in C«bu, 15 in Mindanao, 3 
in Samar, 5 in Bohol, and 2 in Marinduque, and 1 each in Bongao, Oorregidor, Jolo, 
Masbate, Romblon, SiaHni, and Catanduanes. Coininunication l)etween stations, on 
the same island even, is very irregular, owing to disturlxHi conditions, the lack of 
transportation facilities, and the ciifficultieH of land and water routes, and between 
islanas very dilatory, due to absence of cable communication and the lack of con- 
venient mail facilities, so that regimental returns are often incomplete and inaccu- 
rate and their receipt subject to unusual delay. It has been found impracticable to 
require the preparation of post returns, owing to the lack of competent clerical knowl- 
edge and assistance in the various commands, the temporary character of garrisons, 
the dispersion of troops, and the incessant field service which is required. 


The work of the orders division deals with the preparation, printing, and distri- 
bution of the orders issued from the adjutant-general's office and the distribution of 
the orders issued from the office of the United States military governor. During that 
period there have l)een printed 406 sf)ecial orders, 271 general orders, and 116 circu- 
fars, the special orders alone aggregjating 3,226 paragraphs, comprising 33,950 trans- 
actions, and relate to nearly 17,000 individuals, the whole number of orders and cir- 
culars printed and distributed, including separate paragraphs, being 889,200, the 
greatest number of copies distributed in any one day being 14,500, and averaging 
daily 2,250. These orders and circulars are distributed to 45 regiments, 9 independent 
organizations, 4 departments, 1 separat** brigade, 18 district headquarters, 117 officers, 
and 115 miscellaneous places. Tiiere have also been distributed copies of orders in 
bound form, station lists, rosters, pamphlets, and a variety of other publications 
issued from time to time from these headquarters, in addition to the preparation of 
the orders and circulars them.*<elves and the several indexes thereto. There have 
been received in the office during the year 16,846 full orders from the various Fo- 
ments, brigades, divisions, districts, and departments which constitute the division, 
all of which have been appropriate! v briefed, noted, and filed. Besides this, the gen- 
eral orders and special orders of fhe Headquarters of the Army are indexed upon 
receipt, both by name and subject, the number of names in the index of War Department 
orders to June 16, 1900, the date of the last order received, being slightly over 4,000. 


The following number of fonns and books were distributed: 575,000 blank forms, 
100,000 printed and bound books, and 50,000 bound blank books. On account of 
inability to obtain from Washington in time, and the emergency demanding it, 6,000 
books and pamphlets and 100,000 blank forms were printea here for distribution. 

At the outset of the establishment of this office much difficulty prevailed in obtain- 
ing correct names and organizations of killed, w-ounded, and deceased officers and 
soldiers, which information is re(iuired to be cabled to the War Department and is a 
matter of the utmost value to thie Government as well as of much importance to the 
relatives of officers and soldiers. The data is largely obtained from the reports of 
medical officers, which unavoidably reach the office inaccurate and incomplete, owing 
to the difficulties of communication over great distances through disturl>ed regions 
and the constant movement of troops. The telegraphic communications being irregu- 
lar and the mail communications inade(juate, many inaccuracies in consequence 
transpired in cabling names and organizations to Washington, entailing much delay 
and expense, and in many instances, no doubt, causing einl)arrassment to the War 
Department. To remedy this, each organization serving in the division has furnished 
to these headquarters a muster roll, and reix)rts a list of all additions and changes 
thereon by name at the end of each month. These rolls, and subseq^uent returns of 
changes, are indexed on cards and filed alphabetically, so that there is now on file a 
complete and correct military history, bv name and organization, of everv officer and 
enlisted man in the division. When it is understood that name^ of killed and 
wounded officers and soldiers and deaths from disease reported to these headquarters 
have averaged, in incorrectness, nearly 40 per cent, and m organizations 10 per cent, 
the great saving to the Government in cost of cable communication is apparent, and 
it has also, by this system, enabled the correct answering of hundreds of inquiries 
as to the status and condition of soldiers, and, furthermore, follows step by step their 


individual history from the time of arrival until departure, and will serve in the 
future as an invaluable record of those who are serving and have served in these 

The foregoing outlines in a measure the amount of work accomplished at these 
headquarters. It has been made possible only by the general high ability of the 
employees and their faithful and conscientious discharge of duty. The fact that an 
enlisted force is called upon to do first-class expert work should, in fairness, be 
recognized by the Government by holding out to the meritorious and faithful soldiers 
employed a hope of permanent position as a remuneration for the work required 
(whicn they willingly render) and which work, if given in civil enaployment, would 
meet with the recognition which is allotted to abilitv and merit. To this end it is 
recommended that authority be granted for the discharge of a fair proportion of 
soldier clerks of the number now in the office, and that they be employed as civilian 
clerks, at a minimum salary of $1,200, and that subsequent vacancies be authorized 
to l)e filled in the same manner. In this way an incentive will be offered to capa- 
ble and deserving soldiers to remain in the office and become thoroughly trained in 
their duties, and look forward to the time when they will be appointed to civilian 
positions. The great burden of the work has mainly fallen on tne shoulders of the 
very few civil-service clerks, who have l)een here since the establishment of this 
command, supplemented by the efforts of the few others who now remain in the 
office out of a number sent here from the United States. Thev have labored without 
regard to hours, Sundays, or holidays, or the cessations which are granted to those 
at other department headquarters. They have not only done double duty them- 
selves, but nave instructed the enlisted clerks and devoted their best efforts to the 
improvement of office methods, and their usefulness and fidelity should be fitly 
rewarded. While by recent Congressional enactment the salaries of the corps of 
clerks in the Adjutant-Generars Department have been increased, yet the men who 
are serving in tnese islands, under such difficult and trying conditions, obtain no 
advantage thereby over the more favored ones in and adjacent to the United States. 
It is recommended that the salaries of such clerks l>e increased $200 per annum, either 
by Congressional appropriation or out of the funds of the islands — a small increase 
when the additional cost of living as compared with stations in the United States is 
considered, and in line with the increased compensation given to officers and enlisted 
men so serving. Two years of service should be as long a tour of duty as should be 
exacted, after which they should be returned t^j stations in the United States (if so 
desired) , to be replaced by those who have seen no foreign service. The emergency 
civilian clerks are discharged soldiers who have rendered faithful and honest service 
in the ranks, and have carried the same equalities into the discharge of their office 
duties. Many of them have served in the islands from the beginning of our occupa- 
tion, and, being thoroughly acclimated, have been able to render constant and efficient 
service. Some of them occupy important positions, and their salaries should be 
graded in accordance with the character of the work on which they are engaged, and 
should be equal in amount to that of the regular clerks for corresponding duties. 

There is no subject pending of such prime importance for the proper administra- 
tion of the affairs of the division as the supply of adequate clerical assistance, ade- 
quately qualified and adequately comi^ensated. Nothing is more certain than that 
military administration here in some form is a permanency — is hei-e to stay — and the 
earlier this fact is properly recognized and the division properly equipped the easier, 
more satisfactory, and more economical it will be to the Government. 

The recruiting service in the division has been confined to a comparatively small 
numl)er of discharged soldiers, who have apparently reenlisted in oraer to secure the 
benefits of the retirement act for enlisted men. As a rule, soldiers discharged by 
reason of expiration of term of service have shown a decided reluctance to reenlist 
for service in the Philippines. 

Schools for noncommissioned officers have been held at some few stations, the 
active field duties of the troops preventing any systematic effort in this direction. 

In view of the disturbed condition of affairs, officers' lyceums have obviously been 

The following exhibits are submitted, showing the changes in the commissioned 
and enlisted personnel of the command and changes of stations of troops since the 
last annual report, and the roster of troops and stations occupied by them at this 

Very respectfully, M. Barber, 

Assistant Adjutant- General^ U. JS, A, 

WAR 1900 — VOL 1, PT V 6 


Exhibit A. 

Headquarters Division of the Philippines, 

Manilay P. /., June SO, 1900. 

Changes in personnel from July i, 1899 ^ to June SO^ 1900. 



By transfer or appointment 2, 275 


By transfer or discharge 1, 131 

Killed in action 15 

Died of wounds received in action 6 

Died of disease, etc 19 

Total 1,171 



By enlistment 11,892 

By reenlistment 985 

By transfer 36,815 

From desertion 317 

Total 50,009 


Discharged by expiration of service 1, 942 

Discharged for disability 782 

Discharged for other causes 7, 249 

By transfer 12,115 

By retirement 50 

Killed in action 255 

Died of wounds received in action 78 

Died of disease, etc 981 

Deserted 622 

Total 24,074 

The strength of the division, present and absent, June 30, 1900, is 2,225 commis- 
sioned oflScers and 61,059 enlisted men. 

Merritt Barber, 
Asmtant Adjutant-General, 





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Appendix B. 

Headquarters Division of the Philippinbb, 

Office of the Inspector-General, 

Manila, P. /., Augusl 9, 1900. 
Adut ant-General, 

Division of the Philippines. 

Sir: In compliance with instructions from your office, I have the honor to submit 
the following report of the operations of this department during the period from 
July 1, 1899, to July 31, 1900: 

The conditions affecting the work of the Inspector-General's Department in this 
archipelago during the past fiscal year were such that this oflSce possesses little infor- 
mation in regard to the work performed by officers of the department whose stations 
were other than in this office. 

The beginning of the fiscal year found the troops organized as the Eighth Army 
Corps, with two divisions and some separate brigades. Three officers of the Inspector- 
(ieneral's Department were on duty as inspectors-general of the Corps and of the 
divisions. Tnere were acting inspectors-general for some of the brigades. None of 
the reports of inspections came to this office, nor is there any reconi here that the 
inspector-general of the Corps had any relations with the inspectors-general of the 

My immediate predecessor. Colonel Garlington, requested that inspection reports 
from the various inspectors-general might be referred to this office, but was informed 
that the divisions were regarded as separate armies in the field, so far as related to 
the forwarding of papers, and that the reports of the inspection service were for- 
warded direct to W asnington. 

The organization of the Division of the Philippines, with the assignment of 
inspectors-general to the various departments, wrought no change so far as this office 
was concerned. It continued to be a local office, having no connection with nor 
official communication to or from the offices of the various departmental inspectors. 

As regards this office, the then inspector-general of the Department of the Pacific 
and Eignth Army Corps was detailea in May, 1899, as collector of customs at Manila, 
and continued on this auty until his death. The manifold duties of this position fully 
occupied his time, and the records of the office show little inspection work. From 
September 1 to October 21 this office appears to have been vacant, as there are no 
records whatever for this period. 

On October 22, Maj. P. W. West, inspector-general, U. S. V., was directed to take 
charge, temporarilv, of the office of the inspector-general of the department. Major 
West was shortly afterwards assigned to duty in connection with the Filipino prisoners, 
and his time fully occupied with investigations connected with them. Lieut. Col. 
E. A. Garlington, mspector-general. United States Army, assigneil by War Department 
order as inspector-general of the Department of the Pacific and Eighth Army Corps, 
took charge of the office November 26. There were no orders or instructions relative 
to general inspection, and until January, 1900, the officers on duty in this office were 
engaged in such investigations and special inspections as were referred, individually, 
to the office. Colonel Garlington had requested general authority to make the stated 
inspections required by regulations, submitting a draft of a letter of instructions. 
This was approved and issuefl as follows: 

Hdurs. Department Pacific and Eighth Army Corps, 

Manila, P. /., Jan nan/ ,5, 1900. 

Department of the Pacific and Eighth Army Corps, 

Sir: You will, by direction of the major-general commanding, under the provisions 
of paragraphs 867, 868, 871, and 1433, proceed, at such times as may be opportune, to 
make tne following inspwtions within the limits of the city and harbor of Manila: 
Depots of the ordnance, subsistence, quartermaster, and medical departments; hospital 
and hospital ships; garrisons and camps of the provost guard; accounts of the dis- 
bursing officers, and troops not attached to divisions. 

You will also inspect each transport and hospital ship upon its arrival in port and 
prior to its departure, reporting at once any denciency or irregularity which appears 
to require a prompt remed^^. 

In the performance of this duty you are authorized to assign a portion of it to the 
assistants (inspectors-general) in your office, at discretion. 
Very respectfully, 

Thomas H. Barry, 
Asiisiani Adjutant-General, 


As will be seen, this letter confined the work of this oflSce to the city and harbor 
of Manila, and to such troops as were not in either of the divisions. Under this 
authority the inspections required by regulations were taken up so far as the power 
of this oflSce extended. 

This condition of affairs was not satisfactory, and the matter was brought to the 
attention of the present major-general commanding, the result being the publication 
of General Orders^ No. 58, Hei^quarters Division of the Philippines, July 18, 1900. 
This order establishes relations between the inspector-general of the division and 
the inspectors-general of the various departments, and provides for reports of inspec- 
tion service reaching this oflSce, thus establishing a chain of communication which 
will keep this oflSce informed as to the status of tne work of the departments. 

Shortly after the departments were organized it was seen that owing to the large 
number of stations and poor faciliti^ for communication, it would be impossible for 
the inspectors-gjeneral of northern and southern Luzon to make, in person, all the 
required inspections. In the department of southern Luzon thin was met by detail- 
ing assistants to the Inspector-General who made certain inspections. The condition 
of service was such in many of the districts that an inspector was needed by the dis- 
trict commander for special investigations; to meet this condition General Orders, No. 
58, appoints acting inspectors-general and assigns them to the first, second, third, 
fourth, and fifth districts of northern Luzon, and to the first, second, and third dis- 
tricts of southern Luzon. It is directed that inspections of troops, depots, money 
accounts, etc., be made every three months, so far as practicable. 

With the large disbursements of public civil funds in the hands of army officers 
throughout the division, it was considered desirable that these disbursements and 
money accounts should be inspected by oflScers of the Inspector-General* s Depart- 
ment, and this is provided for in General Orders, No. 58. This order is of too recent 
date for its effects to be shown by information received in this oflSce, but it is believed 
that it has established this dei)artment on a footing where systematic work along 
similar lines throughout the division can be expected, and that in future this oflSce 
will be properly informed as to the status of inspection work. A copy of Greneral 
Orders, No. 58, is appended. 


There are at present on inspection duty in this division 1 oflScer of the regular 
Inspector-General's Department, 2 of the volunteer department, and 11 line oflScers, 
detailed as acting inspectors-general. One oflScer of the volunteer department is on 
special duty in the division. 

Of the officers who were on inspection duty in this division last year, one is dead; 
the others are relieved from such duty. 

A roster showing the officers on duty and officers relieved during the year is 


The following tables show summaries of the work performed by this office for the 
entire period of time covered by this report, and such information as has been 
receivea from the icpartmental inspectors-general : 

Droops inspected. 


6th Artillery . . 
3d Artillery.... 
3d Artillery. . . . 
20th Infantry.. 
14th Infantry.. 

Number of companies. 

Headquarters, l>and and 10 batteries.. 

Battery K 

Batteries H and L 

Headquarters, band and 12 companies 
Headquarters, band and 8 companies. 



25, 1900 





By whom in- 

Maj. S.C.Mills. 
Maj. P. W. West. 


Maj. S.C.Mills. 



The following reports of inspection of money accounts by officers of the Inspector- 
GeneraPs Department have been recorded and forwarded through this office during 
the period reported upon: 

Total number of inspections 124 

Amount expended and transferred $14, 010, 965. 29 

Balance on nand at date of inspection $7,948,568,01 


PubMc civil funds: 

Number of inspections 3 

Amount expended and transferred, Mexican $9, 139, 398. 84 

Balance on nand at date of inspection, Mexican $6, 074, 045. 59 

Of the above reports, 9 were received from the Department of Northern Luzon, 19 
from the Department of Southern Luzon, 6 from the Department of Mindanao and 
Jolo, none from the Department of the Visayas. 


The following table shows inventory and inspection reports acted upon, recorded, 
and forwarded: 

Class of proi)erty. 

Quartermaster supplies 

Quartermaster property 

Subsistence stores 

Subsistence property 

Ordnance and ordnance stores. 
Medical supplies and property . 


Public civil fund property 


of inven- 

142 I 
37 , 

203 ' 
10 i 

140 ; 
18 i 

37 i 


Number of 






















Of the above number, 104 reports were received from the Department of Northern 
Luzon, 16 from the Department of Southern Luzon, 41 from the Department of the 
Visayas, 8 from the Department of Mindanao and Jolo. 

The First Reser\'e, Second Reserve, Third Reserve, Santa Mesa, and Convalescent 
hospitals and the hospital ship Helief were inspected by officers on duty in this oflfice. 

Tne commissary sales stores, the ordnance, the medical supply, the commissary, 
and the quartermaster depots, were inspected during the period reported upon by 
officers of this office. 

There were 24 inspections of U. S. army transports, involving 15 transports, and 14 
inspections of chartered horse ships, involving 12 ships. 

In addition to the duties above reported there were made by officers of this office 
23 special investigations and inspections by order of the major-general commanding, 
and 26 investigations by order oi the military governor. 
Very respectfully, 

8. C. Mills, 
Majoi', It)spector-Ge7ieral, Acting Jusperior-General of the Division. 

Exhibit A. 

General Orders, \ Headquarters Division of the Philippines, 

No. 58. i Manila, P. /., Julif IS, 1900. 

I. The following officers are hereby appointed acting inspectors-general and are 
assigned to the districts enumerated below. Acting inspectors-general for districts 
will not be detached unless especially authorized from these heswlquarters: 

department OV northern LUZON. 

First district. — Maj. Louis C. Scherer, Twenty-seventh Infantry, U. 8. V., acting 

^cond district. — Maj. Henry Wygant, Twenty-fourth U. S. Infantry, acting inspector- 

Third district. — Maj. Alexander L. Dade, Forty-eighth Infantry, U. S. V., acting 

Fourth district. — Maj. William C. Brown, Forty-second Infantry, V. S. V., acting 
inspector-^neral . 

Pifih district. — Maj. Julius A. Penn, Thirty-fourth Infantry, U. S. V., acting 
inspector-general . 



Firgt diMrid. — Maj. Charles H. Muir, Thirty-eighth Infantry, U. S. V., acting 

Second district. —Ma]. Samuel W. Miller, Forty-sixth Infantry, U. S. V., acting 

Third district. — Maj. Daniel A. Frederick, Forty-fifth Infantry, U. S. V., acting 

The oflBcers named above will be relieved from their present duties and will 
proceed, without unnecessary delay, to the headquarters of the districts to which 
assigned, reporting on arrival to the district commanders for duty. 

The travel enjomed is necessary for the public service. 

II. So far as practicable inspections of troops, hospitals, commissarjr, quartermaster, 
and medical depots, means of transportation, money accounts, etc., will be made once 
every three months throughout the division. 

Department and district commanders will apply at once the proper remedies to 
correct faulty conditions found to exist, and in forwarding reports of inspections 
will note thereon the remedial action taken. 

IIL Inspectors-general and acting inspectors-general will inspect the disbursement 
of public civil funds by army oflScers stationed within this division; their necessity, 
economy, and their strict conformity to the authority appropriating the money. 

These inspections will be governed, so far as practicable, by the provisions of Army 
Regulations relating to the mspection of disbursements and money accounts. The 
statements of these inspections will be retained in the office of the mspector-general 
of the division. 

IV. The following instructions relative to the inspection service of this division 
are published for the information and guidance of all concerned: 

1. Inspectors-general of departments will, on assignment, report by letter direct to 
the inspector-general of the division, and thereafter will report to him by letter as 
soon as practicable after the last day of each month. These reports will inclose copies 
of all orders or written instructions received from department headquarters relative 
to inspections, and will show the performance of the mspection work throughout the 
department during the month. 

2. Before leaving their posts on an extended tour of inspection inspectors-general 
of departments will report the date of their departure to the inspector-general of the 
division and will furnish him an itinerary of tne proposed tour. 

3. In making or supervising inspections under paragraph 867, Army Reflations, 
inspectors-general of departments will be guided by such instructions additional to 
Army Reflations as may be issued from these headquarters. 

4. The inspections required in each department under paragraph 868, Army Regu- 
lations, will be made by the inspector-general of the department in person. 

5. All reports of inspectors-general of departments, save those of confidential 
investigations or special inspections, made by order of the department commander 
for his own information, will be forwarded through the regular channels and referred 
to the inspector-general of the division. 

6. Acting inspectors-general assigned to districts are authorized to make, within 
the limits of tne district, all inspections and investigations, save the inspections 
required by paragraph 868, Army Regulations. 

7. Acting inspectors-general will, on reaching their stations, report by letter to the 
inspector-general of the department, and thereafter will report to him on the last 
day of each month. These reports will inclose copies of all orders and instructions 
received from district headquarters relative to inspection duty, and will show the 
status of inspection work throughout the district. They will, so far as practicable, 
keep the inspector-general of the department informed as to their prospective tours 
of inspection. 

8. Acting inspectors-general, in making stated inspections, will be guided by such 
instructions, additional to Army Regulations, as they may receive through the 
inspector-general of the department. 

9. All reports of inspectors-general of districts, except those of confidential inves- 
tigations or special inspections made by order of the district commander for his own 
information, will be forwarded through the regular channels and referred to the 
inspector-general of the department for remark. 

10. The attention of acting inspectors-general is called to Articles LVII, LVIII, 
and LXXII, Army Regulations, and to General Orders, No. 81, Headquarters of the 
Army, series of 1898. 

By command of Major-General MacArthur: 

M. Barber, 
Assistant Adjutant- Oeneral, 



Officers on duty in Inspector- OeneraP 8 DepartmenL 


or assigned 

to duty 

Name and rank. 

Corps or organization. 





in the 

Headquartera of division. 

Mai. S. C. Mills 

Inspector-general, U. 
S. A. 

Inspector-general of 


Dec 81.1899. 

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^■^ ^r^^W W^bf AA^VFiflP^ 

Maj. L. A. Lovering, cap- 

Thirtieth U. S. In- 

Assistant to inspector- 



tain, Fourth U. S. In- 

fantry, acting in- 




Department of Northern 


Maj. P. W. West, captain, 
Kith U.S. Cavalry. 

Inspector-general, U. 

Inspector-general of 


Oct 22,1898. 



Mai. L. C. Scherer, first 

Twenty-seventh In- 

Acting inspector-gen- 
eral, first district. 



lieutenant, Fourth U. 

fantry, U. 8. V. 

S. Cavalry. 

Maj. Henry Wygant 

Twenty-fourth U. S. 

Forty-eighth Infaii- 

Acting inspector-gen- 
eral, second district. 



Mai. A. L. Dade, first 
lieutenant, Third U. 

Acting inspector-gen- 
eral, third district. 




S. Cavalry. 

Maj. W. C. Brown, cap- 

Forty-second Infan- 

Acting inspector-gen- 

San Iddro.... 


tain. First U. S. Cav- 

try, U. S. V. 

eral, fourth district. 


Maj . J . A. Penn. captain, 
Second U. S. infantry. 

Thirty-fourth Infan- 

Acting inspector-gen- 



try, U.S. V. 

eral, fifth district. 

Department of SotUhern 


Maj. W. D. Beach, cap- 

Inspector-general, U. 

Inspector-general of 


Oct. 21,1809. 

tain. Third U. S. Cav- 




Maj. D. A. Frederick, 

Forty-fifth Infantry, 

Acting inspector-gen- 


July 18, 1900. 

captain. Seventh U. 
S. infantry. 


eral, first district. 

Maj. S. W. Miller, cap- 

Forty-sixth Infantry, 

Acting inspector-gen- 



tain. Fifth U. 8. In- 


eral, second district. 

Maj. W. H. Johnson, 
captain. Sixteenth U. 
S. Infantry. 

Forty-sixth Infantry, 

Acting inspector-gen- 
eral, third district. 

Nueva Cace- 


Department of the Visayas. 

Capt. Omar Bundv 

Sixth U. S. Infantry. . . 

Af^tinflr inRP^toT-fren- 


July 2S, 1900. 

».^ •«• V AA ^^ ■ ^^ • ^ A* JkVJv»A w • ^ • • • 

eral of department. 

Department qf Mindanao 



Capt. B. H. Randolph . . . 

Sixth U.S. Artillery... 

Acting inspector-gen- 
eral of department. 

Zamboanga .. 


On special service. 

Maj. R. A. Brown, cap- 
tain, Eighth U. 8. 

Inspector-general, U. 

Assistant to the secre- 


Oct. 8,1899. 


tary to the military 




Exhibit C. 

The following officers have been relieved from duty in this department cTaring the 
period reported upon : 

Name and rank. 

Lieut. Ck)l. J. D. Miley, inspecU 
or-general, U. 8. V. 

Lieut. Col. E. A. Garlington, 
inspector-general, U. 8. A. 

Maj. C. O. 8tarr, inspector- 
general, U. 8. V. 

Maj. J. 8. Mallory, inspector- 
general, U. 8. V. 

Maj. R. A. Brown, inspector- 
general, U. 8. V. 

Capt. W. A. Mann, 8even- 
teenth U. 8. Infandry. 

Inspector - general. Depart- 
ment of Pacific and Eighth 
Army CJorps. 

Inspector-general, Division 
of the Philippines. 

Inspector-general, First Di- 
vision Eighth Army Corps. 

Inspector-general, Second 
Division Eighth Army 

Inspector - eeneral, Depart- 
ment of Northern Luzon. 

Acting inspector-general, De- 
partinent of Visayas. 

Date and cause of relief. 

Died 8ept. 19, 1899. 

8ick leave to United States May 5, 

Vacated commission on promotion 

Sept. 6, 1899. 
Honorable discharge on promotion 

Aug. 17, 1899. 

Appointed assistant to the military 

secretary May 11, 1900. 
Actipg adjutant-general. Department 

of visayas, July 28, 1900. 

Appendix C. 

Hdqr8. Division op the Philippines, 

Office of the Judge- Advocate, 

Manila^ P. J., Augu^ lOy 1900, 


Division of the Philippines, Manila, P. I. 

Sir: In compliance with instructions dated July 20 and August 1, 1 have the honor 
to submit the following report, based on the data on file in the offices of the judge- 
advocate. Department of tne Pacific and Eighth Army Corps, and assistant judge- 
advocate. Division of the Philippines, for the period commencing July 1, 1899, and 
ending July 31, 1900: 

Qeneral. courts-martial. 

officers (regular service). 




First lieutenants 

Second lieutenants 


Sentence disapproved 

Acauittals disapproved 

Reauced in numbers 

Forfeitures adjudged 

offenses charged. 

Twentieth article of war 

Twenty-first article of war— disobeying superior officer . , 

Sixty-nrst article of war 

Sixty-second article of war: 

Absent without leave 

Disobeying standing orders or regulations 

Disorderly conduct 

Disrespect to sentinel 


Neglect of duty 





General court9-^martUd — Continaed. 

OFFICERS (volunteer SERVICE). 

Cases 17 

Defendants 15 

Colonel 1 

Major 1 

Captai ns 4 

Firet lieutenants 7 

Second lieutenants 2 

Acquittals 6 

Dismissals 6 

Reprimands 4 

Months confinement to post (aggregate) 6 

Acquittals disapproved 5 

Sentence disapproved .• 1 

Forfeiture adjudged $875 

One dismissal approved and forwarded under one hundred and eleventh 
article of war. 


Twenty-first article of war: 

Disobeying superior oflScer 6 

Lifting up weapon against superior oflScer 1 

Thirty-second article of war 1 

Thirty-eighth article of war 4 

Fortieth article of war 2 

Sixty-first article of war 8 

Sixty-second article of war: 

Absent without leave 1 

Assault and battery 1 

Abusine prisoner 1 

Disobedience of standing orderH or regulations 3 

Disorderly conduct 3 

Drunkenness 1 

False statement or report 1 

Insubordinate conduct toward commissioned oflScer 1 

N^lect of duty 9 

Resisting arrest 1 

Sixty-fifth article of war, breach of arrest 2 


Total number of cases reported 2,189 

Total number of men tried 2, 199 


Sei^gean ts 55 

Corporals 76 

Quartermaster-sergeants 6 

First sei^geant 1 

Saddler 1 

Cooks 5 

Drum major 1 

Hospital steward 1 

Acting hospital stewards 3 

Battfuion sergeant-major 1 

Privates 2,049 

Total number of acquittals 200 

Total number of disapprovals 59 

Total number of dishonorable discharges 789 

Total amount of forfeitures adjudged, exclusive of forfeitures on account 
of dishonorable dischaiges $55,366.91 


The following table shows the apportionment of the cases of enlisted men tried 
by general court-martial among the different organizations: 

Third U. 8. Infantry 

Fourth U. S. Infantry 

Sixth U. S. Infantry 

Eighth U. S. Infantry 

Ninth U. S. Infantry 

Twelfth U. S. Infantry 

Thirteenth U. S. Infantry 

Fourteenth U. S. Infantry 

Fifteenth U. S. Infantry 

Sixteenth U. S. Infantry- 

Seventeenth U. 8. Infantry' 

Eighteenth U. S. Infantry 

Nineteenth U. 8. Infantry 

Twentieth U. S. Infantry 

Twenty-flrat U. 8. Infantry 

Twenty-second U. 8. Infantry 

Twenty-third U. 8. Infantry 

Twenty-fourth U. 8. Infantry 

Twenty-fifth U. 8. Infantry 

Twenty-sixth Infantry, U. 8. V 

Twenty-seventh Infantry, U. 8. V 

Twenty-eighth Infantry, tJ. 8. V 

Twenty-ninth Infantry, tJ. 8. V 

Thirtieth Infantry, U. 8. V 

Thirty-second Infantry, U. 8. V 

Thirty-third Infantry, U. 8. V 

Thirty-fourth Infantry, U. 8. V 

Thirty-fifth Infantry, U. 8. V 

Thirty-sixth Infantry, U. 8. V 

Thirty-seventh Infantry, U. 8. V 

Thirty-eighth Infantry, U. 8. V 

Thirty-ninth Infantry, U. 8. V 

Fortieth Infantry, U. 8. V 

Forty-first Infantry, U. 8. V 

Forty-second Infantry, U. S. V 

Forty-third Infantry, U. 8. V 

Forty-fourtn Infantnr. U. 8. V 

Forty-fifth Infantry, tJ. 8. V 

Forty-sixth Infantry, U. 8. V 

Forty-seventh Infantry, U. 8. V 

Forty-eighth Infantry JJ. 8. V 

Forty-ninth Infantry, U. 8. V 

Third U. 8. Cavalry 

Fourth U. 8. Cavalry 

Eleventh Cavalry, U. S. V 

First U. 8. Artillery 

Third U.S. Artillery 

Fourth U.S. Artillery 

Fyth U.S. Artillery 

Sikth U.S. Artillery 

Seventh U. 8. Artillery 

U.S. Signal Corps 

U. 8. Engineer Corps 

U. 8. Hospital Corps 

State volunteers 

Civilian employees and scouts 













able dis- 














































































































































































































The following table shows the offenses charged: 

Seventeenth article of war: 

Losing clothing 1 

Losing Government property 32 

Selling clothing 16 

Twentieth article of war 62 

Twenty-first article of war: 

Assaulting superior oflScer 6 

Attempting to strike superior officer 12 

Disobeying superior officer 216 

Lifting up weapon against superior officer 1 

Twenty-fourtn article of war 12 

Thirty-first article of war 3 

Thirty-second article of war 237 

Thirty-third article of war 107 

Thirty-eighth article of war 361 


Thirty-ninth article of war: - 

Qoittingpoet 55 

Sleeping on post 214 

Fortieth article of war 98 

Forty-eecond article of war 16 

Forty-seventh article of war 66 

Fifty-eighth article of war: 

Rape 3 

Attempted rape 2 

Murder 4 

Manslaughter 2 

Assault and hattery with intent to kill 15 

Burglary 2 

Bobbery 20 

Stabbing with intent to commit murder 2 

^ Larceny 82 

Sixtieth article of war: 

Larceny 16 

Selling Government property 14 

Appropriating condemned Grovemment property 2 

SiztyHsecond article of war: 

Absence without leave, not chaigeable under thirty-second or thirty-third 

article of war 53 

Abusing natives 9 

Allowing himself to be captured 4 

Acceptib^ bribe 10 

Allowing prisoner to escape 18 

Assault 103 

Assault and battery 13 

Assault with dangerous or deadly weapon 11 

Assault with intent to kill 15 

Assaulting a sentinel 10 

Attempt to conunit rape 1 

Breach of arrest 89 

Carrying concealed weapons 2 

CJonunitting a nuisance 12 

Criminal carelessness 5 

Disobedience of standing orders or regulations 114 

Disobeying commissioned officer 54 

Disobeying noncommissioned officer 185 

Disobe^g sentinel 19 

Disposms of clothing 6 

Disorderly conduct 137 

Disrespect to noncommissioned officer 82 

Disrespect to superior officer 36 

Disrespect to sentinel 14 

Drunkenness 114 

Drunk and disorderly 215 

Embezzlement 1 10 

Extortion 4 

Failure to pay debts 15 

False statement or report 50 

False swearing 3 

fighting 6 

Foigery 4 

Fraudulent enlistment 31 

Impersonating an officer 5 

Indecent exposure of person r 7 

Insubordinato conduct toward commissioned officer 14 

Insubordinate conduct towwti noncommissioned officer 34 

Larceny 115 

Malicious destruction of property 3 

Malingering *. 16 

Manslaughter 1 

Mutiny 17 

Neglectofduty 110 

Receiving stolen goodn 6 

Bedsting arrest 59 

Perjury............... •..........----•.....•-•----••••....•-- -••...«>--• 2 


Sixty-second article of war — Continued. 

Robbery 8 

Selling, losing, or wasting Government property 14 

Threatening superior officer 13 

Threatening natives ^ 5 

Threatening noncommissioned officer 44 

Disorder, etc.^ charged as " Conduct to the prejudice of good order and mili- 
tary disciplme,'* not included under previous heads 13 

The above tables do not include all the cases tried in this command during this 
period, a large number having been sent direct to the Judge-Advocate-General 
without going through these h^idquarters. 

Summary courts-martidl. 

Cases reported 18, 426 

Men tried 12,988 

Acquittals 671 

Disapproval 85 

Sergeants tried 343 

Corporals tried 967 

Acting stewards tried 6 

Privates tried 11,672 

Amount of forfeitures adjudged $103, 461. 85 

The following table shows the apportionment of the cases of enlisted men tried by 
summary courts-martial among the different organizations: 

Third U.S. Infantry 

Fourth U. 8. Infantry 

Sixth U.S. Infantry 

Ninth U.S. Infantry 

Twelfth U.S. Infantry 

Thirteenth U. S. Infantry 

Fourteenth U. S. Infantry 

Sixteenth U. S Infantry 

Seventeenth U. S. Infantry 

Eighteenth U. 8. Infantry 

Nineteenth U. S. Infantry 

Twentieth U. 8. Infantry 

Twenty-first U. 8. Infantry 

Twenty-second U. 8. Infantry 

Twenty-third U. 8. Infantiy 

Twenty-fourth U. 8. Infandry 

Twenty-fifth U. S. Infantry 

Twenty-sixth Infantry, U. 8. V . . . 
Twenty-seventh Infantry, U. 8. V 
Twenty-eighth Infantry JJ. 8. V . 
Twenty-ninth Infantry, U. 8. V . . 

Thirtieth Infantry, U. 8. V 

Thirty-first Infantry, U. 8. V 

Thirty-second InfantiTi U. S. V . . 

Thirty-third Infantry, U. 8. V 

Thirty-fourth Infantry, U. S. V. . . 

Thirty-fifth Infantry, U. S. V 

Thirty-sixth Infantry, U. 8. V 

Thirty-seventh Infantry. U. 8. V . 
Thirty-eighth Infantry, U. S. V. . . 

Thirty-ninth Infantry, U. S. V 

Fortieth Infantry, U. 8. V 

Forty-first Infantry, U. 8. V 

Forty-second Infantry, U. S. V . . . 

Forty-third Infantry, U. S. V 

Forty-fourth Infantry, U. S. V 

Forty-fifth Infantry, U. 8. V 

Forty-sixth Infantry. U. 8. V 

Forty-seventh Infantry, U. 8. V . . . 
Forty-eighth Infantry, tJ. S. V . . . 

Forty-ninth Infantry, U. 8. V 

Third U.S. Cavalry 

Fourth,U. 8. Cavalry 

Eleventh Cavalry, U. 8. V 

First U. S. Artillery 

Third U.S. Artillery 

Fourth U.S. Artillery 

Fifth U.S. Artillery 

Sixth U.S. Artillery 

Hospital Corps. U. 8. A , 

Signal Corps, u. 8. A , 

Engineer Corps, U. 8. A . , 

State Volunteers 

Casual detachments ..... 



Cases re- 
















































































































217. 10 



The offensee charged were a^ followf*: 

Seven teentb article of war: 

Loffing clothing 68 

IjOHing If ovemment property 58 

Selling clothing 51 

Twentieth article of war , 7 

Thirty-first article of war 88 

Thirty-«»eoond article of war 4, 216 

Thirty-third article of war 4, 054 

Thirty-eijfhth article of war 730 

Fortieth article of war 132 

Fiftieth artic:le of war 8 

Sixtieth article of war; larceny 4 

Sixty-«w.'ond article of war: 

Absence without leave, not changeable under the thirty-second or thirty- 

thirrl articles of war * . 719 

Abnmng public animal 13 

Allowing prisoner to escape 36 

Aflsault 284 

Assault and battery 52 

Assaulting a sentinel 3 

Breach of arrest 157 

Bribery 1 

Carrying concealed weapon 1 

Ck)mniitting a nuisance 176 

Defacing Government property 1 

Disol>eaience of standing orrlers or regulations 1, 613 

Disobedience of superior ()fficer 48 

Disobedience of noncommirtsionVl officer 1, 004 

Disfibeying sentinel 46 

Disposing of clothing 14 

Disonlerfy conduct .'. 474 

Disre8i)ect to sentinel 71 

Disrespect tr) noncommissioned officer 362 

Disrespect to superior officer 3 

Drunkenness 2, 152 

Drunk and disonlerly 1, 961 

Failure to pay debts 62 

False statement or report 166 

False swearing 23 

Fraud 7 

Fighting 172 

Gambling 10 

Indecent exposure of person 13 

Insubordinate conduct toward commissioned officer 72 

Insubordinate conduct toward noncommissioned officer 246 

Larceny 132 

Malingering 12 

Neglect of duty 1,678 

Resisting arrest 25 

Selling, losing, or wasting Government property 17 

Threatening superior officer 7 

Threatening noncommissioned officer 61 

Disorder, etc., charged as ** Conduct to the prejudice of good order and 

military discipline,*' not included imder previous heads 379 


Total number of cases reportetl 8 

Total number of men trie<l 8 

Number of convictions 1 

Number of acquittals 7 

Total forfeitures $10 


Violation of the thirty-eighth article of war; drunk on duty 2 

Violation of the sixty-second article of war: 

Nj^lectof duty 2 

Disorder, not classed above , ,, 4 



Casefl 50 

Defendants, all natives 72 

Convictions 69 

Acquittals 13 

Disapprovals 6 


Fines pesos.. 2,000 

Death 6 

Years of confinement 493 


Arson 1 

Assault and battery 6 

Assault with intent to kill 14 

Assault with intent to do great bodily harm 1 

Assault with a deadly weapon 2 

Being a spy 2 

Burglary 3 

Guerrilla warfare 5 

Highway robbery 8 

Instigating riot 2 

Instigating robbery ^2 

Insurrection against the United States Government * 2 

Kidnaping 2 

Misconduct in office 2 

Munler 89 

Believing insui^ents with arms and food 1 

R<jbl)ery 20 

Treason 1 

Violation of parole 4 

Violation of the laws of war 3 


All the provost courts have been required to make monthly reports of the cases 
tried. These reports have been sent to thisoflSce for revision and, if found correct, 
for file. 

The following table shows the most important statistics in relation to these courts: 

Cases reported 

DefendantH involved 



Otherwiwe disposed of 

Aggregate of nnes impoHcd and bail 

Aggregate of confinement imposed 




provost court, 

provost court, 

provost court. 




68 stations. 
























1333, 710 Mex. 

Yr. Mo: Da. 

IV. Mo. Da. 

Yr. Mo. Da. 

Yr. Mo. Da. 

89 10 26 

58 — 20 

756 6 26 

904 6 12 

The offenses tried by the various provost courts have included almost every crime 
and misdemeanor known to the law, from bui^lary, robbery, and other felonies, 
except nmrder and rape, to petty violations of municipal regulations and orders. 

Their procedure has been of the simplest kind; they have been a potent factor in 
the administration of affairs in these islands and have given satisfaction. 


The following statistics in relation to desertions are gathered from the special sepa- 
rate reports of boanls of survey on file in this oflSce. 

WAE 1900 — VOL 1, PT V 7 


Statistics relating to desertions. 

Total number of desertions reported 341 


Privates 326 

Corporals 8 

Sergeants 3 

Cooks 3 

Musicians 1 


In the United States 104 

In the Philippine Islands 222 

En route to the Philippine Islands 15 


Less than 3 months 101 

Less than 6 months 69 

Less than 9 months 65 

Less than 12 months 34 

Less than 15 months 26 

Less than 18 months 13 

Less than 21 months 4 

Less than 24 months 1 

More than 2 years 2 

More than 3 years 6 

More than 4 years 4 

More than 5 years 2 

More than 7 years 1 

More than 12 years 1 

More than 15 years 1 

Time not stat^ 11 


Third U. S. Infantry 17 

Sixth U. S. Infantry 2 

Ninth U. S. Infantry 37 

Twelfth U. S. Infantry 20 

Thirteenth U. S. Infantry 12 

Fourteenth U. S. Infantry 22 

Sixteenth U. S. Infantry 15 

Seventeenth U. S. Infantry 3 

Eighteenth U. S. Infantry 2 

Nineteenth U. S. Infantry 17 

Twentieth IJ. S. Infantry 16 

Twenty-first U. S. Infantry 20 

Twenty-second U. S. Infantry 3 

Twenty-third U. S. Infantry 3 

Twenty-fourth U. S. Infantry 6 

Twenty-seventh Infantry, if.S.X 8 

Thirty-first Infantry, U. S. V 1 

Thirty-fourth Infantry, U. S. V 38 

Thirty-fifth Infantry, U.^.V 3 

Thirty-sixth Infantry, U. S. V 8 

Thirty-seventh Infantry, U. S. V 11 

Thirty-eighth Infantr>', U. 8. V 3 

Forty-second Infantr>% U. S. V 2 

Forty-third Infantry, U. S. V 4 

Forty-fourth Infantry, U. S. V 6 

Forty-fifth Infantry, U. S. V 2 

Forty-sixth Infantry, U. S. V 6 

Third U. S. Artillery 5 

Sixth U. S. Artillery 10 

Third U. S. Cavalry 6 

Fourth U. S. Cavalry 21 

Eleventh Cavalry, U. S. V U 

Hospital Corps, tJ. S. A 1 


Statistics relating to desertions — Continued. 


Unknown 156 

Dread of the service in the Philippine Islands ! 30 

Bounty jumpers 25 

Fear of punishment 20 

Dislike for the service 20 

Probable capture by the enemy 12 

General worthlessness 10 

Drunkenness 14 

Cowardice 9 

Bad influence 8 

Sickness 8. 

Homesickness 5 

Unfitness for the service 4 

Debts 5 

Gambling 3 

Family affairs 2 

Insanity 3 

Climate 1 

Inheritance 1 

Native wife 1 

Religion 1 

Unintentional 3 

In addition to the routine work of the offices, as shown by the foregoing tables, 
various papers and communications have been referred to these offices for l^al 
All of which is respectfully submitted. 

Jno. a. Hull, 
Major and Judge- Advocate^ U. S. V., 
AssistutU Judge-AdvocatCy Ditdsi&ti of the Philippines. 

Appendix D. 

Headquaktehs Division of the Philippines, 

Office of Chief Quartermaster, 

Manila, P. /., July 11, 1900, 

Division of the Philippines, Manila , 1\ I. 

Sir: I have the honor to submit the following narrative report upon the work of 
the quartermaster's department in the Philippine IslanfQs during the past fiscal year. 
For detailed information attention is invited to inclosures.* In this report I must 
confine myself to the time from August 31, 1899, to June 30, 1900, the period during 
which I had charge of the office. 

The Army on August 31, 1899, had possession of the country in the vicinity of 
Manila; on the railroad north to Angeles, with the railroad repaired and in use to 
San Fernando; on Laguna de Bay to Calamba, and from Bacoor to Imus. In the 
southern islands there were garrisons at Iloilo, Cebu, Jolo, and small garrisons on 
some of the small islands in the vicinity of Jolo. 

Transportation was greatly deficient for rapid movements and the deficiency had 
to be made up from carabaos. When the rainy season was nearly over and active 
movements commenced in the field some additional transportation had been 
eceived from the Un ited States, and by concentrating all that there was with the 
rmoving columns and hiring a large number of carabao carts and in addition giving 
to each company some coones the movements were successfully made. Even with 
these expedients the troops at the front would have suffered for supplies if there had 
not been quantities of rice in the country over which the movements were made — 
the unhulled rice and rice straw for the animals and the hulled rice for the men. 

The rapid advance of the army, the establishment of new posts for the garrisons 
necessary to hold the sections garrisoned, and the supply of these posts has made the 
work of the supply department, with the limited means at hand, one of great diffi- 

^The inclosures referred to are not printed, as they have been furnished to the Commanding Gen- 
eral of the Army and will doubtless be incorporated in his report. 

4 ^ 


culty. This can be better understood when it is considered that this expansion has 
been from a few posts near tlie bases of supply to over 350, many of them situated at 
remote and almost inaccessible points. The establishment of subdepots for the dif- 
ferent districts and regularly guarded trains of supplies from the subdepots to the 
outlying posts have been a necessity. 

A lai^e number of mules, wagons, and cavalry horses have been shipped in from 
the United States — all that have been asked for in fact — until now the command is 
fairly well supplied with transportation and cavalry horses. More will be required 
from time to time to meet losses and supply additional posts as they are necessarily 

The work here of the department has been most interesting and instructive — cer- 
tainly it has been devoid of all sameness — and I trust its management by the officers 
of tlie department has been satisfactory to those under whom they nave served. 
Much of the work has been done by quartermasters of the volunteers, some with 
more or less experience during the Spanish War, and with rare exceptions they have 
rendered fine service. Two are now chief quartermasters of departments, many 
others chief quartermasters of districts. One is assistant in the office of the chief 
quartermaster of the division. That they are satisfactorily filling these places proves 
their value. Upon the regular officers of the department has mllen the important 
duties of chief quartermasters of the largest departments, depot quartermaster at 
Manila, officer in charge of water transportation, etc., where experience and knowl- 
edge of the general work of the department is necessary. 

The depot at Manila has grown to meet the demands for the supply of over 60,000 
men. When it is considered that all of the supplies for this large force have to pass 
through this depot and that all of the vessels bringing supplies here have to an£or 
2 miles or more from the depot and that at times as many as 19,000,000 pounds have 
l)een unloaded in two weeks — a million pounds a day a fair average — it will be appre- 
ciated what the work is. It requires a large force of men and a large numher of 
steam launches and lighters to do the work, supplemented by cascoes and loichas. 
It is necessarv for the Government to own its laimches and lighters, and, as rapidly 
as possible, they have been purchased and the number of hired cascoes and lorchas 
correspondingly reduced. 

It has been found practically impossible to prevent stealing diuing the transfer 
of stores to the storehouses, particularlv when night work was necessary; but, by 
adding to the number of checkers and by many other means, the stealing has been 
reduced to a minimum. 

The system adopted now^ by Major-General MacArthur of organizing depots of 
supplies for the departments of northern and southern Luzon, to which all supplies 
will be issued in bulk from the main depot, and to which all requisitions will be 
sent for supply, after approval at the headquarters of the departments, will relieve, 
to some extent, the excessive work at the central depot and result in more prompt 
supply to the troops of the stores require<l. 

There are matters here peculiar to the islands, such as means taken to supplement 
the deficient amount of transportation for the first year of the war, that are of 
interest and from the results of which much mav be learned. 



their class and small pay, showed commendable courage in their work. While they 
would hug the ground and shake Avith fear during an action, when ordered forward for 
work which they recognized as theirs, with rare exceptions were up and off intent 
upon their duties; their fear forg<^tten. When the active campaigning with large 
bodies of troops was over there was a tendency in the companies to require these 
Chinos to do all of the dirty work about the kitchen and camp, handle all supplies, 
etc., thus tending to make the men think they could be callea upon to do nothing 
but march and fight; hence it was then thought best by the major-general command- 
ing to discharge all Chinos with companies. 

The hospitals, also, owing to the insuflicient numl)er of hospital corps men, were 
supplied with Chinos with good results, while the emergency lasted. They have all 
been discharged now, except a few, at the so-called base hospitals. 


These are small horses capable of doing a great deal of work, when used with care. 
They have l^een used largely for messenger service and for hauling company rations 
in a small, Ught cart wita springs. They have been used also, to some extent, for 


scouting. The necessities of their use in the Army, and their limitedsupply, ha*s raised 
their value from $25 to $100 Mexican, or more. Being stallions, and ^reat fighters, 
care has to be us^ with them at night to tie them so that they can neither kick nor 
bite each other. 


The carabao has been of CTeat service to the Army here, but he is slow and tries 
the patience of a commander when celerity of movement is necessary for success. 
Five miles a day on a fair road is all that you can expect, and 2 has been the maxi- 
mum over some of the roads during or after a rain. In dry weather great care has to 
be used to throw water over them frequently, or they will not live. Their most suc- 
cessful work was done when hitched up tandem, under General Lawton in his cam- 
paign north and under General MacArthur when advancing up the railroad, in 
hauling supplies between breaks in the road. During the past few months they have 
been attacKed by rinderpest, which has killed large numbers of them. Fortunately 
the mule transportation has now lareely taken the place of the carabao, and the 
Army has not felt seriously the loss of this animal. For those lost in the service we 
have been able to settle for about $40, Mexican, each. 

The question of water transportation in the harbors at the large number of ports 
occupied has been a difficult one. As there is rarely sufficient depth of water for 
the vessels to go within a mile of the docks, some means has to be provided for trans- 
porting the stores to land. Launches have been provided for the most important 
narbors; at others two bancas have been fastened together, upon which is built a 
platform for the stores. Lai^e rowboats have been contracted for in Hongkong, and 
the delivery will soon commence. These will be supplied the smaller posts on the 

For a time, owing to the closed ports, the department was able to secure interisland 
steamers of from 150 to 600 tons capacity at a reasonable cost. The owners had 
little use for them and were glad to charter them to the Government for almost any 
price. When the ports were opened, all of the boats were required at once, and the 
owners could get almost any price for them, and there was then considerable diffi- 
culty in keeping the posts supplied. It was done, however, by keeping some of the 
vessels as a military necessity and by shipping stores on commercial liners on the 
return trip of the vessels to hemp ports and by use of the Pennsylvania and Indiana 
as supply ships. Freight charges on commercial lines are very high, but it is the pol- 
icy to use them when reasonable rates can be obtained. The department should 
have five or six light-draft interisland boats. One for each department commander 
to visit his posts, transfer troops quickly to threatened points, and the remainder for 
the supply of the posts difficult to reach with commercial lines. A list of lighters, 
launches, etc., purchased and now belonging to the quartermaster's department, and 
their assignment is inclosed. 


The clothing supplies since August, the date of my arrival, have given good satis- 
faction. Contracts for khaki clothing from Hongkong ha<^l been made by Colonel 
Pope. I also made a contract for 30,000 suits; after which instructions were received 
to forward requisitions for what was required to the Quartermaster-General, it being 
better policy to supply all clothing for the army from the United States. Since receiv- 
ing these instructions no further contracts for clothing have been made here. The 
Hongkong clothing is made of good English khaki, holds its color, and wears well; 
but it is not made up in sls good shape as that received from the United States. The 
khaki now received from the United States wears well, holds its color, and gives 
general satisfaction. 

For head wear the men will not wear the helmet to any extent. In two regiments 
the colonels have required it, and I believe it is better for the health of the men that 
they should, but there are many objections. It is easily kno(;ked off the head by the 
gun or the tnick brush when advancing rapidly, and it is inconvenient at night when 
the men are sleeping in the field. The c^impaign hat arranged for ventilation about 
the sweat band and in the sides above the head has met with general approval and 
will be, when perfected, a suitable hat for field service in a tropical climate. The 
complaint is made that the ventilation is soon lost about the sweat band, it being of 
too soft material and soon flattening down so as to exclude ventilation. When this 
has been the case, I fancy the man has taken a hat too small for him. 

Blankets should be light weight for this climate. The Gold Medal cot is greatly 
liked, as it folds and takes little space and is the only cot the men have h^ that 
could be taken with them in changes of station. The bamboo bunk has been used 
extensively here about Manila, but it soon dries out and falls to pieces. It is bulky 


and can not be moved with the troops. The Gold Medal cot will have to be repaired 
frequently in this climate — that is, supplied with a new canvas covering. 

During the past year there has been practically no call for either white uniforms 
or white cork helmets. The white uniforms soil too quickly for field service, and 
the white helmets are not used — first, as they are too conspicuous, consequently too 
good a mark in the field to be desired, and, second, because the men prefer a cam- 
paign hat to a hehnet. 


It has been a source of great satisfaction to find that horses and mules brought to 
these islands from the United States so soon become acclimated and keep in good 
condition. Even without American forage, rice straw, unhulled rice, and native 
grass make a good substitute and keep the animals in good flesh. We lose a few 
by sunstroke, quite a number from glanders, but where care is used not to over- 
work the animals in the middle of the day, there is very little loss from heat. The 
fact is established that our stock will do well here, and in case of a shortage on 
American forage, native foraee can be substituted. 

Pack-mule transportation nas to be used in some parts of the islands, but, by 
equipping the posts with both wagons and pack saddles, the same mules have been 
used lor both purposes. 

In the shipping of animals from the United States much has been learned. The 
mistake has been made in having a strong piece in front of the animal, giving 
him only about 1 foot play. Unable to right himself as the vessel swings from side 
to side, the animal is frequently thrown over the breast piece and breaks his neck. 
Give the animal the chance to right himself in a storm by removing the breast piece, 
placing slats on the floor of his stall and in the space at front, and he will keep his 
leet in the severest storm. He will step out of his stall about 2 feet and swing with 
the ship. When he gets tired, he will lie down. Feed boxes are of no use, as they 
are in tne way and the feeding can better be done on the floor in front. The slings 
are of no use and are rarely used. 


The railroad extending from Manila to Dagupan came into the hands of the quar- 
termaster's department, as the country north was cleared of insurgents. Many of 
the rails had been taken up and buriea, the ties burned, streams of water diverted 
to the road bed to wash out the earth and make portions of it a running stream, the 
engines run together at full speed or dumped into a convenient river, and the bridges 

Eartially or wholly destroyed. This was the situation upon some portions of the road; 
ut upon other parts the insurgents were driven back too rapidly to give them the 
opportunity to do more than temporary injury. Under the able management of 
Maj. C. A. Devol, the depot quarterma.ster, ties were purchased in large quantities 
from Japan; rails, etc., from the United States; engines raise(Hrom the beds of the 
streams and repaired, rails dug up that had been buried, and the roadbed and rail- 
road repaired m time to keep the army north supplied. The work finally became 
too ^reat for the overloaded depot at Manila, and was turned over to Captain Sibert, 
Engmeer Corps, who handled the road and repairs with good judgment and dis- 
played in its management fine executive ability. When the comitry along the road 
settled down and there was a demand for cars for shipping in rice and other prod- 
ucts, the road was turned over to Mr. Higgins, its original manager. 


The trouble in China has necessitated the supply of transportation and supplies for 
two regiments, the Ninth and Fourteenth Infantry and Riley's Light Battery, sent 
from Manila to Taku, and the Sixth Cavalry, forwarded from the United States. For 
the Ninth Infantry the transp>orts Logan and Fort Albert were taken and a train of 
nineteen 4-mule wagons and three ambulances suppUed. For the Fourteenth Infantry 
eleven 4-mule wagons and two ambulances were shipped, the regiment and transpor- 
tation being forwarded on the Indiana and Flinlshirej the Wyefield following with a 
shipload of stores to stock a depot at Taku. For transportation service at Taku and 
from Taku to Nagasaki, the Indiana and Flintshire have been allotted. Two steamers 
of hght draft have been chartered and two launches purchased for use at Taku. At 
Nagasaki a storehouse has been rented for stores receive<l from the United States des- 
tined for Taku, and at Taku or some place in that vicinity a depot established for the 
supply of our troops now in China. With Capt. J. C. Byron as chief quartermaster 
of tne forces in Chma, and Captain Wood as depot ouarterniaster at Taku, it is believed 
the work of tiie quartermaster's department will be well cared for and the troops 
BuppUed with as little delay as practicable. 



To keep an efScient force of clerks in the Philippines has been difficult. Some 
can not stand the climate and have to return to the United States; others get home- 
sick, and as they get no more pav here than in the United States thev try every 
known method to get sent back. In my own office the clerks have been faithful and 
have kept at their desks often when too sick to work. Many changes have been nec- 
essary owing to sickness, but by getting the best men we could find out of a job and 
trainmg them, the office has managed to keep up its work. 

The effort to get good experiencSi clerks from the United States for the department 
has been a failure. Clerks of that class are not hunting a place and are wanted where 
they are. They will rarely come to Manila. When any quartermaster's office in the 
Umted States is willing to give up an experienced clerk for this division, there is an 
out about him somewhere — usually drink — and he will be of no use here. 

We have been able to keep up the supply of clerks fairly well from men discharged 
from the volunteers and regulars, or from men who came to Manila hoping to make 
a fortune, and the time not being ripe, take the position of a clerk. This system is 
better than sending untried men from the States. 

In closing, I desire to express my appreciation of the earnest work done by the 
officers of the quartermaster's department serving in this division. They have all 
served in harmony and their work has been more or less valuable, according to their 
relative ability and aptitude for quartermaster duties. 

The inclosed reports of the chief quartermasters of the Departments of Northern 
and Southern Luzon are valuable, giving in some detail the extensive work of these 
departments handled, I will add, with energy and good judgment by these officers. 

It is proper to remark that the work of this office has included internal improve- 
ments and repairs, the equipment of the collectors and captains of ports and other 
civil officers as the various ports have been opened for trade, the extent of which can 
be judged by the 'expenditures of public civil funds from September 1, 1899, to 
August 7, 1900, of $5,969,375.57, Mexican. 

Very respectfully, ete., C. P. Miller, 

Major and Quartermaster^ U. S, -4., Chief Qiuirtermaster. 

Appendix E. 

Headquarters Division of the Philippines, 

Office of the Chief Commissary, 

Manila, P. /., Judy i, 1900, 


Division of the PhilippineSy Manila^ P. /. 

Sir: I have the honor to submit the following report pertaining to the subsistence 
department, Division of the Philippines, for the fiscal year ended June 30, 1900: 

1 was placed on duty as chief commissary of the Department of the Pacific and 
Eighth Army Corps (since changed to the Division of the Philippines) on January 
2, 1900, and assumed the duties that date. Owing to the unsettled state of military 
affairs in the islands from July 1 to December 31, 1899, to the numerous changes of 
troops in the islands, and to the fact that three different officers at various times held 
the position of chief commissary, I am unable to obtain data from the files of this 
office to give a detailed report of the work done during that period. The fact is 
shown, however, that the troops stationed here and the volunteers returning to the 
United States were fully subsisted. Often during the operations of last summer, fall, 
and the early winter, troops operating in the field became so far separated from their 
supplies that it was impossible to reach them, in which cases supplies were obtained 
from the residents and receipts — mostly written in pencil on leaves from a notebook — 
were given for them. In all cases where these receipts have been presented prompt 
payment has been made. 

On January 1 the island of Luzon was garrisoned by our troops from Calamba, 
Laguna Provmce, on the south, to San Fabian, Pangasinan Province, on the north, 
and, in addition, 7 regiments held stations on seven of the southern islands of the 
archipelago, the total number of places garrisoned being 124. Since that date 5 reg- 
iments have been added to the army here, the island of Luzon has been garrison^ 
from its extreme southern to its extreme northern point, all the principal islands, 
excepting Paragua, have been occupied, and on June 30 there were troops in 407 


posts. The principal difficulty of supplying these numerous and widely separated 
stations was the question of tranh«portation; this in spite of the energetic enortsof the 
depot quartermaster and his assistants to meet the emer^ncy. The railroad to Dag- 
upan has not sufficient cars to cdrry supplies for the stations in north-central Luzon, 
and a large jjortion of them have to be sent by water to Dagupan and distributed 
from that point. Coasting vessels to the southern islands were few and of limited 
capacity. This difficulty was overcome in March by the assignment of the contract 
transports Pennsylvania and Indiana to duty as interisland supply ships. Of these 
the Pennsylvania was assigned to the southern island route, supplying those islands 
now included in the Department of Mindanao and Jolo and the Visayan Depart- 
ment, and the islands of Masbate, Romblon, Leyte, and Samar. The Indiana was 
assigned to the northern route, viz, the island of Luzon and others close to its coast 
line. From March 1 to June 30, 1900, there were received at the subsistence depot 
at Manila over 70,000,000 pounds, net, of subsistence supplies, and over 53,000,000 
pounds, net, shipped out to the various posts. This will explain the difficulty of the 
transportation problem. 


Fresh vegetables for the troops in these islands are furnished under contract, which 
has been held for the year by the firms of Castle Brothers and Wolf & Sons. This con- 
tract is advertised for and awarded in San Francisco, Cal. , the vegetables to be delivered 
to the depot commissary in Manila, and the contractor guaranteeing their good con- 
dition for fourteen days after delivery. They are procured from the United States 
for one half the year and from Australia the other half. They have unifonnly been 
of good quality, and only once during the year has there been a shortage on deliv- 
eries, that occasion being due to the breaking down of one of the steamers carrying 
the cargo. The question of their distribution to the various stations of the islands is 
a difficult one, owing to their perishable nature. I believe it would be to the better 
interest of the service were the chief commissary of this division to advertise for and 
award the contract, and that the contract should specify the delivery of needed 
amounts at certain depots in the various departments and districts, instead of a total 
delivery in Manila. While a delivery at other points might entail a slight increase 
in price over delivery in Manila, it would in the end be more economical, through 
avoiding loss, and it would further insure a full supply at all points, which, with the 
present limited transportation, is impossible at all times. Desiccated v^etables, 
packed in tins, have been supplied all posts difficult of access during the rainy sea- 
son, to be held as a reserve to be used when fresh vegetables are exhausted through 
inability to get supplies to them. These desiccated v^etables have given good sat- 
isfaction. By General Orders, No. 38, current series, these headquarters, post commis- 
saries are authorized to purchase vegetables in the vicinity of posts when unable, 
through exhausting of supply, to furnish them to the troops otherwise. 


The problem of supplying fresh meat to the troops has been the one presenting 
the greatest difficulties. There are comparatively few cattle in these islands; they 
are very small and very subject to disease. On February 9, 1900, general authority 
was given to all commissaries at posts which could not be reached with frozen beef 
to purchase in vicinity of posts such beef as could be procured. Under this authority 
a large number of posts have obtained fresh beef, ranging in quantity from a full 
supply down to two days in ten. At a number of posts no beef could be procured. 
The quality of the beef so procured is reported as inferior. 

The mam supply of fresh meat, l)eef and mutton, has been obtained from the 
Navy, which has three refrigerator ships on duty here, making alternate trips to 
Australia, where the meat is bought frozen, and is kept in that condition until it is 
issued. This meat has given perfect satisfaction. It can only be supplied, however, 
to the troops in central Luzon, as it must get to posts where it is to be used within 
forty hours after it is shipped. A refrigerator meat car was constructed by the 
quartermaster's department, and by its use this meat has been furnished regularly 
to all posts from Manila to Dagupan, and to posts within 50 miles on either side of 
the road. It has also been sent regularly by launches to posts on Laguna de Bay and 
to various posts inland from the bay as far as Majayjay and San Pablo. Fresh b^f 
has also been shipped to Balayan, Taal, and Batangas on the south coast of Luzon, 
but this can only be done by loading it on the coasting vessel just before its departure. 
Any material delay in the departure of the vessel entails a loss of the beef. Fresh 
mutton can not be sent to more distant posts, as it thaws out too quickly. 


In September last a cargo of beef from the refrigerator ship Bungareewas pun ha^sed 
and located at Iloilo, for the supply of tnxms in that vicinity, but as they have poor 
facilities for distributing it, the meat reaches but few troops. There is still nearly 
half the cargo on the ship and its contract expires in September next. This is an 
abnormally expensive method of supplying meat, as the demurrage on the vessel is 
$7,500 per month. 

I believe the problem of supplying fresh meat to the troops can only be solved by 
establishing cola-storage plants, with one compartment in which the temperature is 
kept below the freezing point, at various central stations on the islands, and keeping 
thereat a constant supply, which can be delivered by refrigerator ships from Australia. 
It is possible that the naval ships could do this. Ba.«ed on the present distribution 
of troops, a plant of this character should be at Manila, Dagupan, Vigan, and Legaspi, 
on Luzon; at Catbalogan, on Samar; Cebu, on Cebu; Iloilo, on Panay; J^mboanga, on 
Mindanao, and Jolo on Jolo. Each of these points should also be supplied with a 
small ship or large sea-going tug, with a well-msulated compartment, for the distri- 
bution of the meat. These points are selected in such localities that the district they 
supply could be covered by the vessel in weekly trips. Each permanent post should 
be supplied with a refrigerator, similar to those furnished posts in the United States, 
capable of holding a week's supply of meat for the garrison. 


One of the greatest difficulties this year in reflating the supplies for this division 
has been due to the necessity of supplying interior posts of the islands sufficiently to 
last them through the rainy season, as during that period the roads leading to them 
are practicably impassable. Depending on their location, these posts were supplied 
from June 1 to October 31, November 30 and December 31, respectively, and as these 
posts were constantly being added to, on account of the acquisition of new territory 
in the interior, the amount of supplies required by them could not at any time have 
been foreseen. However, the large shipments called for on requisition of Januarv 
26, to arrive April 20 and May 20, enabled the Subsistence Department to meet all 
demands without entailing any deprivation at any point. 


Owing to the unsettled state of affairs, the constant movement of troops, and the 
continued expansion of territory occupied, it was impossible, until the last part of 
the fiscal year, to have an order issued systematizing the administration of subsistence 
duties in these islands. Consequently all the duties of chief commissary of the vari- 
ous departments were conducted in this officio. An exception to this was the Depart- 
ment of Mindanao and Jolo, whose chief commissary, Captain Niskern, was instructed 
in the early spring to take charge of his department and make his calls direct on 
the Manila depot. In June an order was compiled in this office (General Orders 
No. 38, Headquarters Division of the Philippines, June 27, 1900) giWng detailed 
instructions to all commissaries, and from July 1 each chief commissary of a depart- 
ment will take charge of his own department, leaving to this office its proper duties 
of administration and supervision. 


As soon as possible after taking charge of this office, a cable was sent to the Com- 
miseary-General, U. S. A. (January 13, 1900), calling for ne^ed rations, and, con- 
tinuing this work, on January 26 a complete requisition for all articles of the ration 
and sales stores was mailed him. This requisition called for a large shipment of all 
articles, to arrive at Manila on April 20 and on May 20, and also for regular amounts, 
to arrive on June 20 and monthly thereafter. On this requisition were 43 items 
not on the r^:ular list of supplies in the United States, and all were allowed by 
the Commissary-General, he well appreciating the fact that tiie officers and troops in 
these islands have to depend entirely on the subsistence department for their pur- 
chases. The first shipment under this arrived April 30, and since then regular ship- 
ments have been coming on semimonthly transports. Based on the experience of 
six months, and in consultation with Maj. G. B. Davis, depot commissary, Manila, 
this requisition is now being revised to more fully meet the wants of the islands. 

A requisition for a year's supply of blanks was mailed the Commissary-General 
early in May. Blanks for these islands should be printed in Manila, and plates for 



the purpose are on hand, excepting Form No. 69, but printing facilities are yet too 
poor to meet the demand. 

A requisition for a year's supply of stationery and oflfice property is now being 
compiled and will be mailed to the commissary-general in a few days. 


The amount of stores lost through deterioration and theft has been abnormally 
large. No board of survey book was kept during the first six months of the year, so 
that I am unable to give the value of stores lost, except from January 2 to June 30, 

During this period the total loss on the islands amounted to |116, 781. 75 

Divided as follows : 

Condemnations $113,669.50 

Missing (almost entirely theft in transit from depot, 
Manila, to posts) 3,112.25 


Of the stores condemned 113, 669. 50 

there were : 

Oatmeal 16,347.24 

Butter 38, 444. 82 

Bacon and ham, sugar-cured 33, 598. 94 

88, 391. 00 

Condemnation of other stores 25, 278, 50 

The oatmeal had been on hand more than a year and was musty and wormy. It 
was a remnant of a vast quantity sent here under the misapprehension that it was a 
staple article of diet in this climate. 

The butter was of a large supply sent in September, 1899. It was in three-pound 
tins, which are too large for use here, about half the tin being lost through rancidity 
before it can be used. This caused small demand for it. 

The bacon and ham were of the sugar-cured variety, which will not keep in this 
climate without cold storage. 

The greater bulk of the oacon, butter, and ham could have been saved to the Gov- 
ernment had the subsistence department had the use of a small cold-storage plant 
erected by Mr. Evans and completed in September, 1899. This plant was finally 
obtained on trial in May, 1900, and purchased in June, 1900. (See correspondence 
on this subject, hereunto appended, marked Exhibit A). The condition of perish- 
able stores placed in this plant as soon as they arrive from their long and hot voyage 
is vastly improved. 

The loss on transports to Manila, amounted to $20, 137. 41 

as follows: 

Jettisoned by S. S. Centennial^ aground North Luzon $13, 100. 46 

Stolen between vessels in bay and storehouses 2, 463. 39 

Condemned 4, 573. 56 


The total losses by theft during the six months amounted to $5,575.64, and, 
though frequently attention was called to the matter, the quartermaster's depart- 
ment has been unable to eradicate the evil. They are, however, working at a great 
disadvantage, for most of the lightering is done in open cascoes. 


It has been found advantageous to purchase in Manija the following items: Su^ar, 
issue and granulated; rice; coffee, sales; t«as; butter, Australian in one-pound tins; 
cheese, Australian cream, and Edam; milk, Australian, concentrated in gallon cans; 
Viking evaporated cream; mushrooms;, French; pineapples; sardines; pickles, 
imported varieties; cigars; handkerchiefs, silk; aerated waters; beef extract; jams, 
and marmalades. It is believed that a much larjjer market can, and will be, developed, 
but press of other work has heretofore prevented adequate attention being given the 

Edw. E. Dravo, 
Major J Commissary of Sidtsbitence J V. S. A. Chief Commissary, 


Supplemental Report. 

Manila, P. I., July 20, 1900. 

As I have this day turned over the charge of this office to my successor, Col. C. A. 
Woodruff, Assistant Commissary-General of Subsistence, U. S. A., I have the honor 
to make this supplemental report of transactions from July 1 to July 19, 1900, 

The revised requisition for stores for issues and sales, and the requisition for one 
yearns supply of stationery and property, have been completed and were forwarded 
to the Commissary-General of Subsistence by the mail which left Manila on July 15. 
In connection with the requisition for issue and sales stores, I would state that, 
while the shipment of a five, six, or seven months' supply to the various interior 
posts for the rainy season greatly depleted the reser\^e supply in the depot at Manila, 
a careful calculation showed that by the end of the rainy season a reserve supply, 
equal to nearly three months' supply for the army here, would have accumulated 
there, owing to the nonshipment oi supplies to these posts. 

Since June 30 a new element of uncertainty has arisen through establishing Manila 
as a base of supplies for our army in China. On July 9 a three months' supply of 
rations for 5,000 men was ordered and has been shipi)ed to Taku, China, by the depot 
commissary, Manila — 450,000 field, 50,000 travel, ancl 20,000 emergency rations — with 
a corresponding amount of sales stores. On cable recommendation from this office 
to the Commissary General of Subsistence, U. S. A., Washington, D. C, dated 
July 11, 1900, all troops going from the United States to China will be supplied with 
rations to subsist them sixty aays after landing. This, with the increased requisition 
which was made on a basis of 68,000 men, will place the depot here in condition to 
meet all calls upon it. 

The troops in China having no means of obtaining fresh meat, and the Bungaree, 
at Iloilo, being retained there at great expense to supply but few men, this office, on 
July 18, recommended that that refrigerating ship, with her cargo of fresh meat still 
on hand — about 300,000 pounds — be sent to Taku, China, there to report to the depot 
commissary. This recommendation has been put in effect by Special Order No. 93, 
current series, these headquarters. The supply of fresh meat the Bungaree will take 
to China will be a full proportion, seven-tenths for 5,000 men for two months, and can 
be made to last three months by reduction of the proportion, thus giving ample time 
to continue the supply. 

Respectfully, Edw. E. Dravo, 

Major y Comjiiissary of Subsistence U. S. Army, 

Hdqks. Division of the Philippines, 

Office Chief Commissary, 
Manila, P. /., August e, 1900, 

Division of the Philippines, Manila, P. I. 

Sir: Replying to instruction from your office, dated August 1, 1900, I have the 
honor to submit the following report of subsistence affairs in this division since 
June 30: 

The supplemental report of my predecessor, Maj. E. E. Dravo, commissary subsist- 
ence,U. S. A., chief commissary of the division until July 19, when I took charge of the 
office, covers this up to and including that date. Since that time arrangements have 
been made for supplying the forces at Taku, China, with fresh beef, and they have a 
sufficient supply en route to supply 18,000 men until February 1, 1901, ana should 
the troops be removed the arrangement holds goods for delivery at any point in 
China or the Philippines. 

The extra demands caused by supplying distant posts to carry them through the 
rainy season and the supplies sent to troops operating in China reduced the supplies 
on hand here very materially, but under the energetic action of the chief commissaries 
of the Departments of Northern and Southern Luzon, with the cooperation of the 
depot commissary and their sul)depots, such as are available are being wisely dis- 
tributed to supply the more pressing wants, and it is confidently believed that with 
the arrival of stores now afloat every post in the division will have an abundance of 
every authorized article desired for issue or sales, excei)t fresh vegetables and fresh 
beef, and this problem can only be satisfactorily solved when we have cold storage at 
several points combined with an abundance of rapid transportation. 
Very respectfully, 

C. A. Woodruff, 
Colonel and Assistant Commissary- General of Subsistence, U. S. A., 

Chief Commissary, 


Exhibit A. 

Hdqrs. Department Pacific and Eighth Army Corps, 

Office of Chief Commissary, 

Manila, P. /., August SO, 1899, 

Department of the Pacific and Eighth Army Corps, Manila, P. I. 

Sir: Mr. Thos. D. Evans having erected a cold-storage plant in this city, I have 
the honor to request that the quartermaster's department be directed to rent suflfi 
cient of this space for the use of the subsistence department, to admit of storing, 
approximately, 200 tons of perishable supplies. As it is intended to store all butter, 
lard, etc., in this space, the expense to the United States will be easily made up by 
preventing any loss on the stores through climatic infiuences. 
Very respectfully, 

D. L. Brainard, 
Major, Commissary of Subsistence, U, S, F., Chief Commissary. 

[First indorsement.] 

Adjutant-General of Department to chief quartermaster. 

[Second indorsement.] 

August 30, 1899. 

August 31, 1899. 

Chief quartermaster to Capt. R. Sulzer, assistant quartermaster, U. S. V., for report 
as to space needed and rental. 

[Third indorsement.] 

Hdqrs. Department Pacific and Eighth Army Corps, 

Office Assistant to Chief Quartermaster, 

Manila, September 2, 1899, 

Respectfully returned to chief quartermaster of the department. The cold storage 
plant now being erected by Mr. Evans will not be completed for about three weeks. 

From an examination of the plant, I should judge its capacity to be about 10 tons 
refrigeration, with everything in lirst-class condition. 

The machinery has evidently been in use a long time, as all the parts show long 

Storage space, sufficient for 200 tons of perishable supplies, can be obtained when 
the plant is completed, at $30, Mexican coin, per ton of 40 cubic feet, or 2,240 pounds. 
This would amount to $6,000, Mexican coin, per month, which is deemed an exceed- 
ingly high price. 

Raymond Sulzer, 
Captain, Assistant Quartermaster, U, S. V, 

[Fourth indorsement.] 

Hdqrs. Department Pacific and Eighth Army Corps, 

Office of Chief Quartermaster, 

Manila, P. I. , September 4, 1899. 

Respectfully returned to the adjutant-general, Department of the Pacific and 
Eighth Army Corps, recommending return to the cnief commissary for further 
remark as to the necessity of renting this place from Mr. Evans in view of the large 

C. P. Miller, 
Major and Quartermaster, U. S. A., 

Chief Quartermaster. 

[Fifth indorsement.] 

September 5, 1899. 

Adjutant-general of department to chief commissary for further consideration and 

[Sixth indorsement.] 

Hdqrs. Department Pacific and Eighth Army Corps, 

Office of Chief Commissary, 
Manila, P. I., September IS, 1899. 

Respectfully returned to the mljutant-general of the department, inviting atten- 
tion to inclosed letter from Mr. T. E. Evans. This letter niakes quite a reduction in 


price in that quoted in third indorsement, and is respectfully submitted for consid- 
eration. There is no doubt of the need of cold storage for the articles named by 
Colonel Brainard in his letter of August 30, 1899, as the department has quite a 
large supply of perishable stores on hand here, and the whole supply is not safe in 
its present storage. 

T. B. Hacker, 
Captairif Commissary Subsistence ^ U. S. F., 

Acting Chief Commissary, 

[Seventh indorsement.] 

September 14, 1899. 
Adjutant-general of department to chief quartermaster. 

[Eighth indorsement.] 

September 16, 1899. 

Chief quartermaster to Capt. R. Sulzer, assistant quartermaster, U. S. V., for 

[Ninth indorsement.] 

Hdqrs. Department Pacific and Eighth Army Corps, 

Office Assistant to the Chief Quartermaster, 

Manila^ P. /., September 18y 1899, 

Respectfully returned to the chief quartermaster of the department with the 
reduction from the price originally asked to $25, Mexican coin, per ton of 2,240 
pounds. The price is still deemed exceedingly high. I do not know the cost of 
storage in San Francisco, but in New York its cost would hardly be 1 per cent per 
month. As to the machinery, it can easily be determined by superficial examina- 
tion that it is not new or first-class. 

It is believed that this cold storage should not be rented, imless it is an absolute 
necessity, at so high a price. 

Raymond Sulzer, 
Captahij AssiataiU Quartermaster y U. S. V, 

[Tenth indorsement.] 

Hdqrs. Department Pacific and Eighth Army Corps, 

Office Chief Quartermaster, 
Manila y P. /., September 19 y 1899. 

Respectfully returned to the adjutant-general of the department requesting 
information if this expenditure is approved m view of the remarks of Captain Sulzer, 
as contained in the ninth indorsement. 

C. P. IVilLLER, 

Major and Qnariennastery U. S. A,y Chief Quartermaster, 

[Eleventh indorsement.] 

Hdqrs. Department Pacific and Eighth Army Corps, 

Manila^ September Sly 1899. 

Respectfully returned to the chief quartermaster of the department disapproved. 
By command of Major-General Otis: 

Carl Reichmann, 
CaptaiUy Seventeenth U. S. Infantry y 

Acting Assistant Adjutant-General, 

[Twelfth indorsement.] 

Hdqrs. Department Pacific and Eighth Army Corps, 

Office op Chief Quartermaster, 

Manihy P. /., September 2Sy 1899. 

Respectfully returned to the adjutant-general of the department, contents noted. 
Requ^ is inade that this pai)er ha forwarded to the chief commissary of the 

C. P. Miller, 
Major and Quartermaster y U. S. A,y Chief Quartermiister, 


• [Thirteenth hidorsement.] 

September 27, 1899. 

Adjutant-general of department to chief commissary. 

[Fourteenth indorsement.] 

Hdqrs. Department Pacific and Eighth Army Corps, 

Office of Chief Commissary, 
ManUay P. /., November 10, 1899. 

Respectfully referred to the depot commissary, Manila, P. I., requesting expression 
of opinion as to the necessity for the cold storage for the preservation of subsistence 

Attention invited to letter of Mr. Thos. E. Evans, dated November 7, 1899, inclosed 
All papers to be returned as soon as possible. 

O. M. Smith, 
Major y Commissary Suhsistencej U. S. A., Chief Commissary. 

[Fifteenth indorsement.] 

Hdqrs. Department Pacific and Eighth Army Corps, 

Office Depot Commissary, 
Manila^ P. /., November 12, 1899. 

Respectfully returned to the chief commissary, Department of the Pacific and 
Eighth Army Corps. 

If cold storage were available, it could be utilized for the storage of lard, etc. ; it 
would also enable the subsistencie department to purchase sterilized milk in Australia 
for use of hospitals, etc. 

C. R. Krauthoff, 
Captain^ Commissary Subsistence^ U. S. F., Depot Commissary. 

[Sixteenth indorsement.] 

Hdqrs. Department Pacific and Eighth Army Corps, 

Office Chief Commissary, 
Manila, P. I. , November 13, 1899. 

Respectfully returned to the adjutant-general of the department. If the cold 
storage of Mr. Evans at $8,000 Mexican, or say $3,500 in American money, per month 
were to be utilized, I l)elieve it would save that amount of stores; besides it would 
enable the subsistence department to keep many things on hand constantly which 
can not be kept on hand without cold storage, e.g., canned ham, sterilized milk, 
cheese, and many articles that are constantly called for, Avhich, under the present 
arrangement, have to be asked for in small quantities and must be sent in monthly 
installments, due to the absence of cold storage. I understand that the Government 
intends to put up a cold-storage plant. This can not l)e effected within one year, and 
the cost per month will, no doubt, equal that charged by Mr. Evans. 

O. M. Smith, 
Major, Commissary Subsistence, U. S. A., Chief Commissary. 

[Seventeenth indorsement.] 

Hdqrs. Department Pacific and Eighth Army Corps, 

Manila, November 15, 1899. 

Respectfully returned to the chief quartermaster of the department for remark and 
recommendation upon what apj^ears to l)e a new proi:>osition on the part of Mr. Evans. 
By command of Major-General Otis: 

Thomas Barry, 
Assi^^an t A djutan t- General. 

[Eighteenth indorsement.] 

Hdqrs. Department Pacific and Eighth Army Corps, 

Office Chief Quartermaster, 
Manila, P. /., November 17, 1899. 

Respectfully returned to the adjutant-general of the department. The space 
required as state<l by the chief commissary is 2(X) tons. 

For this space Mr. Evans first proposed to charge $30 per ton per month, or a total 
of 16,000. Later he reduced the price to |25 per ton or total of $5,000 per month. 


He now proposes to rent the whole space for $8,000 per month, all these figures being 

The total space is sufficient for 450 tons, and will cost 117.77 per ton per month. 
While this is a reduction in cost per ton, it is an increase in the total of from $5,000 
to $8,000 per month. There is nothing in the seventeenth indorsement to show that 
the commissary department desires anything more than space for 300 tons. 

C. P. Miller, 
Major and Quartermaster j U.S.A.y Chief Quartermaster, 

[Nineteenth indorsement.] 
Adjutant-general of the department to chief commissary. 

November 18, 1899. 

Manila, P. I., September 12 y 1899. 
Captain Hacker, 

Acting Chief Commimaryj U. S. V., Manila ^ P. I. 

Dear Sir: Referring to our conversation of Saturday last in reference to the refrig- 
erator now being erected by myself at San Miguel, I would say you have been 
misinformed somewhat as to the condition of the machinery, very little of it having 
been used before, the ammonia boiler and compressor l^ing the only pieces of 
second-hand machinery. Whereas the steam boiler, engine, condensing tank, feed 
pump, condensor pump, separator, and refrigerating pipes are all quite new, and have 
never been in use before. 

In regard to the prices charged, I would say that the price of storage in San Francisco 
is levied at the rate of 21^ per cent per month on the value of the articles stored, and 
so far as I can ascertain, my price, at $15 gold per ton per month, amounts to 3 per cent 
of the value of the goods stored by the United States Government, and taking into 
consideration the fact that fuel, ammonia, oil, and aU other articles used in connection 
with the running of the plant costs fully 100 per cent more than in San Francisco, 
and that skilled labor is fully 50 per cent more costly than in San Francisco, we do 
not think that the price asked is excessive. In fact, we have rented considerable 
space at the rate of $40 Mexican per ton per month, and the local merchants are very 
glad to procure space at that price. 

As, however. Captain Sulzer, of the quartermaster department, informs me the 
Government does not wish to have its stuff insured, I will reduce my price on that 
accoimt so that you can calculate on a price equal to 2J per cent on the value of the 
goods stored per month, or if you prefer storing by space the charge will be $25 
Mexican per ton of 40 cubic leet. But if you can see your way to taking the full 
space of tne warehouse, which amounts to something over 450 tons, I can make you 
a considerable less price. 

Yours, faithfully, Thos. E. Evans. 

Manila, P. I., Novembtn- 7, 1899, 
Maj. O. M. Smith, 

Chief Commissary J U. S. A.y Manila. 

Dear Sir: In reply to your communication of yesterday, I will say that I will 
lease to the United States Government the whole space in my cold-storage plant at 
San Miguel for the sum of $8,000, Mexican currency, per month; I to keep the plant 
in good working order and to pay all rimning expenses, furnish coal, men, oil, 
skilled labor, firemen, and other labor sufficient to do all things required in the 
proper working of the plant without cost to the Government; you to have the keys 
to the cold-storage chamber and to put in or take out at all hours or times as suit- 
able to you, such goods or merchanaise as you may see fit to store in said chamber, 
without any other cost whatsoever above the said sum of $8,000 per month. 
I have the honor to be, yours, obediently, 

Thos. E. Evans. 

Manila, P. I., January tf, 1900, 
Maj. C. P. Miller, 

Chi^ QuartermaMer, Eighth Army Corps, Manila, P. I. 

Dear Sir: Referring to our several conversations regarding the refrigerator plant 
constructed by me at San Miguel, this (;ity, 1 desire to respectfully offer the same for 
sale to the United States Government at a price to equal the exact cost, exclusive of 
any interest whatsoever upon the capital invested. 


This plant was constructed by me only after much urging upon the part of Colonel 
Brainard, the then chief commissary, who desired the plant for the storage and pres- 
er\'ation of perishable stores in his department. 

My reason for making this offer of sale of the plant to the Government is that up 
to tHe present time I have l)een unable to rent it to them, and there is practically no 
use for it among the commercial community of the city of Manila. The greater part 
of my available capital is tied up in this enterprise, and the failure upon the part of 
the Government to carry out the arrangement entered into by its former chief com- 
missary, while acting in that capacity, is inflicting upon me much loss and great 
financial hardship. 

Now that Colonel Brainard is here, it will l)e best to see him and ascertain whether 
or not the facts of our arrangement as state<l by me are correct. 

You are at liberty to send an accountant to examine the books and vouchers of 
the plant at any time should you desire to prove and determine the question of cost. 

Thos. E. Evans. 

[First indoracment.] 

January 7, 1900. 

Chief quartermaster to adjutant-general of department, rcHjuesting reference to 
Major Brainard for remark. 

[Second indorsement.] 

January 8, 1900. 

Adjutant-general of department to Maj. D. L. Brainard, commissar^' subsistence, 
U. S. v., for remark. 

[Third indorsement.] 

Manila, P. I., January 12y 1900, 

Respectfully returned to the adjutant-general, Department of the Pacific and 
Eighth Army Corps, with the information that the statements herein made by Mr. 
Evans concerning the cold-storage plant are substantially correct. Last summer 
Mr. Evans proposed to erect a small refrigerating plant in this city to meet the 
requirements of the subsistence department, in preserving certain subsistence stores 
on which there had been large losses owing to tne climatic conditions of this place. 

The plant was to be rented, not purchased, hy the Government. I encouraged 
the scheme, feeling certain that the major-general commanding would authorize the 
rental of the plant until the one to be constructed by the quartermaster's department 
should be in operation, and to this end I addressed a letter to the adjutant-eeneral 
of the department urging the adoption of the plan. I was relieved from duty as 
chief commissary of the department and corps before action Avas taken on my letter, 
but I have since learned that Mr. Evans' rates for the plant were regarded as exces- 
sive, and the rental of the building was therefore disapproved. 

At the time of making my recommendation the bacon supplied to this command 
was of such quality as to nreclude its l)eing kept in good condition for a period 
longer than one month, and I desired the use of the cold-storage plant in order that 
a large reserve supply of this article, as well as other perishable stores, could be kept 
on hand at all times to meet j)ossible emergencies. 

My present official status does not pennit of my making recommendations for the 
subsistence department here, but the same conaitions that existed last year exist 
to-day, and the cold storage plant is as necessary now for the preservation of stores 
as it was then. In this connection your attention is invited to my letter of last 
August, which strongly urged the rental of the cold-storage plant alx>ve referred to. 

1). \j. Brainard, 
Major y Cojnmisitary Sribsistaicfy U.S. V. 

[Fonrth indorsement.] 

January 12, 1900. 
Adjutant-general of department to chief quartermaster. 

[Fifth indorsement.] 

January 13, 1900. 

Chief quartennaster to adjutant-general of dei>artment, recommending reference to 
chief commissary for remark. 


[Sixth indorsement.] 

January 13, 1900. 

Adjutant-general of department to chief commissary for remark. 

[Seventh indorsement.] 

Hdqrs. Depabtment Pacific and Eighth Army Corps, 

Office Chief Commissary, 
Manila^ P. /., February ^4, 1900. 

Respectfully returned to the adjutant-general of the department. On January 31, 
1900, there were on hand at the subsistence depot in Manilla the following stores 
which should, especially in this climate, be kept in cold storage, viz: 

Fish, cod pounds. . 55, 468 

Molasses gallons. . 886 

Syrup, cane do. . . 278 

Apples, evaporated pounds. . 362, 542 

Bacon, breakfast do. . . 36, 969 

Butter do... 155,666 

Lard do... 92,929 

Milk cans.. 287,521 

Peaches, evaporated pounds. . 307, 193 

Prunes do... 286,012 

Syrup, maple gallons. . 18, 079 

Flavoring extracts .bottles. . 39, 900 

Oil, olive do... 1,520 

Olives do. . . 5, 177 

Pickles jars.. 35,431 

Candy pounds. - 4, 855 

In addition to these items, there are received at this depnot, monthly, 300 tons 
bacon and 50 tons sugar-cured hams, which should be placed in cold storage as soon 
as received. 

Inasmuch as the cold-storace plant being erected by the Government will not be 
completed for sometime, I believe it will be for the best interests of the service to 
avail ourselves of the plant herein offered — both on the score of economy by prevent- 
ing the lai^e losses which continually occur by these stores being exposed, to the action 
of this hot and moist climate, and on account of the health and welfare of the officers 
and men of this command, who will then receive their stores in better condition. 

I have talked with Mr. Evans on the subject and learned that if he is not able to 
sell the plant to the Government he would be willing to lease it as it stands, the 
Government to bear the expense of running it, for the sum of $750 per month, the 
lease to run for a period of twelve months or longer if needed. At this rate Mr. 
Evans pays rent or ground and buildings. This rental would in eighteen months 
about equal the value of the plant. The ground and buildings in which the plant is 
erected are under lease by Mr. Evans for a period of five years, with privilege of 
extension of five, at the rate of $50 per month. I therefore believe it would be better 
business to buy the plant and obtain a transfer of the lease, as when its usefulness 
shall cease by the completion of the Government plant the sale of the plant and lease 
will materially reduce the total expense. 

I have examined the plant and believe that with electric lights placed in the stor- 
age room, and proper ventilation put in, it would be valuaole to the Subsistence 
Department. Mr. Evans will make these improvements, and will also submit the 
plant to a two or three days* test before lea^e is made. 

Edward E. Dravo, 
Major y Commissarii of SnbmstencCy U. S. -1., Chief Commissary. 

[Eighth indorsement.] 

February 24, 1900. 
Adjutant-general of department to chief quartermaster. 

[Ninth indorsement.] 

Hdqrs. Department Pacific and Eighth Army Corps, 

Office of the Chief Quartermaster, 

Manila^ P. J., February ^5, 1900. 

Respectfully returned to the chief commissary of the department. At what price in 
Mexican can the plant be purchased? Is the rent per month $750 gold or Mexican? 

C. P. Miller, 
}fajor and Qiuirlermaslery U. S. A.y Chief Quartermaster, 

WAR 1900 — ^VOL 1, PT V 8 


[Tenth indorsement.] 

HiKiRs. Department Pacific and Eighth Army CJorps, 

Office of the Chief Commissary, 

Manila, P. /., February ^6, 1900. 

Respectfully returned to the chief quartermaster of the department. The plant 
can be purchased for $24,000 (Mexican) ; the rental price stated within is gold. 

Edward E. Dravo, 
Major J Commissary of Subsistence, U. S. A., Chief Commissary, 

[Eleventh indorsement.] 

Hdqrs. Department Pacific and Eighth Army Corps, 

Office of the Chief Quartermaster, 

Manila, P. L, February^, 1900, 

Respectfully forwarded to the adjutant-general of the department, recommending 
the rental of this plant for six months, with privilege of renewing for six months, at 
1750 gold per month. 

C. P. IVilLLER, 

Major and Quartermaster, U. S. A., Chief Quarterrruuter, 

[Twelfth indorsement.] 

Hdqrs. Department Pacific and Eighth Army Corps, 

Manila, P. L, March 6, 1900. 

Respectfully returned to the chief quartermaster of the department. 

Sfx months ago the chief commissary of the department recommended that the 
quartermaster's department rent sufficient space in this plant to place therein 200 
tons of perishable subsistence supplies. The matter was carefully mvestigated. the 
rental asKed found to be excessive, and on September 1 the recommendation oi the 
chief commissary was disapproved. 

On November 10 the chief commissary, the successor of the one who made the first 
application, brought up the subject, but soon temporarily abandoned it. The pro- 
prietor of the plant again brought up the subject in his letter of January 6 last, with 
result as shown in foregoing indorsements. 

It is developed that Mr. Evans, the proprietor, offers to rent his establishment to 
Government at a rental which would cover the entire cost of the plant and all run- 
ning expenses of the same in the space of fifteen months, which appears to be a busi- 
ness proposition of a character which can not be entertained. 

This renewed application to lease is also disapproved. 

By command of Major-General Otis: M. Barber, 

AssisUint Adjutant'Oeneral, 

[Thirteenth Indorsement.] 

Hdqrs. Department Pacific and Eighth Army Corps, 

Office of the Chief Quartermaster, 

Manila, P. I., March 7, 1900, 

Respectfully returned to the chief commissary of the department, inviting atten- 
tion to the preceding indorsement. This paper to be returned. 

C. P. Miller, 
Major and Qtmrtermaster, U. S. A., Chief Quartermiister, 

[Fourteenth indorsement.] 

Hdqrs. Department Pacific and Eighth Army Corps 

Office of Chief Comm' ^ ^ 
Manila, P. L, Ma » 

Respectfully returned to the chief quartermaster, Department of th . • .aid 
Eighth Army Corps, with the request that this paper be again submitveU, with a 
view to a reconsideration of the disapproval by the department commander. 

There is now in the subsistence depot at this point about $50,000 worth of butter 
which is unfit for use, and on which a board of survey has been called for. The 
plant in question herein is the only refrigerating plant available in Manila, and, as 
stated in the twelfth indorsement hereon, it was available six months ago. Had it 
been utilized at that time all this butter would still have been serviceable and in 
good condition. The loss in this one item alone is more than sufficient to bay thia 


Elant outright four times over. I am therefore strongly of the opinion that it will 
e a measure of economy to avail ourselves of this plant until such time as the plant 
now being erected by the Government may be completed. 

Edward E. Dravo, 
Major, Commissary of SubsiMenc€y U. S. A,, Chief Commissary, 

[Fifteenth indorsement.] 

Hdqbs. Depabtment Pacific and Eighth Army Corps, 

Office of the Chief Quartermaster, 

Manila, P. /., March 8, 1900. 

Respectfully returned to the adjutant-general of the department. 

C. P. Miller, 
Major and Quartermaster, U. S. A., Chief Quartermaster. 

[Sixteenth indorsement.] 

Hdqrs. Department Pacific and Eighth Army Corps, 

Manila, P. I., March 10, 1900. 

Respectfully returned to the chief quartermaster of the department, disapproved. 
Considerations of economy are not conclusive in a case where, as in the present one, 
advantage is apparently taken of the Government's necessities to compel it to submit 
to an exorbitant demand. A principle is involved here which it is thought best not 
to disregard. 
By command of Major-General Otis: 

M. Barber, 
Assistant Adjutant- General. 

[Seventeenth indorsement.] 

Hdqrs. Department Pacific and Eighth Army Corps, 

Office of the Chief Quartermaster, 

Manila, P. I., March 11, 1900. 

Respectfully returned to the chief commissary of the department. Attention is 
invited to the sixteenth indorsement hereon. 

C. P. Miller, 
Major and Quartermaster, U. S. A., Chief Quartermaster. 

Manila, P. I., March 16, 1900. 
Maj. E. E. Dravo, 

Chief Commissary, Department Pacific and Eighth Army Corps, ManUa, P. I. 

Sir: I desire to renew my tender of the refrigerating plant erected by me in San 
Miguel, and have decided, in order to expedite sale of same, to make a further reduc- 
tion of $4,000 Mexican in the price, thus making it $20,000 Mexican. 

Attached is an itemized statement, the details of which are subject to proof, show- 
ing the plant to have cost me in excess of $29,000 Mexican. 

It is of the utmost importance to me and my future that I realize at least some 
part of my investmeiit and at once, and this practical necessity induces me to now 
make the offer of the plant entire, with the lease on the real estate, approximating 
five years, for the price named above, $20,000 Mexican. 

Trusting to early and favorable consideration on the part of the authorities of the 
Government, I am. 

Very respectfully, Thos. E. Evans. 

(Itemized statement of cost omitted, the total being $29,035.10 Mexican.) 

[First indorsement.] 

Hdqrs. Department Pacific and Eighth Army Corps, 

Officc of Chief Commissary, 

Manila, P. I., March 15, 1900. 

Respectfully referred to the adjutant-general, Department of the Pacific and Eighth 
Army Corps, for consideration of the department commander. 

In connection with this paper I forward the former letter on this subject. If this 
plant, the only available one, be purchased at the price here stated, used one year, 


and then sold for but $8,000 Mexican, it will amount to a rental of but $500 gold per 
month, plus $50 gold per month, lease of buildings and grounds, or $550 gold per 
month, which I do not think unreasonable. If the pmnt be used for eighteen 
months, which I do not think an unlikely period, and then brings nothing on sale, 
the cost would be the amount of a rental oi $580.56 gold per month. 

Under the circumstances and under the pressing necessiU^ of the mibsistence departs 
ment for cold storage, now that the hot weather is here, I do not think these figures 
excessive. I urgently recommend favorable consideration, not only on the score of 
ultimate economy, but because, with this plant, the subsistence department will be 
able to supply the army with the perishable stores in much better condition. 

Edward E. Dravo, 
Major y Commissary Suhmtence^ U. S. A.j Chief Commissary. 

Office of Depot Commissary, 

Manila f P. I. , June 5, 1900. 
Chief Commissary, 

Divufixyn of the PhUippineSy Manila^ P. I. 

Sir: I have the honor to make the following report on the cold-storage plant 
recently turned over to the subsistence department for trial: 

The trial began on May 18, 1900. The temperature of the room at this time was 
72° F. After the engines were started the temperature fell steadily. At first the 
fall was not as rapid as desired, the cause being that the expansion cock had to be 
adjusted properly. 

On May 25 the temperatiu*e was 26° F. At this time I had the engines closed 
down for fourteen hours. The rise in temperature was 14° F. A part of the rise 
was undoubtedly due to opening the inner doors for the purpose of going out and in. 

Since that time the engmes have been run six hours on and six hours off. The 
temperature is held steadily at between 36° F. and 40° F. This is the best tempera- 
ture, I consider, for the various articles that have been placed in the cold-storage 
room, such as lard, sliced bacon and ham, butter, Australian milk, cheese, etc. I 
have experimented with a box of fruit glac^ with beneficial results. The improve- 
ment in all the articles is remarkable. In some articles, notably cheese, butter, and 
lard, it is hard to believe that such improvements could be maae. 

The results of the test demonstrate that the subsistence department long since 
should have had the cold storage. The saving to the Government from the preser- 
vation of certain articles would pay for the cold-storage plant many times. 
Very respectfully, 

George B. Davis, 
Major y Commissary Suhsisteytcej U. S. V.y Depot Commissary, 

[First indorsement.] 

June 6, 1900. 
Chief commissary to the adjutant-general of the division. 

The test has proven that the plant will do the work required of it. This report 
to be returned. 

[Second indorsement.] 

June 8, 1900. 

Adjutant-general of the division to the chief commissary. Contents noted. 

U. S. Ck>Ln-8TORAGE AND Ice-Making Plant, 

Office of the Officer in Charge, 

ManiUiy P. /., June 11 y 1900, 

Chief Quartermaster, 

Division of the PhilippineSy Manilay P. I. 

Sir: In compliaiK^e with your instructions contained in letter of June 5, 1900. I 
have the honor to report that in conjunction with two experts I examined the refrig- 
erating plant owned by Thomas E. Evans, which is now oeing given a monthly trial 
by the Government with a view to purchase. 

The plant is operated under the ** absorption system," and consists of a certain 
amount of machinery erected under a shed, and of a refrigerating room. The 


machinery is partly new and partly old, but ^eeniH to porfonn I lie <luty requin>d of 
it aatisfaetorily. 

I inclose herewith a list of questions and answers relative to the ajre and condition 
of the machinery; also a list of temperatures taken at various times during the 6th, 
7th, 8th, 9th, lOth, and 11th of June. I imderstand from Major Davin that no effort 
has been made to keep the temperature below 35®, as the nature of the goods which 
it is expected to store in the refrigerating room does not require a l<jwer temi>erature. 
The machinery is run twelve hours each day; from 6 a. m. to 12 a. m., and fpom 6 
p. m. to 12 p. m. It will be noticed that the temperature is kept very even, except 
on those days when a great deal of new goods have been put in the storage room. 

The plant seems to l>e of sufficient capacity and in sumciently goo<l condition to 
perform the refrigeration required by the subsistence* (lei)artment for the preserva- 
tion of its subsistence stores. 

Very respectfully, Leon 8. Roudiez, 

Major aufi QnartermaMtery U. S. V. 

(Lists of questions and answers and of temperatures omitted.) 

[First indoreement.] 

JiTNE 12, 1900. 
Chief quartermaster to chief commissary to note and return. 

[Second indorsement.] 

June 19, 1900. 
Chief commissary to chief quartermaster. Contents noted. 

Hdqrs. Division op the Philippines, 

Office of Chief Commissary, 

Manila J P. /., Jane SI, 1900. 

Chief Quartermaster, 

Division of the Philippines, Manila, P. /. 

Sir: I have the honor to inform you that the cold-storage plant which has been on 
trial sinc^e May 18, and which it is contemplated purchasing from Mr. Thomas E. 
Evans, Manila, has worked to the utmost satisfaction of the subsistence department 
during its trial, and has been utilized the greater part of the time for the cold storage 
of sul^istence stores. It has fulfilled all the conaitions required of it, and I believe 
its purchase should be completed. 

Respectfully, Edw. E. Dravo, 

Major, Commissary Su}}sistence, V. S. A., Chief Commissary. 

Appendix F. 

Hdqrs. Division of the Philippines, 

Office of the Chief Surgeon, 

Manila, P. /., Avgnd 15 ^ 1900. 
Adjutant-General, Division of the Philippines. 

Sir: I have the honor to submit herewith a report of the operations of the medical 
department in the division of the Philippines for the year ending July 31, 1900. 

The report of my predecessor, Lieutenant-Colonel Woodhull, Deputy Surgeon- 
Greneral, u. S. A., for the period ending December 31, 1899, covers tne first six 
months of the year and was so complete that it is unnecessary to add to it. My 
remarks therefore refer chiefly to the seven months ending July 31, 1900 — the j)eriod 
of my incumbency in this office. 

The military situation, as affecting the medical department, since December 31 
has changed more perhap than it has done in any similar period of our occupation. 

This is due to the garrisoning of numerous posts, embracing the furthermost limits 
of the islands. The number of these p^>sts in January was 122, while on July 31 
there were 37f>, or more than three times as many. As each garrison recjuires a sep- 
arate and complete medical outfit and the services of a special surgeon, it can readily 
be seen that the necessary expansion of our medical force is entirely incommensurate 
with the numerical increase of the troops. 


The change from active warfare, with ite attending hiir(l8hi^)s and consequent 
sickness, to a semipeace bayis has been of advantage to the medical department in 
materially decreasing the sick report, but to offset this advantage the separation of 
the commands into small detachments has preventeil any concentration of enei^es, 
and a medical staif which would l>e amplv sufficient for the mobilized army is 
entirely inadequate to meet the demands oi the same number of troops so widely 

The same is true of medical supplies, for not only does each post require its own 
outfit, but the uncertain transportation to those posts from the supply depots is 
responsible for large losses of medicines and dressings, which have to be replaced. 
This last is no small factor and is a source of anxiety and often of actual suffering. 


The ratio of noneffectives to the whole strength has, until January, 1900, ranged 
from 9 per cent to about 13 per cent. Since this date this ratio has decreased mate- 
rially, tne maximum, 9.02 per cent, being for April, and the minimum, 7.9 per cent, 
for February; the average lor the seven months being 8.84 per cent. 

These figures embrace the most sickly period of the year, i. e., the spring months, 
and it is hoped that a still further decrease may be shown during the following five 
months. There is much significance in the fact that the smallest percentage of sick- 
ness is shown in the February report, which covers the period of greatest military 
activity in the past six months, viz, Cieneral Schwan's campaign in southern Luzon 
with over 20,000 men, the occupancy of many places in the southern islands, and 
the constant ** hikes" by General Mac Arthur's men after ladrones of northern Lozon. 
These operations were conducted during the dry season, rains l)eing exceptional. 
Although the heat during the middle of the day was excessive, and the men were 
undergoing great physical exertion, the percentage of cases of heat exhaustion and 
sunstroke was only a trifle more than one-third of 1 per cent to the whole number 
of sick. 

Aggregate numerical Kick report hy monthji. 

December, 1899: 

Strength 57,175 

Effective 52,040 

Noneffective 5, 136 

Or 8.9 per cent. 

January, 1900: 

Strength 63,428 

Effective 57,833 

Noneffective 5, 590 

Or 8.81 per cent. 

February, 1900: 

Strength 65,936 

Effective 60,661 

Noneffective 5, 275 

Or 7.9 per cent. 

March, 1900: 

Strength 63,441 

Effective 57,857 

Noneffective 5, 584 

Or 8.79 per cent. 

April, 1900: 

Strength 62,934 

Effective 57,256 

Noneffective 5, 679 

Or 9.2 percent. 

May, 1900: 

Strength 63,484 

Effective 57,359 

Noneffective 6,125 

Or 9.65 per cent. 

June, 1900: 

Strength 63,284 

Effective 57,721 

Noneffective 5,568 

Or 8.79 per cent. 


Average for seven months, exclusive of those transferred to the United States, 
8.84 per cent. 

To determine the character of diseases the hospital reports for June 23, 1900, for 
2,575 cases were summarized and found to be distributed as follows: 

Per cent. 

Typhoid fever 3. 07 

Malarial fever 23. 19 

Dysentery 11. 13 

Diarrhoea 14. 48 

Other intestinal diseases 1. 36 

Gastric disorders 5. 14 

Wounds and injuries 10. 60 

Heat exhaustion 19 

Sunstroke 17 

Venereal diseases 9. 32 

Variola 19 

Varioloid 11 

Undetermined 4. 67 

All other diseases 15. 35 

The consolidated statistics for hospital cases for the past seven months will not 
vary these ratios very materially. Should regimental statistics of troops remaining 
in the field and not coming to the larger hospitals be included, it would probably 
cause a slight increase in "skin diseases,'* ** malarial and venereal diseases," and a 
slight decrease in '* wounds and injuries'* and other diseases of a graver type. The 
ratios, however, are approximately correct, and show that intestinal diseases (includ- 
ing typhoid fever) cause 35.2 per cent of total disabilities; malarial fever, with 23.2 
per cent, comes next; wounds and venereal diseases furnish about an equal number 
of noneffectives, with a ratio of about 9 to 10 per cent of the total. 

It is estimated that about 44.8 per cent of the total noneffective force suffers from 
disease which is preventable by improved methods of sanitation, and it is upon the 
belief that sanitation will be further perfected that the hope for a decreased sick 
report is based. 

A very large decrease in sick report, however, must not be expected, because, if 
the present force in the islands remains unchanged, as is probable, the effect of con- 
tinued service will produce its natural result — sickness and mortality. If medical 
and sanitary officers can more than stem this tide, they will have done their duty 

All sickness in the tropics produces an effect on the general economy that does not 
follow similar sickness in the temperate regions, in that it saps vital forces which are 
not restored by natural processes, and thus each illness possesses an increased 
importance in destroying that which cannot be regained without removal from the 
country. The effect of illness in the tropics is, therefore, cumulative, each illness, 
great or small, adding to the total until the patient becomes permanently disabled. 

Apparently the only disease from which recovery may be expected by residence at 
any of the sanitary points in the islands is malaria, but even after such recovery 
reinfection with malaria or infection with other diseases frequently follows exposure, 
and in many instances the man is a frequenter of hospitals until he is disposed of by 
being invalided home or, if delayed too long, by death. Tuberculosis, while fortu- 
nately not yet common, is rapidly fatal, as in also, but to a less degree, smallpox, 
typhoid, and other diseases severely taxing the vital forces. 

Rheumatism, while not usually of a very severe type, is practically incurable. 

Dysentery and other intestinal diseases are frequently benefited by treatment, and 
the sufferers returned to duty, but a return to sick report with aggravated symptoms 
is the rule, and complete recovery a rare exception. 

Venereal diseases, which figure so prominently in the statistics of English armies 
in the tropics, add but a relatively small proportion to the total sick. A not incon- 
siderable part of such disease is imported with the troops from the United States, 
and of the remainder those troops stationed at Manila suffer most. A more careful 
supervision of this branch of mmiicipal sanitation would produce good results. Native 
females are as a rule not immoral, and prostitution exists only among the most aban- 
doned classes in the cities. White prostitutes of all nationalities are very numerous 
in Manila, and unto them, probably, rather than to the native, is to be attributed the 
larger part of the venereal sick report. Smallpox, as a result of thorough vaccination, 
has been almost eradicated from both the army and native population. 



The number of deaths in the army haa steadily increased, and a diminution of the 
death list can scarcely be expected. The number of men shot from ambush by small 
guerilla bands now exceeds those killed at any previous time, and as time progreases 
and the men become more and more debilitated by tropical service the more marked 
will be the ratio of deaths. By careful sanitary inspections the sick list may be 
decreased by cutting down the hst of preventable diseases, and this is hoped for and 
expected, but the nonpreventable diseases will constantly become more severe in 
typjB and more intractable. 

The summary given below shows the total mortality from January 1, 1900, to July 
31, 1900, inclusive, and also gives causes of death and percentages of each to the total 
number. A few deaths, of cases in the outlying districts, may not yet be reported: 

Killed in action 
Died of wounds. 







Other diseases . . 




Pep cent 

of total 

















This means an average of 4.7 deaths daily. 

The ratio of death due to disease and to those due to wounds received in action is 
about 3 to 1. The mortality rate as shown by these figures is about 26.7 per 1,000 
per annum, or 2.22 per 1,000 per month. 

In addition to the deaths from wounds received in action, 28 officers and 347 men 
received wounds which have not caused loss of life. 

The total number killed and wounded in action w^as, therefore: 


Per cent. 









Mortality due to wounds received in action: 





97 27 



100 00 

Ratio of deaths to wounds received: 







20 00 


41 90 

The average strength of the army during the past seven months has been, approxi- 
mately, 2,246 offi(!er8 and 61,498 men. 
This shows that during the past seven months: 
1.60 per cent of all officers have l)een woun(le<l in action. 
0.96 per cent of all enlisted men have l)een wounded in action. 
The following is the percentage of deaths in seven months: 
0.311 i)er cent of all officers have l)een killed in action. 
0.405 per cent of all enlisted men have l)een killed in action. 


Dysentery aa a cause of death in the Philippines comes next to gunshot injuries, 
with a total of 197 deaths, or 0.30 per cent of the entire command, within the past 
seven months. 

The number of deaths from typhoid fever is 81, which shows that this disease has 
a foothold in the islands, but from the reports of cases it is shown that no general 
infection has occurred. Numerous instances of infection are recorded, but there has 
been no serious extension of the disease among the troops, the sanitary precautions 
that have been taken having proven suflScient to check it at once. Medical oflScers 
are instructed to use the same precautions on the occurrence of a case of typhoid fever 
that they would with smallpox, viz: Isolation of the case and disinfection of all 
excreta, personal belongings, quarters and sinks, segregation of suspects, and vigilance 
in watching the noninfected part of the command. In two instances, local epidemics 
assumed rather alarming proportions before the disease was recognized, one in a 
detachment of the Forty-second Infantry, U. S. V., at Paete, and the other in the 
Thirty -ninth Infantry, U. S. V. , at San Pablo, both on Lag[una de Bay. Prompt meas- 
ures were taken along the lines above mentioned. The sick were removed to Manila 
hospitals, suspects placed in detention camps, thorough cleansing of the towns and 
quarters with subsequent disinfection, etc., and the spread of the disease promptly 
and completely checked. 


To a rapidly increasing appreciation among both officers and men of the beneficial 
results of sanitation, and to tne efforts of medical officers to enforce the cardinal rules, 
is attributed the decreased percentage of sick in the command; but if sanitation were 
perfect, the sick report would be reduced by nearly one-half. 

To accomplish this the first rational step would be the organization of a corps of 
duly authorized inspectors. However, as no such officers are authorized by thelaw, 
the best that could be done was to utilize such officers as have been available. These 
officers are necessarily more or less inexperienced, and the limitfitions to their 
authority have been such as to decrease their efficiency. In the military reorganiza- 
tion of the old Eighth Army Corps on April 10, 1900, the islands were dividSi into 
departments and these departments into districts. The chief medical officers of the 
departments immediately became active executive officers, but the chief surgeons of 
the districts had less executive work to accomplish and much time was left to them 
for other purposes. In a circular from this office dated June 21, 1900, inspection of 
district posts was made a part of their regular duty, but this system is not fully 
developed and the results, while evident, are not as yet as gratifying as is desired. 

The Dest results in this line have been secured through the efforts of experienced 
officers, such as Maj. H 0. Perley, surgeon U. S. A., commanding the Reliefs who 
rendered an unofficial report upon the sanitary conditions of each port visited by 
him. These reports have been invaluable in furnishing information to this office 
upon which action has been taken with advantage. Maj. F. R. Keefer, surgeon U. 
S. v., also made an inspection through the Southern Islands, giving, upon his return, 
the most valuable report yet received from these districts. 

In June, 1900, Maj. L. M. Maus, surgeon, U. S. A., was detailed for duty in this 
office and his services are utilized in this work. While chief surgeon of the Depart- 
ment of Northern Luzon, he was indefatigable in obtaining information based upon 
personal observation, and, in addition to his increased executive duties, frequently 
found time to make inspections of his numerous posts. As a result the Department 
of Northern Luzon is to-day better understood and is in better sanitary condition 
than any other department of the islands. The valuable ser\^ices of this energetic 
officer will henceforth be entirely devoted to medical inspection. 

The conditions of army life have changed materially during the past ten months. 
Up to this time troops were concentrated in large forces and were acting against 
similar large numbers of the enemy, well armed and intrenched in strong posi- 
tions. In the advance our soldiers often forsook the ordinary roads and waded 
waist deep through swamps and rice fields, and at night but few could find shelter, 
and the majority had to bivouac under the drenching rains and upon the water- 
soaked ground. The condition of affairs described in the reports of Lieutenant 
Colonels Lippincott and Woodhull, U. S. A., held good until November, 1899, when 
the organizea force of the insurrection began to break. 

The beginning of the new year found most of the troops of Northern Luzon divided 
into small detachments or garrisons in native towns and villages and housed in the 
public buildings thereof and by March, 1900, practically the whole army was simi- 
larly housed. This change from activity to garrison life had both a good and an ill 
effect. For the first time in nearly a year it became possible to devote careful atten- 
tion to the comforts of the troops; supplies, both of commissary and medical, were 
received more regularly; the necessary conveniences for the proper establishment of 


kitchens, bakeries, etc., were forthcoming; clothing, blankets, and personal outfits 
were replenished, and regimental hospitals were established. 

These great advantages, howe\x»r, were partly offset by some disadvantages. 

The monotony of garrison life in uninteresting towns, where the only diverson was 
the weekly or monthly arrival of the commissary train, and where the only work 
consisted of an imending roimd of guard duty and occasional * * hikes; * ' where the strain 
occasioned by dread of night attacks by bands of ladrones upon the small garrisons 
was unremitting, and where the demoralizing effects of the not infrequent assassina- 
tions of their comrades was ever present, was more trying upon the troops than active 
field service, and the list of suicides, melancholiacs, and other nervous diseases 

Again, and even more important, was the failure of both officers and men to appre- 
ciate the sanitary differences between a stationary and a moving command. During 
the march the sanitary precautions referred chiefly to the preparation of suitable 
drinking water and to the personal care and comfort of the men, and even these 
elementary principles were often neglected through ignorance or by reason of the 
diflSculties to be overcome. In the stationary camp the disposal of wastes began to 
assume an importance proportionate to the length of occupation, and in like propor- 
tion did careful attention to the water supply become necessary as the disposal of 
wastes was neglected. 

The importance of these rudimentary principles of hygiene are thoroughly recog- 
nized by those experienced in camp life, but the average civilian, it seems, must 
learn the fatal results of his neglect l)efore he begins to consider sanitary laws in 
their true light. This statement applies to officers as well as to the men, and, strange 
though it may seem, even carefully educated medical men must gain experience 
before being duly impressed. 

It is natural, therefore, to expect trouble with new troops and new medical oflB- 
cers, and such has been the case with every army which has ever been sent into the 

The lessons taught by the experiences of the ^reat army camps in the Eastern 
United States will not be forgotten in this generation, but even these lessons do not 
suffice without personal experience. 

Unremitting attention to sanitary hygiene upon the part of the medical depart- 
ment is therefore its first duty, and every effort has been made to systematize sani- 
tary inspection and to correct errors where found. Medical officers are required to 
make sanitary inspection reports of their posts monthly, even though there may be 
nothing to report; regimental surgeons are expected, wnen possible, to inspect all of 
the stations of medical officers serving under them; district surgeons are required to 
make as fre(juent inspections as opportunity may permit; department chief surgeons 
often find time to make personal inspections, and, finally, the chief surgeon of the 
division has himself performed this duty and accepted every opportunity to send 
available inspectors whenever occasion permitted. The results obtained from this 
class of inspectors have already been dwelt upon at some length, but the importance 
of the subject justifies a secona mention and also an utterance of the hope tnat Con- 
gress will appreciate this subject and provide for authorized medical inspectors. In 
the cases oi the two local typhoid-fever epidemics above mentioned, a single visit of 
an inspector would have develoi)ed the facts, the correction of which would have 
entirely prevented the epidemic, for at these camps the primary principles of sanita- 
tion were disregarded, and the correction of these faults promptly and completely 
checked the spread of the disease. Another instance which has just come to my 
notice is the report of a medical officer in Mindanao, who states that until typhoid 
fever was discovered the drinking water was not sterilized, but that since then it 
has been sterilized and the fever has ceased to threaten the command. This post 
has never l)een visited by a medical inspector, and the fact that unsterilized water 
was being used was not known until this reiK)rt was received. 

The greatest hindrance to the full development of a well-regulated system of sani- 
tation tliroughout the islands has been the shortage of medical officers. Roughly 
stated, about 120 stations are at this time (July 31) unsupplied with medical officers. 
These posts are therefore deprived of all professional sanitary advice, and post sani- 
tary inspections are made f)y untrained enlisted men of the hospital corps or are 
entirely neglected. Tlu^ recent introduction of the Waterhouse-Forbes sterilizer for 
the preparation of wholesome drinking water is perhaps the greatest advance yet 
made in the field of sanitation. This sterilizer, with which many of the posts are 
now supplied, answers the purpose required of it l)etter than any device yet proposed, 
and every effort is being made to supplv every post. 

The quartermaster's department has Wen active in its efforts to supply the neces- 
sary apparatus for the dry-earth system for the (li8|X)sal of human excretja, and most 
of the posts are using this method with good results. Where the pit latrine is necea- 
sary, tne contents are sterilized by fire or by chemical disinfectants. 


Thia branch of the public Her^-ice ia conducted by a bnanl of health consisting of 
army eui^eons reporting directly to the provoat-tnarshal-peneral. Funds for the 
proper [induct of the bciard are lumiBhed from the civil trea-iiry. A special com- 
Diunication relating to this subject has been disuiueed in a 8eiiarat« paper presented 
by me to the adjutant-general of the division, iu which necewjary reforms were 
recommended, and ia herewith attached as an appendix. 

The war has not only impoverished the native population, but the insurgent army 
has drawn to it all available medical tiupplies and native physicians, and in conse- 
quence there hae been much suffering among the outlying residents of the islands 
because of the lack of even the simplest medical remedies. 

This matter has received the careful attention of tlie military authoritiee, and par- 
ticularly of the division commander, who has approved recommendations to furnish 
drugs and dressings to natives, and to provide medical attendance where poBsibie. 
Under the supervision of Maj. L. M. Maus, surgeon, U. S. A., formerly chief bui^ 
^eon. Department of Northern Luzon, a system of medical charity has been orean- 
ized, 'and thousands of Filipinos have been benefited. Essential drugs are supplied 
in limited quantity, as also are surgical dressings. 

Vaccination of natives has been conducted on a large scale. The table given below 
shows the work that has been accomplished in three of the districts of northern 
Luzon. The same work, to a more reiitricted extent, has been accomplished in 
every part of the archipelago: 

dlBIrlct, . [tbIHt'l. 


W. «■! 1 H 

3si 'IE 

111 i 



The result of this wholesale vaccination has been to reduce the amount of small- 
pox in the islands to such an extent that it is no longer a serious menace except in 
those regions where it has been impossible tit carry out thia precautionary measure. 
It will be noted that the mortality from smallpox comprises only 0.080 per cent of 
the total mortality of the troops. 

In an appendix Ut this report I have added a "Project of meaaurea to prevent the 
sprrad of leprosy." This paper was submitted to the division commander„who has 
authorized a board to investigate the subject and to recommend a suitable Island upon 
which a leper colony could be founded. It now seems assured that a colony some- 
.what after the famous Molokai of the Hawaiian Islands will soon be established in 
the Philippines. 

There are no reliable statistics in regard to the number of lepers in the archipelago, 
but the number of cases ts estimateil at 30,000, and at present there is but little effort 
made to jircvent the wpread of this disease. 

Much has been said and written about the food of the soldier in the tropics, and 
the composition of the regular ration has been criticized as beiiif.' improper, in con- 
taining too much meat and too little starch. It has been allcgci! i hat the soldier 
should be fed somewhat after the maimer of the native — largely un rice and other 
cerealsaiid starchy foods— and the quantity of hismeat (beef and liai^n) diminished. 
However sound these views may l)e as scientific theories, they are not supported by 
the results of practical experience. The soldier craves and gets, in one way if not 
in another, the food he has been accustomed to eat at home, and he eats it freely; he 
wants meat twice or thrice a day, and he eata bacon or uses it in ilia cooking when- 
ever he can Mt it. The soldier will not use rice either as a staple or as an accessory 
to his diet. He has a strong desire for sugar, and the addition of candy to the sales 


stores has been a great blessing to him, for it seems to be almost a necessity, and 
when he can not get it he eats native sugar or sucks the green sugar cane. It does 
not appear, after careful observation, that the food furnished by the present ration 
produces sickness either by its variety, character, or quality, provided it is properly 
cooked and eaten in moderation. 

If the provisions of an act of Congress approved March 3, 1899, to allow the pur- 
chase of extra articles of diet for men in camp when serving in a "debDitating 
climate" were reenacted and enforced, the soldier serving in the Tropics would have 
everything that could be desired in the way of ft nutritive and health-giving dietary, 
since, under the provisions of this act, he may buy fresh vegetables and occasionally 
change the character of his meat dietary by buying poultry, fresh fish, eggs, etc. It 
is to be regretted that advantage was not taken of this wise provision for varying the 
diet of the men in the Philippines, whose physical comfort could have been much 
improved by this means. 

It has been found that the intestinal disorders of the tropics are due mostly to 
specific germs, and only in exceptional cases are induced by errors of diet. So far as 
we now know, the water of this country is the chief carrier, and when this is steril- 
ized the main factor in the production and propagation of this class of disease is 
eliminated. The board of medical officers now studying tropical diseases has been 
of great assistance in investigating outbreaks of dysentery and diarrhea, and their 
demonstrations to commanding officers have done much toward convincing them of 
the necessity for care in this direction. 


The general principle followed in the management of hospitals has been their 
establishment in regiments for emergency purposes only, from whence those who 
are very sick may tS sent to the field hospitals that are equipped to care for such 
cases, these in tuni being evacuated into military hospitals, located at points con- 
venient to rail or water transportation, from which cases requiring it may be trans- 
ferred to the United States directly from or via Manila. These and the larger hos- 
pitals in Manila are equipped with the most complete material available; all have 
special diet kitchens and operating rooms, and nearly all have pathological laborato- 
ries, while the personnel of the Manila hospitals and several in the pro^^nces includes 
a corps of trained female nurses. One of the hospitals at Manila serves as a general 
depot for the reception and distribution of cases arriving by water transportation and 
those requiring the services of specialists, either for surgical, medical, or diagnostic 
purposes — its staff including men especially trained in these branches. An emer- 
gency hospital under the direct control of this office has been established near the 
dock of the captain of the port in Manila and equipped to receive and care for, tem- 
porarily, patients who arrive on vessels from various parts of the archipelago, in 
which provision is also made for accident and other emergency cases in the city and 
from the railway. 

There has been but little done in the construction of hospitals, partly because the 
most desirable points for their location are not yet known and partly l>ecau8e of the 
high price of lumber, due to an alleged combine among the dealers; two wards of nipa 
have l)een built at the Santa Mesa Hospital at Manila, which increases the capacity 
of that hospital to 1,000 beds; the construction of additional buildings for 250 bedfs 
at the hospital at Gorregidor Island was authorized, but the work was suspended on 
account of the price of lumber. Recommendation will be made to build a new 
hospital at Iloilo and to enlarge the hospital at Dagupan. Extensive repairs will be 
made on other l^uildings throughout the archipelago, now used as hospitals. 

From those who have visited Zamboanga I learn that there is in that city a large 
and complete hospital building built l>y the Spaniards as a sanitarium. Zamboanga 
is spoken of bv Mr. Forman and other writers on the Philippines as being an 
extremely healthy spot — a statement confirmed by reports from our own officers and 
even more forcibly by the extremely small sick report of the troops there stationed. 
The advisability of converting this building- -now used as barracks — into a hospital 
to which cases from all parts of the island could be sent is under consideration. The 
advisability of constructing a United States military hospital in Nagasaki, Japan, has 
also been considered, but as yet no definite plan has been proposed. 

The inauguration during the past month of a new and fully equipped pathological 
laboratory for the benefit of the hospitals in Manila marks a new era in our mQoical 
work in the Philippines. This laboratory is now located in a special building and 
at present is the headquarters of the '* Medical l)<)ard to investigate tropical diseases." 
The president of the board. First Lieut. R. P. Strong, assistant suigeon, U, S. A., is 
in charge of all work conducted in the laboratory. 


The following is a summary of military hospitals, with their bed capacities: 


First Reserve . . . 
Second Reserve 

Number 3 

Santa Mesa 




San Isidro 





Santa Cruz 










Ck)rregldor Island. 
Angeles, Luzon . . . 
Dagupan, Luzon . . 
San Isidro, Luzon . 

Vigan. Luzon 

Aparn, Luzon 

Baeoor, Luzon 

Calamba, Luzon .. 
Santa Cruz, Luzon 

Iloilo, Panay 

Jolo, Jolo 

Cebu, Cebu 



















To this is added a list of such regimental hospitals as have bed capacities of 30 or 
more beds. These hospitals really nave no fixed capacity, expanding and contracting 
as occasion requires. The figures relating to them are therefore approximate. 


Third U. S. Cavalry 

Third U. S. Infantry , 

Twelfth U. S. Infantry , 

Seventeenth U. S. Infantry . . . 

Eighteenth U. S. Infantry 

Twenty-second U. 8. Infantry 
Twenty-eighth Infantry, U. S, 

Thirtieth Infantry, U. S. V 

Thirty-first Infantry, U. S. V. . . 
Thirtv-seeond Infantry, U. S. V 
Thirty-sixth Infantry, U. S. V. . 
Thirtv-eighth Infantry, U. S. V 
Thirty-ninth Infantry, U. S. V . 
Forty-first Infantry, U. S. V . . . . 
Forty-sixth Infantry, U. S. V. . . 



Military hospitals 

Grand total. 

Xamacpacan, Luzon . . . 

Caloocan, Luzon 

Pani^ue, Luzon 

Bautista, Luzon 

Capiz, Panay 

Arayat, Luzon 

Taal, Luzon 

Lucena, Luzon 

Zamboanga, Mindanao. 

Balanga, Luzon 

Manga tarem, Luzon . . . 

Batangas, Luzon 

Santo Tomas, Luzon . . . 

Guagua, Luzon 

Silan, Luzon 





The other r^imental hospitals in the islands have from 10 to 30 beds each, so that 
the sum total of beds is considerably more than 5,000. In case emergency demands 
increase in this number, the so-called military hospitals are capable of an expansion 
of one-third. This seems at present to be a sufficient provision for the army. 


From what has been said concerning the effect of disease upon the general economy, 
and the loss of life that must be expected if sick men are kept too long under the 
conditions which here surround us, it can readily be seen that the prompt return to 
the United States of all cases where the vitality has been greatl v reduced is an impera- 
tive necessity. At the same time the immense drain upon the army that would be 
produced by a carelessly regulated system of *' invaliding home" must be considered. 
It is to be expected that the number of those who become permanently noneffective 
by reason of disease and those whose further residence in this climate would endanger 
life will steadily increase in proportion to their length of residence. The selection of 
such cases has always been as carefully made as possible. A board of three medical 
officers acts upon all cases not in hospital, and for cases in hospital the commanding 
officer, the ward surgeon and, when possiole, a third surgeon are required to act as a 
board to determine what cases shall be sent; thus the number of unworthy cases 
sent home is reduced to a minimum. I am imable to give any exact information 
concerning the results of such transfers, as no reports have been made to me on the 


subject, but from unoflScial reports I am convinced that many lives have l)een 

I am also unable to advise concerning the return to the Philippines of such men 
as have been invalided home and have recovered. Several reports have been made 
to me on this subject, and these statements were to the effect that intestinal cases 
returned to duty in these islands from the United States speedily relapsed. 

The subject demands careful study, for which time and experience are needed; a 
similar study should be given the subject of establishing sanitaria for troops worn 
out by field service and its consequent exposures. Experience thus far indicates 
that all intestinal cases of long standing are permanently noneffective, and should 
be sent to the United States and not returned to these islands; cases of severe 
malarial infection do not recover in any part of these islands yet given a trial. In 
this connection, it is an interesting observation that troops in elevated valleys, or 
who have been campaigning in the mountains, have been the greatest sufferers from 
virulent malarial poisoning. This subject is now under investigation. 

Regarding the insane but little can be said, as there is no expert alienist in the 
islands to determine the character, nor is there any proper place where they can be 
kept for observation. No other course is opened, therefore, than to transfer to the 
United States all cases that, after such study as can be given, are believed to be 
genuine. Nostalgia is a potent factor in producing the condition of melancholia into 
which many of the cases have passed; the isolation of the troops, their lack of 
knowledge of the language, their enforced confinement to the towns they garrison, 
and the constant nervous strain incident to continued preparation against attack by 
the enemy combine to produce the mental condition which, for want of a better 
name, is called "insanity," and which is often completely cured by the journey to 
the United States. That this condition is a serious one is evidenced by the fact that 
the majority of suicides are from this class of cases. 

In regard' to cases for disc^harge upon surgeons' certificate of disability, it was found 
that the carelessness exhibited in many recommendations by inexperienced officers 
and surgeons required some system to regulate this important work. In addition to 
this the discharge of soldiers in the islands increased the number of **civilians" to 
Ije transported on Government vessels. These newly made civilians were often 
troublesome and at times mutinous, and the advisability of sending them home for 
discharge in the United States was apparent. 

To accomplish this end, and also to insure the careful selection of cases and proper 
preparation of their papers, all men recommended for such discharge were ordered 
to hospital No. 3 for observation and final disposition, such cases as were proper 
being sent with their papers to the United States, where the final discharge could 
be made if necessary. This system, under the able supervision of Major Kulp, 
surgeon, U. S. V. (captain, assistant surgeon, U. S. A.), commanding officer of this 
hospital, has now been in operation since February 25, 1900, and has been most satis- 
factory. Many unsuital)le cases, such as malingerers, etc. , have been restored to duty, 
and the confusion caused by papers improperly made out has ceased. The following 
table shows the total invalided home from January 1 to July 31, 1900: 

Soldiers transferred to the United Stales from Januury 1 to July SI, 1900. 

For treatment: 

Regulars 626 

Volunteers 521 

1, 147 


Regulars 63 

Volunteers 47 


Certificates of disabiUty: 

Regulars 173 

Volunteers 131 


Total transferred for seven months 1, 560 

Rate invalidcKi home ]kt 1,000 per annum 41. 1 

Death rate per 1,000 ]>er annum 26. 7 

Total loss ])er 1 ,000 per annum by dciith and transfer 67. 8 

These figures do not include loss of stren;xth by reason of discharge for expiration 
of term of service, or by court-martial senti*nces, nor does it include the 63 cases dis- 
charged on Biugeons' certificates of disability prior to February 25, 1900. 


The character of cases sent to the United States with the recommendation that 
thev be discharged on surgeon's certificate of disability is shown in these interesting 
tables, prepared by Major Kulp: 

Disability contracted after enlistment and in line of duty 183 

Disability contracted after enlistment and not in line of duty 51 

Disability, self-inflicted and in line of duty 5 

Disability, self-inflicted and not in line of duty 5 

Disability contracted prior to enlistment and not in line of duty 69 

Total 303 

Total number recommended 303 

In line of duty 188 

Not in line of duty 116 



Circulatory system 31 

Nervous system 24 

Digestive system 14 

Respiratory system 20 

Muscular system 8 

Ocular 16 

Nasal 1 

Aural '. 21 

Venereal 50 

Congenital 7 

Gunshot wounds 39 

Injuries 72 

Total 303 

In the early part of the year there was a large number of men suffering from self- 
inflicted wounds constantly coming up for discharge for disability. To prevent fraud 
and to determine the duty status of these men, the division commander issued an 
order that all such cases should be acted upon by a board of survey before the appli- 
cation for dischai^ was forwarded. The result of this has been a decreased number 
of cases. 


The scarcity of medical officers in the Philippines since the first days of occupation 
to the present moment has been the greatest source of anxiety that has confronted the 
various chief surgeons. At the present time this scarcity is more apparent than it 
has ever been, and, roughly speaking, 10,000 troops are serving at posts with practi- 
cally no medical attendance. The number of posts in the PhiBppine Islands is now 
375, and is constantly increasing. To fill these posts, there are only 336 medical offi- 
cers now on duty in the islands. Of these 336 officers there are: 

As chief surgeons of division, departments, districts, and their assistants 20 

Inspection duty 1 

In hospitals other than regimental and not with troops, and on hospital ship 

Relief 60 

Board of health 5 

Supply depots 4 

Transports, gunboats, etc., and with troops in China 13 

Total 103 

This leaves an effective force of 233 men to supply 375 posts. As an actual fact, 
there are at present (August 10, 1900) over 400 posts, and the medical force has been 
reduced by 4. 

These facts have been communicated to the Surgeon-General, to whom appeals 
have been constantly made for an increase in the number of medical officers sent to 
these islands. In a recent cablegram a promise of 100 additional acting assistant sur- 
geons has been made by the Surgeon-General. This number, however, will not suffice 
unless soon augmented by an additional number, because there are at present about 50 
acting assistant surgeons whose terms of contract have expired and who anxiously await 
their release, and each day adds to this list. In time of peace in the United States 
there were; roughly speaking, 20,000 troops and 180 medical officers, which gives 111 


men to each surgeon. In the Philippines there are 336 medical officers and 63,000 
men, or 187 men to each surgeon. A total of 500 medical officers is needed to prop- 
erly care for the present number of troops in the Philippines. The following table 
shows the gains and losses of medical officers from January 1 to July 31, 1900. A 
summary of the number of requests for additional surgical aid and the responses 
thereto have been made the subject of a special report to the Adjutant-General of 
the Army. It is only necessary here to state that nad the requests been complied 
with the present deplorable lack of medical officers would not exist. 

Medical officers in the department Januarys 1, 1900 257 

Gain to July 31, 1900: 

R^ular medical officers : 11 

Volunteer staff officers 6 

Volunteer regimental officers 14 

Acting assistant surgeons 128 


Total 416 

Loss to July 31, 1900: 

Regulars to the United States 4 

Regulars died 1 

Volunteer staff to the United States for discharge 7 

Volunteer regimental to the United States for discharge 3 

Volunteer regimental died 1 

Acting assistant surgeons to the United States for annulment 45 


Total 355 

On detached service in the United States: 

Major Arthur, Major Matthews, Lieutenant Clayton, A. A. S. Brownlee. . . 4 
Sick in division and on sick leave 15 


Total on duty July 31, 1900 336 

I wish to add that earnestness and patriotic devotion to duty have marked the serv- 
ice of medical officers. There are tmt few exceptions to this statement, and the 
blunders calling for corre(;tion, a« a rule, have been the natural mistakes of untrained 
surgeons placed in responsible and exacting positions for which they were unfitted. 
I am now more than ever impressed with the fundamental weakness of the contract 
system. To place civilians without real rank or authority in the position of auasi 
officers is an injustice to the surgeon himself, and to the Medical Department wnich 
has to be responsible for his acts. His contract is made for one year only, and after 
that time he can demand his release from duty, no matter how urgently his services 
may l)e needed. Whih^ ])erf()rming an officer's duty he is not one, and this knowl- 
edge makes him less cxa(^t and prompt in bending to military discipline. If he deserts 
and leaves his j)08t unsup])lied with medical attendance, as was actually the cajse with 
a Dr. Atkinson, of Massachusetts, there is no law known to me by which he can be 
pimished or brought back and made to perform his duties. He gets a year's experi- 
ence, and is just beginning to learn his duties when his contract expires and an 
untrained man takes his ])lace and the process Ix^gins anew. Supplies are wasted, 
military papers are not properly made out, and to discipline and train men for such 
short service is a ho})cless task. The contract-surgeon system is the least economical, 
the least effective, and the least satisfactory system that could be devised. 1 am 
strongly of the opinion that if contract surgeons should all receive commissions as 
lieutenants of volunteers to serve two years, or until their services are no longer 
required, that the evils of the present svstem would in large part \ye remedied. 
Their appointment should l)e subject to the same rules as now exist, since the pro- 
fessional qualifications of those surgeons now being sent to the Philippines are satis- 
factory; they require only a fixed status, a burden of responsibility, and a longer 
service to make them extremely valuable. 


From the table appended it is shown that there are 2,356 Hospital Corps men now 
on duty in this division. Under recent Congressional legislation the Surgeon-Gen- 
eral has issued orders that this number shall be reduced to 2,000 privates. This 
reduction of a force already insufficient will be sorely felt, unlessauthority is granted 
to employ a more extensive force of native helpers. 


Much of the work now done bv the Hospital CJorps men could be done b^ Fili- 
pinos, and as the cost of their employment is much less than the cost of a soldier the 
exchange of a few Hospital Corps men for natives would not decrease the effective- 
ness of the service and would be a measure of economy. 

Hospital CJorps men in this division January 1, 1900 1, 660 

Crained * 

From the United States 735 

Transferred from the line 68 

Grained from desertion 1 

Enlisted and reenlisted 22 


Total 2,486 


Transferred to the United States 26 

Discharged 88 

Died 10 

Deserted 6 


Hospital Corps men in the division July 31, 1900 2, 356 

The work done by the Hospital Corps of the Army is deserving of the highest 
praise. In 120 posts there is no medical officer, and these men, in many cases entirely 
untrained, have had to perform the duties of a medical officer. 

In all enga^ments the Hospital Corps man has alwavs been conspicuous at the 
front, aiding the wounded and fearlessly performing his duties. 


To increase the efficiency of the Hospital Corps a system of instruction was organ- 
ized at Hospital No. 3, Manila, in January, 1900. This school of instruction was in 
large part tne outcome of the perseverance and energy of Captain Kulp, assistant 
surgeon, U. S. A., who, in the face of every difficulty, so far succeeded m improv- 
ing the value of and in demonstrating the necessity for such an institution that its 
existence, at first unofficially recognized by the chief surgeon, was finally officially 
authorized in general orders by the division commander. The first class, of 43 mem- 
bers, of whom 13 received diplomas, was formally graduated June 15, 1900, in the 
presence of General MacArthur, after an excellent and systematic course extending 
over a period of fourteen weeks. 


Female contract nurses are used chiefly in the large hospitals in Manila and in the 

Erovinces. AJs a general rule these nurses are efficient and attentive to duty. In 
ospitals where they are employed, members of the Hospital Corps have but Uttle 
opportunity for practical instruction in clinical work, their services being almost 
exclusively ^ven to the police of the wards. For this reason I am of the opinion 
that, where it is deemed advisable to employ female nurses, there should not be any 
Hospital Corps men for ward duty, the nursing being done exclusively by females. 
Natives should be employed to do the ordinary police service. The nurses* ration is 
insufficient, especially the night lunch, unless there is a lar^ number of them on 
duty in the hospital, and I recommend that authority be obtained to permit them to 
subsist on what is known as the "40 cents per day allowance." 

In fact, the efficiency of the diet department in all hospitals would be much 
increased by extending the authority to use the allowance for the entire personnel, 
since the present system involves the constant use of two kitchens and separate sub- 
sistence accounts for the sick and their attendants, which are seldom correctly kept. 
The following is a list of male and female nurses in this division: 

Male contract nurses: 

On duty January 1, 1900 

Arrived since January 1, 1900 7 

On duty July 31, 1900 ,,,- 7 

WAR 1900— VOL 1, PT V 9 


Female contract nurses: 

Number of nurses on duty January 1 , 1900 92 

Arrived in Manila since January 1, 1900 47 

Contracts made in Manila 1 1 

Total to July 31, 1900 140 


Transferred to duty in the United States 2 

Contracts annulled in Manila 2 

Ordered to the United States for annulment of contract '15 

To the United States for orders 1 


On duty July 31, 1900 120 

Note. — Of the 120 on duty 5 are on detached transport duty to the United States 
and return. 


The hospital ship Relief has been utilized to expedite the transportation of medical 
supplies to points along the coast. During the campaigns under General MacArthur 
in northern Luzon and (xeneral Schwan in southern Luzon her service in this respect 
was invaluable, and without her there w^ould have been great hardship and suffenng. 
She followed the movement of the troops, touching at such pointa as were convenient 
to take off the wounded and those suffering from heat exhaustion, and landing such 
supplies as were needful. This service was often performed at great personiS risk, 
and on several occasions the launch was fired on. Major Perley narrowly escaping 
injury at Vigan and Bacoor. Her officers <»nd men deserve great credit for their serv- 
ices on these occasions. Later on she took supplies to the ports on the west coast 
of Luzon and to those in the southern islands and in the Camarines. I have in pre- 
vious communications set forth the necessity for light-draft steamers for the use of 
the medical department in these islands. While the quartermaster's department 
claims theoretically to be able to meet the wants of the medical department in the 
transportation of supplies and to give precedence to it in loading its snips, it does not 
do so practically, ana, as a matter of fact, it can not. So far as the intentions of its 
officers in this division are concerned they are good, but military necessities often 
dominate all other claims, and the medical department has been obliged to wait at 
times when the interest of the sick required prompt attention. There can never be 
a thoroughly efficient administration of the supply department of the m^ical service 
until it has its own transportation, and the Commanding General, appreciating this 
fact, has authorized the charter of a ship, if one of suitaole character can be found. 
The quartermaster's department is now endeavoring to find such a vessel, and it is 
certain that one can be utilized to great advantage. For hospital ser\'ice on Laguna 
de Bay and for posts established on Manila Bay, near the city, the launch NewYwk 
is supplied, and has done good service. Like the Relief y she was used with great suc- 
cess auring Greneral Schwan's southern campaign, and when his troops arrived at 
Santa Cruz, at the end of the work, she was in waiting with supplies and to take care 
of the wounded. Acting Hospital Steward Hobson, m charge, deserves special men- 
tion for excellent service on this launch. He has been on duty with her since the 
occupation of Manila, and has often been under tire. The only railway in Luzon is 
laid between Manila and Dagupan, and is about 120 miles long. It was of great serv- 
ice in bringing wounded to Manila during the expedition of General MacArthur, but 
no special arrangement had been made for their comfort on the cars in use. Two 
cars are now fitted with folding steamer bunks for 8 patients. There is a small dis- 
pensary and closet on each car, which carries a personnel of an acting hospital stew- 
ard and two privates. Patients are transferred from points south of Angeles to the 
hospital at that station, and north of that to Dagupan. The service as now oiganized 
is very efficient. 

Ambulan(!es are assigned to commands wherever they are needed, and, while the 
number is small, they do good service. 


Until quite recently there has been a general depot at Manila, with subdepots at 
such points in the division as could be easily reached by water and rail transporta- 
tion, and where convenient to the troops; these and all interior hospitals, military 
and regimental, were as fully supplied in May as their storage facilities would per- 


mit, to meet the wants of the troops during the ramy season, when travel would be 
difl&cult or altogether interrupted. 

The methods of issue from the United States are not as satisfactory as they should 
be, and the points of failure have been submitted to the Surgeon-General for his 
action. Much embarrassment has been experienced in the length of time consumed 
in getting supplies from the United States, and the irregularity of their shipment and 
arrival here has made it impossible to lay any definite plans for respondmg to calls 
on the central depot. The losses by disaster at sea have been heavy, and many pack- 
ages have gone astray, which made it necessary to purchase extensively in local 
markets and in Japan to make good the deficits. The ordinary expenditure of 
medical supplies for the troops is much larger in this climate than in the United 
States, owing to the extensive prevalence of malarial and intestinal disorders and the 
necessity for prophylaxis; to this must be added the issues to small commands, which 
are proportionately larger than the commands of greater size. Although there is no 
oflBcial record of the facts, I am satisfied that a heavy drain also falls upon the supply 
department through issues to indigent sick natives, whose appeals to medical officers 
for relief can not be resisted, in spite of orders forbidding such use of medical sup- 
plies that have been issued to the troops. As a general rule, however, it has been 
possible by judicious management to meet most of the demands, and there has as yet 
been no serious complaints of shortcomings in that direction. By a recent order of 
the division commander, depots of supply have been established and equipped for 
the departments of northern and soutnem Luzon, and hereafter each department 
will issue its own supplies to the troops within its limits. 

Requisition has been made for thirteen ice machines, which will be installed at 
various points in the division and supply the hospitals at all stations accessible to 
them. Five are already in successful operation at Iloilo, Cebu, Jolo, Cavite, and the 
First Reserve Hospital, Manila. 


In the latter part of June an expedition was hurriedly organized for service in 
China. On June 26, the Ninth Infantry, with 36 officers and 1,271 enlisted men, 
was dispatched on the Logan with Maj. W. B. Banister, surgeon, U. 8. V. (captain, 
assistant surgeon, U. S. A.), as surgeon, and First Lieut. C. E. Marrow, assistant sur- 
geon, U. S. A., and A. A. Surgs. F. M. BameyandW. W. Calhoun, U. S. A., asassistants. 

On July 15, Light Battery F, Fifth U. S. Artillery, 3 officers and 121 enlisted men, 
and Companies G and H of the Fourteenth U. S. Infantry, sailed on the Flintshirey 
with First Lieut. H. S. Greenleaf, assistant surgeon, U. S. A., and A. A. Surg. R. N.Winn, 
U. S. A. 

On the same date the Indiana left Manila for Taku, China, with 6 companies of the 
Fourteenth U. S. Infantry, 18 officers and 847 enlisted men; Capt. W. F. Lewis, assist- 
ant surgeon, U. S. A., and First Lieut. E. R. Schreiner, assistant surgeon, U. S. A., 
accompanied these troops. Each ship had on board its regimental hospital supply, 
and in addition a complete outfit for a 50-bed hospital was sent on the Logan and for 
a 300-bed hospital on the Indiana, together with medical supplies for 5,000 men for 
three months; 17 additional Hospital Corps men were also sent on this ship. 

In addition to this force, the hospital ship Relief ^aWoA on July 15 with a staff of 5 
surgeons and a large amount of supplies. She has a bed capacity of 250. 

News received from this expedition and the battle of Tientsin has been so meager 
that I shall make no attempt to give any account of it. 

The followine-named medical officers, members of the Hospital Corps, and female 
nurse have rendered service which, in my judgment, entitles them to special mention 
for the reasons set forth opposite their names: 

Maj. E. B. Moseley, surgeon, U. S. A., organizing and administering Santa Mesa 

Maj. L. M. Maus, surgeon, U. S. A., as chief surgeon, organizing and administering 
the medical service of tne Second Di\d8ion, Eighth Army Corps, now department of 
northern Luzon. 

Maj. G. H. Penrose, surgeon, U. S. V., field and hospital service. 

Maj. F. A. Meacham, surgeon, U. S. V., field and hospital service. 

Maj. John S. Kulp, surgeon, IT. S. V. (captain and assistant surgeon, U. S. A.), 
organizing and administering hospital No. 3, and the company of instruction. Hospital 

Capt. W. F. Lewis, assistant surgeon, U. S. A., field service. 

Capt. George W. Mathews, assistant surgeon, Thirty-sixth Infantry, U. S. V., special 
mention, service in action. 


First Lieut. P. C. Fauntleroy, assistant surgeon, U. S. A., service in hospital at 
Angeles and siipply depot. 

iirst Lieut. B. H. Dutoher, aasistant surgeon, U. S. A., field service. 

First Lieut. L. P. Smith, a>«sistant surgeon, U. S. A., field service. 

First Lieut. Henry Page, assistant surgeon, U. S. A., field service. 

First Lieut. R. P. Strong, aj^sistant surgeon, IT. S. A., services in the field and 
pathological work. 

First Lieut. P. M. Ashburn, assistant surgeon, U. S. A., field service. 

First Lieut. E. W. Knkhani, a**8istant surgeon, IJ. S. A., field service. 

First Lieut. II. S. Greenleaf, assistant surgeon, U. S. A., special mention for serv- 
ice in action, and as chief surgeon at Aparri. 

First Lieut. I. W. Brewer, assistant surgeon. Thirty-sixth Infantry, U. S. V., special 
mention, service in acti(jn. 

A. A. Surg. John Carling, special field and hospital service. 

A. A. Surg. J. C. Reifsnyder, sjiecial mention for service in action. 

A. A. Surg. II. E. Stafford, si)e(;ial field and hospital service. 

A. A. Surg. W. C. Chidester, special field service, wounded in action. 

Hospital Steward Albion McD. Coffey, Thirty-third Infantry, IT. S. V. (now acting 
assistant surgeon) , recommended bv Col. L. R. Hare, for bravery in action. 

Acting Hospital Steward John 6. Hobson, caring for the sick and wounded on 
hospital launcli Neirport^ while under fire from insurgents, on many occasions. 

Privates James N. Lathrop and Clarence A. Chandler, performing duties regard- 
less of danger and fatigue. (Mentioned by Acting Assistant Surgeon Carling.) 

Private Archibald Wilson, devotion to duty in nursing First Lieut. R. A. Edmons- 
ton (after having been infected by a wound received from a scratch from his patient). 

Private Philip IVI. Reyerl, saving a drowning insane man at the risk of his own 
life. (Mentioned by ]\lajor Perlev.) 

Private Ora Piatt, recommended lor putting tourniquet on wounde<l man, under a 
heavy fire. 

Privates Samuel Jones and Henry Becker, recommended by Captain Bratton, 
assistant surgeon, V, S. A., for operating ui><)n and saving the life of a native. 

When volunteers were asked tor fi-oni hospital No. 3 to nurse a case of bubonic 
plague, every member of the IIos])ital Corps i>rcsentcMl his name. 

Miss Rose A. Tweed volunteered to nurse and cared for a virulent case of small- 
pox at Dagupan. 

The folio wing-nanie<l medical ofhcers died while in the j^erfonnance of duty: 

First Lieut. Brainard S. Higley, assistant surgeon, U. S. A. 

First Lieut. R. A. Edmonston, assistant surgeon, Thirty-fifth Infantry, U. S. V., 
approved candidate? for regular service, die<l of blood poisoning. 

A. A. Surg. F. W. Hulseberg, U. S. A., recently arriveil, shot and killed in action. 

A. A. Surg. Charles Roemmelt, V. S. A. 
Very respectfully, 

CiiAs. R. Greenleaf, 
ColoiH'ly AHitiMftut Siirf/tnii'dciural, U. JS. A.^ Chief Surgeon. 

Hdqks. Division of the Philippines, 

Office of the Chief Surgeon, 

Manila J P. /., May 21^ 1900, 
A DJCTA NT-General, 

Diviifion of the Phiiippincs. 

Sir: I have the honor to su])mit herewith memorandum recommendations on 
municipal sanitation for present application to the city of Manila and to other lai^ 
cities in the archiT>elago. It is i)r<^j)er to remark that maritime sanitation, including 
(luarantine, is in the hands of the Marine-Hospital Service, which has its representa- 
tives on duty in Manila, now engaged in etjuipping a plant at the quarantine station 
at Mariveles. 

municipal sanitation. 

This is now, and has been since the occupation of Manila by our troops, in the 
harwls of a board of health consisting of army medical officers. This board nas donc^ 
under most trying circumstances, excellent and efficient service so far as it has been 
able with the limited means at its dis^>osal, but it hits Kh^u hampered by lack of 
funds and, owin|? to the unsettled condition of civil affairs, by the absence of a munici- 
pal administrative force that is essential to complete success. It has made great 


Erogress in cleaning the streets of the city, in removing filth that has heen accumu- 
iting for years, and in regulating to a certain extent the purity of the food supply; 
it has practically stamped out smallpox by forcible vaccmation, and revaccination 
where that was necessary, and has held in check the progress of bul)onic plague, 
that after logdment in other tropical cities has speedily become epidemic and caused 
a frightful mortality; but its work has of necessity been superficial and the good 
results can only be maintained by a constant vigilance, by a vigorous support from 
the military authorities, and by a liberal supply of funds. The Spanish laws on 
sanitation are in most instances well drawn, but they have not been properly exe- 
cuted, and the American additions, while equally good in theory, have been almost 
as faulty in execution; this is particularly the case on overcrowding of habitations, 
due to the rapacity of the house owners, who, in their eagerness for gain, disregard 
all laws and fill their tenements to the utmost capacity of the rooms. It is to secure 
these important aids that the inclosed memorandum is submitted; the work to be 
done is an immediate and pressing necessity, but should not obscure the greater 
necessity for a permanent sanitary organization. So soon as municipal government 
is organized, there should be appointed a capable sanitary engineer, a superintendent 
of public buildings and works, and a board of health to decide upon and formulate 
methods for disposing of excreta, garbage, street waste, etc. , whether by water car- 
riage (sewerage), cremation, sea dumping, or otherwise; for securing a pure food 
supply, mcluding inspection of meats, vegetables, fruits, etc. ; the construction and 
care of markets; for improving the water supply, increasing its quantity, and insuring 
its purity; for cleaning the **esteros," constructing tide gates, and wallmg their banks 
with masonry or concrete so that they will not only carry off the surface drainage, 
but will serve as highwavs for commerce through various parts of the city; and for 
the adoption of general liealth regulations, such as are now in force in any of the 
larger American cities. 

Very respectfully, Charles R. Greenleaf, 

Colonely Amstant Surgeon-General^ U. S. A, 


1. A strict enforcement of existing rules, both municipal and military, regarding 
cleanliness about habitations, the emptying of privy vaults, dry-earth closets, and 
cesspools, and the flushing of drains and sewers; in the nipa house districts, an insist- 
ance upon the use of dry-earth closets by the occupants; in the markets, cleanliness 
to be enforced and no person to be permitted to live in them, and for this purpose 
that market inspectors be appointed for each market, who shall l)e present from its 
opening to its close and make prompt report to the board of health of any diso- 
bedience of the rules. 

2. A strict compliance with existing building laws, and such alterations therein as, 
in the judgment of the board of health, will best conserve the public health. 

3. The prevention of overcrowding in habitations by the promulgation of an ordi- 
nance making every house owner amenable to fine or imprisonment, or both, if more 
persons than specified according to surface (18 square feet) and cubic air space (not 
less than 300 cubic feet) are permitted to live in their houses. 

4. The removal, where practicable, of persons from premises that are now over- 

5. To give effect to these matters, the appointment of a building superintendent to 
act as special inspector over that subject; the enforcement of a strict compliance with 
the rules governing the issuance of licenses to build and occupy habitations, and, if 
necessary, an increase in the number of sanitary inspectors to insure efficiency in 
street and house-lot cleaning, and the removal of garbage and ashes; when house 
owners fail, after due notice, to properly clean their premises, the board of health to 
have it done, charging the cost against the owner. 

6. For the removal of night soil, a sufficient number of large scows to be provided 
that can be towed into the bay and emptied at a place not nearer the city than Cavite 
Point, and as much farther from there as will insure the deposit from being returned 
by ocean currents to the vicinity of the city; street sweepings, garbage, and, under 
certain conditions, portions of night soil, to be cremated as at present, and when 
approved by the board of health, disposed of to surrounding farms. 

7. During the wet season the moat around the walled city and all "esteros" in the 
city limits to be dredged and thoroughly cleaned. 

8. For the prevention and care of infectious diseases: (a) A continuance of the 


present system of house to liouse inspection, the segregation of suspeirtti or developed 
cases, the quarantine of the house and its inmates during the incubation period of the 
disease, the thorough cleansing and disinfection of the premises and the occupants' 
effects, and the destruction, so far as practicable, of vermin, (b) The construction of 
a temporary (nij)a) infectious-disease hospital, to take the place in site and bed 
capacity of the present tent hospital, which, during the rainy season, will be unsuited 
to its purivose. 

9. The i>romulgation of an ordinance requiring compulsory vaccination of all 
unprotected inhabitants, and that, after the opening of the schools, no one shall be 
admitted as a pupil except on presentation of a certificate of recent vaccination or 
re vaccination. 

10. That the interpretation and enforcement of laws governing municipal sanita- 
tion be under the direction of the board of health. 


As a large number of the people in these islands are the subjects of leprosy, and 
their presence has become a menace to the safety of the healthy population, it is 
recommended — 

1. That there be set apart any land or j)ortion of land now owned by the Govern- 
ment for a site or sites of an establishment or establishments to secure the isolation 
and seclusion of such leprous [)ersons as, in the opinion of the board of health or its 
agents, may, bv being at large, cause the si)read of the disease, and that the Govern- 
ment acquire for this i»uri)ose, by purchase, exchange, or condemnation, any pieces 
or parcels of land which may seem better adapted to the use of lepers than any land 
owned by the Government. 

2. That a board of i)u'.)lic health for the archipelago be organized, without delay, 
with full authority to deal with all questions affecting the public health and sanita- 
tion of the islands, and to appoint the neces'^ary agents to carry out its work. 

3. That a l)oard of ofhcers, consisting of 1 medical officer, 1 quartennaster, and 1 
judge-advocate, }ye detailed to select one or more suitable islands, and to prepare plans 
and estimates for buildings, submit an estimate of salaries for the necessary officials, 
etc., and fix the rations an<l other allowances necessary for the support of the lep>ers 
and the colony. A Ifst of the islands that are thought to ])e suitable for the purpoee 
is herewith submitte<l. 

4. That a board of health or its agents be authorized and empowered to cause to be 
isolated and confined on the island selected all leprous i)ersons who shall be deemed 
capable of spreading the di.^ease; and it shall be the duty of every police and district 
authority, when properly api)lied to for that purpose by the l)oara of health or its 
authorizefl agents, to cause to be arrested and delivered to the board of health or its 
agents any j)erson alleged to be a lej)er within the jurisdiction of such jwlice or dis- 
trict authontv; and it shall be the <luty of polict^ officers and others of like author- 
ity to assist in securing the conveyance of any persons so arrested to such place 
as the board of health or its agents may direct, in order that such persons may be 
subjected to medical insi)ection, and thereafter to assist in removing such persons to 
the place of isolation, if so recjuired by the agents of the board of health, and that the 
following memorandum regulations, to facilitate the segregation of lepers, be adopted: 

5. Whoever shall knowingly detain or harl)or on premises subject to his control, or 
shall in any manner conceal or assist in concealing any person afflicted with leprosy, 
with the intent that such i)erson be not dis(Yjvered by or delivered to the board of 
health or its agents, or who shall support or assist in '8upi)orting any person having 
leprosy living in concealment, shall be deemed guilty of a misilemeanor, and shall, 
upon lawful conviction thereof l)efore any court, be liable to a fine of not more 
than $100. 

6. It shall lx» the duty of every officer or deputy having reiLson to Ix^ieve that any 
person within his district is attiicted with lej>rosy*to report the same forthwith to the 
agent of the l)oard of health within such district, if any; otherwise to the nearest 
agent of the l)oard. Any i)olice officer who shall wilfully fail to comply with this 
j)rovision shall l)e deemed guilty of a misdemeanor, and, upon conviction thereof, 

Wore any police or district court, shall be lined in a sum not less than nor 

more than dollars, an<l shall be dismissed from ottice. 

7. The board of health is authorized to make arrangements for the establishment 
of hospitals on the islands where leprous patients in the incipient stores may be 
treated, in order to attem[)t a cure; the said board and its agents snail have full power 
to discharge all such cases as it shall deem cured. 


8. The board of health or its agents may require from patients such reasonable 
amount of labor as may be approved by the attending physicians; and may further 
make and publish such rules and regulations as by the said board may be considered 
adapted to ameliorate the condition of lepers. 

9. No person, not being a leper, shall be allowed to visit or remain upon any land, 
place, or inclosure set apart for the isolation and confinement of lepers, without the 
written permission of the president of the board, or some officer authorized thereto 
by the board of health, under any circumstances whatever, and any person found 
upon such land, place, or inclosure, without a written permission, shall, upon con- 
viction thereof before any police or district court, be fined m a sum not less than 

nor more than dollars, for such offense, and in default of payment, to be 

imprisoned at hard labor until the fine and costs of court are discharged in due course 
of law. 

10. It shall be lawful for the board of health, through its president, to make and 
promulgate such rules and regulations as may be from time to time necessary for the 
government and control of the lepers placed under its charge, and such rules and 
regulations shall have the same force and effect as a statute law, provided always 
that they be approved by the proper authority, and that they be published in two 
newspapers published in Manila. 

11. Rules and regulations for lepers and attendants living at the leper settlement, 
in reference to leaving the settlement, general sanitation and personal hygiene, 
building of houses, raising of animals, cultivating of land, etc., will be made and 
promulgated by the board of health in accordance with preceding section, No. 10. 


It is expected that many of the lepers or their friends will build their own houses, 
as a number of them are fairly well to do. 

As the question of leprosy is one that will have to be reckoned with by the inhabit- 
ants of these islands for the next one hundred years, it is especially important that 
the heat site be sele<5ted and the right beginning be made, and for this reason the 
appointment of a board which will carefully investigate and study this subject has 
been so persistently asked for. The former military governor approved the su^es- 
tions made on this subject by the Manila board of health and decided to appomt a 
board of three officers to investigate and formulate a working plan for the isolation 
of lepers as soon as the conditions in the islands permitted. This paper gives the 
general plan of handling this subject, and in some points has gone into detail on the 
legislation needed. One of the points on which legislation is needed is the prohibi- 
tion of the carrying of lepers by the masters of the interisland and coasting boats 
without a proper permit, and compelling these same masters to carry lepers upon an 
order of the board of health. 


Lubang and Golo, about 60 miles from Manila; they are very rich and poorly 
populated; they are the most suitable islands. 

Polillo, north of Luzon; very large, and could contain very well 30,000 inhabitants. 

Batag; beautiful, rich, and healthy place; is a few miles from Samar, but could 
easily be guarded by a small gunboat. 

Besides these islands. Dr. Manuel Rogel y Lebres recommended Jau, in Bohol; 
Clango, in Cebu; Apo, or Refugio, in Negros; an island near Guinaras, in Panay; 
Limasana, in Leyte; Buad, in Samar; Simara, in Romblon. 

Appendix (t. 

Hdqrs. Division of the Philippines, Office Chief Paymaster, 

Manila, P. /., August 14, 1900. 

Ditnsion of the Philippines, Manila, P. I. 

Sir: In compliance with the instructions of the major-general commanding, I 
have the honor to submit a report of the operations of the pay department in this 
division from July 1, 1899, to July 31, 1900. 
The following paymasters have been on duty in the division during the time: 
Lieut. Col. A. S. To war, deputy paymaster-general, U. S. A., arrived October 21, 
1899; chief paymaster since October 26, 1899. 


Maj. Charles McClure, paymaster, U.S.A., chief paymaster to October 26, 1899; 
relieved and left for the United States October 31, 1899. 

Maj. W. H. Comegys, paymaster, U. S. A., arrived February 25, 1900; chief pay- 
master Department of Northern Luzon since April 11, 1900. 

Maj. W. W. Gilbert, paymaster, U. S. A.^ arrived March 27,1900. 

Maj. H. L. Rees, paymaster, U. 8. A., arrived December 20, 1899. 

Maj. F. L. Payson, paymaster, U. S. A., arrived May 29, 1900. 

Maj. W. G. Gambrill, additional paymaster, U. S. v., chief paymaster Department of 
Southern Luzon from April 11, 1900, to July 25, 1900; relieved and left for the United 
States August 1, 1900. 

Maj. G. F. Downey, additional paymaster, U. S. V., arrived August 21, 1899; chief 
paymaster Department of Southern Luzon since July 25, 1900. 

Maj. W. B. Rochester, jr., additional paymaster, U. S. V. 

Maj. G. T. llolloway, additional paymaster, U. S. V., on sick leave since May 5, 1900. 

Maj. S. Howell, additional paymaster, U. S. V., arrived December 20, 1899; sick in 
hospital with typhoid fever since May 24, 1900. 

Maj. W. B. Schofield, additional paymaster, U. S. V. 

Maj. G. E. Pickett, additional paymaster, U. S. V., arrived May 24, 1900. 

Maj. James Canby, additional paymaster, U. S. V. 

Maj. William Monaghan, additional paymaster, U. S. V., arrived March 27, 1900. 

Ma]. M. B. Curry, additional paymaster, U. S. V., arrived December 20, 1899. 

Maj. J. S. Wilkins, additional paymaster, U. S. V., arrived May 29, 1900. 

Maj. M. F. Sheary, additional paymaster, U. S. V., left for the United States Septem- 
ber 3, 1899. 

Maj. Eugene CoflBn, additional paymaster, U. S. V. 

Ma]. T. C. Goodman, additional paymaster, L^. S. V., arrived July 17, 1900. 

Ma]. W. R. Graham, additional paymaster, U. S. V., arrived March 27, 1900. 

Maj. Theodore Sternberg, additional paymaster, U. S. V., chief payniaster Depart- 
ment of the Visayas since April 11, 1900. 

Maj. Charles K Stanton, additional paymaster, U. S.V., chief paymaster Depart^ 
ment of Mindanao and Jolo since April 11, 1900. 

Maj. G. G. Arthur, additional paymaster, U. S. V., arrived March 14, 1900. 

Maj. C. E. Kilboume, paymaster, U. S. A., and Maj. T. D. Keleher, additional pay- 
master, U. S. v., were on special duty in the division, the former as treasurer of^the 
Philippine Islands and Guam, ana the latter as disbursing ofl5cer of the provoet- 
marshal-ffeneraVs oflBce in Manila. They did no duty in the pay department. 

Major Kilbournc was relieved and left for the United States on December 3, 1899, 
and Major Keleher on August 1, 1900. 

Troops have been paid as promptly as possible under the circumstances, but want 
of transportation by water has caused delay in some instances, so that paymasters 
could not reach the troops until two months had elapsed and another payment was 

For payments in the Camarines and the Southern Islands there should be furnished 
to the pajrmasters seagoing steamers that would Ik? under their control until they 
had finished payment. If this could be done, payments would be made promptly, 
and I think the importance of the duty justifies it. 

The troops have been so scattered at small posts in the past year, and in many caaes 
the roads so bad that the payments have been very laborious, but the duty has been 
very cheerfully done. 

Payments were made almost exclusively in gold prior to January 1, 1900, but since 
that time the greater portion has been in United States paper currency. At first the 
citizens outside of Manila showe<l some hesitancy in taking the paper money from the 
soldiere, but since they found it as good as gold and is receivea by the banks at the 
same price I have heard of but little trouble. 

The accompanying table shows the receipts and disbursements for the fiscal year 
ending June 30, 1900. I have been unable to include the month of July in this table, 
as some of the paymasters are still absent on pay trips and their returns have not 
been received. 

The amount received from the Manila banks is in exchange for like amount credited 
them in New York bv cable. 

Very respectfully, your ol)edient servant, 

A. S. TowAR, Chi^ PaymasUr, 


Exhibit A. 

Table showing receipts and disbursements of the pay department in the Division of the 

Philippines during the fiscal year ending June SO, 1900. 

On hand July 1, 1899: 

Cash $2,149,601.91 

Assistant treasurers United States 474, 287. 50 

$2, 623, 889. 41 

Received from United States: 

Gold 3,300,000.00 

Silver 607,264.85 

Currency 2,500,000.00 


Ret^ived from Manila banks: 

Gold 1,130,520.00 

Silver 435,807.00 

Currency 1,038,673.00 


Credits placed with assistant treasurers United States M, 607, 463. 30 

Receivea from soldiers' deposits 2, 469, 640. 36 

Total 18,713,257.92 

Disbursements in payment of troops 14, 639, 707. 70 

Unexpended balances refunded Treasurer United States 1, 077, 626. 92 

Transferred to paymasters in United States 2, 200. 00 

On hand June 30, 1900: 

Cash $2,090,653.91 

Assistant treasurere United States 903,069.39 


Total 18,713,257.92 

Appendix II. 

Hdqrs. Division of the Philippines, 

Office Chief Engineer of the Division, 

Manila, P. /., August 1^, 1900. 

Division of the Philippines, Manila, P. I. 

Sir: I have the honor to submit the following report of operations of engineer 
department from July 1, 1899, to July 31, 1900: 

The officers in charge have been: 

Lieut. Col. Charles L. Potter, chief engineer, U. S. V., captain, Corps of Engineers, 
U. S. A., Julj 1 to September 15, 1899. 

Capt. William L. Sibert, Corps of Engineers, U. S. A., September 15 to November 
25, 1899; and myself since that date. 

The following officers have been on duty in the office: 

First Lieut. S. A. Cheney, Corps of Engineers, U. S. A., from January 2, 1900, to 
present time, with short intervals of service with engineer company. 

First Lieut. F. W. Altstaetter, Corps of Engineers, U. S. A., from June 15 to pres- 
ent time. 

Second Lieut. G. E. Stewart, Nineteenth Infantry, U. S. A., since July 20, 1900. 

Capt. C. F. O^Keefe, Thirty-sixth Infantry, U. S. V., has been attached as photog- 
rapher during all of the year. 

The engineer troops in the archipelago have been: 

Company A, Battalion of Engineers, during the whole time, under Capt. F. R. 
Shunk, Corps of Engineers, U. S. A., to December 23, 1899, then under Second Lieut. 
W. P. Wooten, Corps of Engineers, U. S. A., to May 1, 1900, and since under Second 
Lieut. H. W. Stickle, Corps of Engineers, U. S. A. 

* From this amount $1,307,492.64 was drawn in drafts on assistant treasurers United 
States, New York and Scm Francisco, in exchange for cash. 


Company B, Battalion of Engineers, under Capt. William L. Ribert, Corps of Engi- 
neers, U. S. A., arrived hero Aiijrust 10, 1899. The two companies were organized as 
a battalion to date from September 15, 1899, commanded by Captain Sibert until his 
departure for the United States, Mav 5, 1900. Company B has been under command 
of First Lieut. J. C. Cakes, Corps of Engineers, U. S. A., since September 15, 1899. 

The companies were kept attached as a battalion to headouarters Department of 
the Pacific and Eighth Anny Corps, and detachments sent witn different expeditions. 
Since the organization of the Division of the Philippines, Company A has been attached 
to the Department of Northern Luzon and Company B to tne Department of South- 
ern Luzon. 

In the Department of the Visayas, Lieut. R. A. Van Deman, Twenty-first Infantry, 
U. S. A., has been engineer officer. In the Department of Mindanao and Jolo, Capt. 
C. B. H^adorn, Twenty-third Infantr>', U. S. A., was engineer oflicer until April, 
1900. First Lieut. F. A\ . Kobbe, Twenty-thinl Infantry, U. S. A., now occupies that 

The expeditions in which the engineer troojw have taken part have been as 

During July, August, and September detachments were sent to the front, under 
different oflicers, repairing railroad and railroad plant, guarding railroad and trains, 
building bridges, ferri(»s, and railroads along the line occupied by the United States 
troops about San Fernando. 

Detachment of 40 to 75 men of Company B, under Lieut. J. C. Cakes, Corps of 
Engineers, U. S. A., with Major-General I^wton's column in fall of 1899. 

Detachment of 25 to HO men, Company A, under Second Lieut. W. P. Wooten, Corps 
of Engineers, V. S. A., with Major-(ieneral MacArthur's column during fall of 1899. 

Detachment under First Lieut. H. B. Ferguson, Corps of Engineers, U. 8. A., repair- 
ing railroad in advance, especially north of Angeles, September, October, and Novem- 
bt»r, 1899. 

Detachment of 30 men with First Lieut. S. A. Cheney, Corps of Engineers, U. S. A., 
and Second Lieut. II. W. Stickle, Corps of Engineers, U. S. A., withGreheral Wheaton's 
column around San Fabian, NovemWr and December, 1899. 

Detachment from A and B Companies under Capt. William L. Sibert, Corps of Kn|^- 
neers, U. S. A., on (ieneral Schwan's exi)e<lition into Cavite province, October, 1899. 

Detachment under Cai)tain Sibert with General Schwan and one under Lieutenant 
Oakes with General Wheaton, including all the officers and most of the men of both 
companies on exjKxlition of Major-General Bates in the southern provinces during 
January and February, HK)0. I also accompanied this expedition on staff of General 

Detachment of 50 men from both companies, under Lieutenant Ferguson, on Gen- 
eral Bate.«' exj)e(lition to the Camarines. Lieutenant Cheney accompanied this expe- 
dition a8 engineer oflicer. 

Detachment of 20 men, B Company, under Lieutenant Ferguson, accompanied first 
expedition to China. 

In addition, on various occasions oflBcers and men have gone on expeditions as 
topographers, (^aptain O'Keefe has accomi)anied s<.»veral as photographer, and also 
went with the first tr()oj)s to China. 

The work performed by the engineer troops in the field has Ikkju arduous, due 
greatly to the insufficient nnnil)er that it was possible to attach to the different com- 
mands. This was especially the case in the expeilitions in the fall of 1899 in the 
central provinces. In the rapid march of General I^awton's column, over roads 
almost impassable and over rivers swollen by rains, the small engineer detachment 
under Lieutenant Oakes marched with the trooj)H, made road sketches as they 
marched, and worked on bridges, ferries, and roads while the troops halted. The 
work of railroad repair un«ler Lieutenant Ferguson in the a<lvan(^, and often under 
fire, and that of Lieutenant Wocjten, were |KTformed under considerable difficulties. 
In this they were a.<siste<l by details from the command, principally from the Ninth 
and Thirty-sixth Infantry. The repairing and putting mto operation of partiallv 
destroyed plant, and of fishing locomotives and cars from the rivers, showed mucn 
skill and ingenuity. 

On other expeditions th(» work, due to comparative shortness of movement, to fewer 
natural ol)stnictions, and to the better season, was not so trying. It was, however, 
as api)ears in rep<^)rts of commanding generals, important and well done. Around 
San Fabian the country was marshy and nnich cut by rivers, and the detachment 
under Lieutenants Cheney an<l Stickle were constantly at work repeatedly repairing 
the roads and building bridges. In the exjKHliticm to the southern provinces the 
work of the detachment with General Schwan's command, usually under the direct 
charge of Lieutenants Wooten and Ferguson, did very effective work in rapidly build- 


ing and repairiiig bridges and roads. In the Camarines about 45 bridges were built 
by Lieutenant Ferguson on a stretch of road between Nueva Caceres and Pasacao, 
a distance of about 30 miles. 

After occupation of the Manila-Dagupan Railroad there was still much work to be 
done. The msurgents had taken up 7 miles of rails between Angeles and Bamban, 
burned the ties, carried the rails bevond the Paruao River, and destroyed that 
important bridge. Three miles nortn of Tarlac, the river Tarlac flowing' into the 
Lingayen Gulf had cut across the low divide, cut out the track for 2,500 feet, and 
emptied itself into the Rio Chico, flowing down to Manila Bay. Just south of Dagu- 
jmn 3i miles of rails had been taken up and ties destroyed. Engines and cars had 
been burned, derailed, and driven into the rivers. 

The repairs to the railroad were placed under personal chai^ge of Captain Sibert. 
The 7-mile break was closed by carrying ties and rails from Manila, and hauling 4 miles 
of rails from beyond the destroyed bridge to the end of the track by bull carts and 

The bridge over the Paruao consisted of four 71 -foot metal spans, supported on large 
iron, tubular, concrete-filled pillars, about 30 feet high. Several of tnese pillars had 
been destroyed, one span was on the ground and the others forced out of place. In 
addition, 125 feet of 30-foot hi^h embankment had been carried away by floods. 
The bridge was repaired by raismg the span, supported on cribs, and building trestle 

The washout of 2,500 feet was through a sandy bottom, mostly shallow, but with 
300 feet of deep, swift water. It was first repaired with bamboo bridges and the sup- 
plies carried over by hand. As the water fell trestles for the railroad were put in. 

On December 17 through trains were run from Dagupan to Manila. 

On February 10 Captain Sibert was appointed chief engineer and general manager 
of the Manila and Dagupan Railroad, which position he retained until the road was 
turned over to its owners. 

Since the organization of the Division of the Philippines the work of the engineer 
troops has been principally in road, bridge, and ferry building. Money has been 
appropriated from the civil funds, and generally disbursed by the quartermaster's 
department, with the work under the direction of this office. It has been usually 
superintended by officers and men of the engineer troops, with the actual work in 
charge of officers detailed from the different regiments. This work was begun late 
in the season, and is naturally all more or less temporary. The difficulties of road- 
building in this country are considerable, due to lack of material, of transportation, 
of skilled and common labor. The rapid rises of the rivers make all but the strong- 
est bridges insecure. 

The work has covered a great deal of territory, especially in central Luzon and 
the provinces south of Manila. Among the more important structures have been, 
though not all yet completed, three bridges on the road to Montalban, under super- 
vision of Lieut. F. W. Griffin, Twenty -seventh Infantry, U. S. V.; two ferries near 
Pasig; bridge at Parafiaque, and diflBcult roads in Cavite province, under Lieutenant 
Oakes, Corps of Engineers, U. S. A.; roads around Dagupan, by Lieutenant Stickle, 
Corps of Engineers, U. S. A., embracing several long bndges; truss bridge near Porac, 
under direction of Lieut. C. B. Humphrey, Third Infantry, U. S. A. ; bridges near 
Baliuag, under Maj. W. L. Geary, Thirty-fifth Infantry, U. S. V.; around San Isidro, 
Nueva Ecija, under Lieut. D. C. Lyles, Thirty-fourth Infantry, U. S. V. ; along the 
seacoast of Bataan province, by Capt. Lanier Cravens, Thirty-second Infantry, IJ. S. 
v.; besides much work has been done by other regimental o&cers. 


This haa been carried on principally from these headquarters, particularly in the 
case of the island of Luzon. 

For advance movements all Spanish maps available have been combined, tracer! , and 
blueprinted. These maps, generally speaking and considering the undeveloped 
nature of the country, have t^en fairly accurate, especially for that part of the coun- 
try covered by the military road maps. 

The expeditions to China were also supplied with blue prints. 

On the different expeditions of the United States troops, maps of routes have been 
made, and since the general garrisoning of the islands a complete reconnoissance has 
been ordered and is being carried out by the oflBcers and men of the command. 
These field maps are on a scale of 2 to 3 inches to the mile and are reduced at these 
headquarters to an inch to the mile, it is intended, eventually, to obtain a military 
map to cover the whole archipelago, so divided that any part can be completed inde- 
pendently. It is now only in the initiatory stage, but that of central Luzon is nearly 


Maps of military enpjagcmenta and expeditions, of departments and dlfltricts, of 
towns, harbors, buildings, etc., have been prepared and distributed with the assist^ 
ance generally of officers and men of the commands. 

The distribution of blue prints has been extensive. Since December 1, 1899, from 
which date a list of maps sent out has been kept, about 5,000 blue prints have been 
sent out, embracing more than 200 different maps of various sizes. In addition, a 
number of printed maps obtained from the Military Information Bureau at Wash- 
ington have l)een distributed. 

A blank form has l^een prepared and sent out to the different garrisons for collect- 
ing information on general subjects. These have not yet been all returned. 

The photographic work, of which a large part has been done by men of the engi- 
neer companies, has consisted in views of engineer work done in the field and on 
the railroad, views of forts, of landscaix^s, etc. 

In the Department of the Visayas, Lieut. R. H. Van Deman has nearly completed 
a map of the island of Panay at a scale of 1 inch to the mile. Road maps have been 
made and distributed, and tracings of Spanish maps corrected as far as known and 
given out to the troops. On the other islands similar work is being done, but is not 
so far advanced. 

In the Department of Mindanao and Jolo, Captain Uagadom organized a veiy 
systematic and complete method of collecting information and making maps. This 
is still in a very incomplete stage. 

Examinations of the defenses of Manila and Jolo were made by Lieutenants 
Chenej^ and Connor, respectively. Their reports, with photographs, were sent to 
the Chief of Engineers, U. S. A. 

A survey of the port of Manila, including the Pasig River, with examination of 
existing works, plans, estimates, expenditures, etc., was made under appropriation 
of $8,000, Mexican, from the civil funds. Report has been submitted, with maps. 

The documents jxjrtaining to the public works and the works of the port nave 
been assembled and arranged under direction of Maj. J. B. Hull, judge-aovocate of 
the division. 

The amounts expended directly by me have lH;en as follows: 

United States funds: 

P^iuipment of engineer troops $2, 748. 09 

Civilian assistants to engineer officers 5, 795. 99 

Philippine Islands civil funds: 

Bridge at Paraiiaiiue, by contract, not yet completed 296. 75 

Road to Montalban, etc ' 6, 925. 47 

Survey of harbor, Manila 5, 717. 43 

Hauling material 1, QOO. 00 

The officers detailed for engineer work, both in making maps and road repair, 
have accomplished useful results. 

The most i)r()mpt ancj complete maj) making and collecting information has been 
done in the fifth district, Department of Northern Luzon, commanded bv Brig. Gen. 
F. D. Grant, U. S. V., by First Lieut. C. B. Humphrey, Third Infantry,' U. S. A. 
Very respectfully, 

John Biddle, 
Captain^ Corps of Kinjinfcrs^ U. S. yl.. Chief Engineer of the Division, 

Appkxdlx I. 

Hdqks. Division of the Philippines, 

Office of the Chief Ordnance Officer, 

Manila^ 1\ /., August 14, 1900. 
A Djrx A NT-General, 

Division of the Philippines^ Manila^ P. J. 

Sir: I have the honor to make the following report of the operations of the 
ordnance department of this division for the period ending July 81, 1900. Theae 
consisted in receiving, issuing, rej)airing, manuiacturing, and safely storing the vari- 
ous ordnance and ordnance stores necessary for sui»])lying an army in active opera- 
tion in the field most of the time, varying in strength from 80,000 to 60,000 men. 
Nearly all of these ordnance sup[)lies were fiirnislied from the United States, but in 
emergencies it was necessary to make purchases of raw inatcTialand manufacture the 
articles at the Manila ordnance depot, which was formerly known as the Maestranza 
de Artilleria under Spanish occupation. 


The United States volunteer regiments which began arriving in October were all 
armed and equipped in the United States, and supplied with the necessary number 
of rounds of ammunition, so that they were ready to take the field at once upon 
their arrival in these islands. 

So ^r as is known, the arms and equipments for all three branches, artillery, cav- 
alry, and infantry, have given full satisiaction, and have proved their adaptability 
for the service required. 

During the year Battery F, Fifth Artillery, Capt. H. J. Reilly, commanding, has 
perhaps seen more active service than any other in the islands, and as its commander 
IS an officer of much practical experience, it is thought proper to attach a copy of his 
report hereto (see Exhibit A) . 

Browning and bluing facilities have added to the already quite complete plant at 
the Manila ordnance depot, and thus enables the department to keep the arms in the 
hands of the troops at all times looking as well as new; and by the use of spare parts 
they are practically kept in that condition. 

It is proposed to ada a tinning plant as soon as the necessary material and appli- 
ances are received from the United States. This will fill a want lon^ felt here, and 
will prolong the life of all mess outfits, which deteriorate so rapidl}^ m this climate. 

A statement showing the number of articles manufactured, repaired, and cleaned 
is attached hereto (see Exhibit B). 


Up to September 17, 1899, when he was taken sick, Capt. B. C. Morse, Seventeenth 
U. S. Infantry, acted as ordnance storekeeper and paymaster at this depot. From 
that date he never, because of this illness, returned to duty here, and his duties of 
acting ordnance storekeeper and paymaster were performed by myself till January 
24, 1900, when Lieut. Lawson M. Fuller, Ordnance Department, U.S. A., who had 
been assigned as special ordnance officer with troops in the field, reported for duty, 
and was assigned as acting ordnance storekeeper and paymaster, in which capacity 
up to this date he has rendered zealous and efficient service. 

On December 31, 1899, Capt. William Crozier, Ordnance Department, arrived from 
the United States with orders to be assigned as special ordnance officer with troops 
in the field, similar to those under which Lieutenant Fuller was acting. He was 
anxious to see field service, and was at once assigned to General Schwan's brigade 
for special field duty. When there was no longer any necessity for this work, he 
reported to me for duty in the office of the chief ordnance officer of the division, on 
February 6, 1900, and continued this duty until July 6, 1900, when he was ordered to 
return to the United States by way of Taku, China. He was assigned to ordnance 
duty with the troops there by Special Orders, No. 82, paragraph 2, headquarters Divi- 
sion of the Philippines, August 6, 1900, and took with him a supply of ordnance and 
ordnance stores (see Exhibit C — stores invoiced to Captain Crozier during month of 
July) for the use of the troops which had been ordered from these islands for duty 
in China. While here he rendered valuable service, more particularly in introduc- 
ing the card system of keeping official records in the office, and negotiating the pur- 
chase of the armament and accessories of the Spanish gunboats Quiros and VUlalobos 
and of the armed transport General Alava, a list of which is inclosed (see Exhibit D). 



At the present date the force consists of — 

Civilian clerks, in office 2 

Ordnance sergeant, in office 1 

Detailed enlisted men, in office 4 

Native employee, in office 1 

Ci vilian employees, in storehouse 2 

Civil service employee, in charge of carpenter, blacksmith, and machine shops . 1 

Civilian in charge of saddler's shop 1 

Detailed enlisted men, employed m handling and packing stores for shipment. . 9 

Native mechanics. 51 

Chinese coolies, detailed from the quartermaster's department 45 

Men on guard duty, detailed from the Twentieth U. S. Infantry, and changed 

every month .* 17 

There is no proper conception abroad of the amount of work this depot is called 
upon to uerform. Some idea of it may be given by consulting the statement of office 
and mecnanical work turned out. (See E^iibit B.) 



Tlie only other department we have dealings with is that furnishing transporta- 
tion, which has always been prompt, ready, and efl&cient. 


It was formerly the custom to fire a gun at noon at the moment the ball <iropped 
at the ob«ervatory, presided over by the Jesuit fathers. This was a ^reat conven- 
ience to sea captams and citizens, and at my suggestion it was reneweoL After con- 
sultation with Father Doyle, of the observatory, and the chief si^al officer arrange- 
ments were made, a special wire laid between a gun of the Falutmg battery and the 
observatory, and at the moment the ball drops the gun is fired automatically, having 
})een previously loaded and primed by a man detailed at the depot for the purpose. 

This convenience is much appreciated by the citizens of Manila and the shipping 
interests of the port. 

Very respectfully, Jno. R. McGinness, 

LieuteiLant-ihIondy Ordnance Department^ U. S. A.y 

Chief Ordnance Officer, 

ExiiiiiiT A. 

Light Battery F, Fifth Artillery, 

Mnniliiy Luzon, P. J., June 19, 1900. 
Chief Ordnance Officer, 

Divmon oj the Philippines, Manila, Luzon, I\ L 

Colonel: In compliance with your request of November 13, 1899, I respectfully 
submit the following report on the ordnance material of this battery. 

A copy of the detailed report of the chief of the left platoon. Lieutenant Summerall, 
is appended. 

The following r^sum^ of the conditions which existed during the period for which 
the report is rendered, September, 1899, Februarv, 1900, inclusive, will be of value 
in showing the wear and tear to which the material was subjected: 

Owing to the scarcity of animals there were but 2 horses and 2 mules to each piece 
until December, 1899, when the number was iiicrea*^ed to 6, the mules being dis- 
placed by horses. It has again been demonstrated that 4 was an inadequate number 
of draft animals to haul the guns. 

The caissons and combined battery wagon and forge were not used liecause there 
were no animals to haul them. With one excej^tion, when the right and center pla- 
toons were united under my command for the first exjiedition of General Schwan, 
October 7 to 14, 1899, the platoons acted independently under their respective com- 

The operations of the battery were entirely within the limits of Cavite, Laguna, and 
Batangas provinces, southern Luzon. 

* In Cavite province the ground covered by the right and center platoons was prac- 
tically level, intersected with man v streams, small rivers, and salt marshes; there were 
usually wet rice fields on both sides of the roads. 

The left platoon operated in Laguna and Batangas provinces, which, along the bay 
shore, are nilly and mountainous, the latter reaching varying altitudes up to 2,300 
feet. The uncultivate<l country was covered with dense growth; the roads were inter- 
sected with many streams and small rivers. 

In all three provinces the roads were usually lined with bamboo and other tropical 
growths; the banks of the streams and rivers were usually steep and abrupt; were 
also covered with similar trees and undergrowth. 


The roads themselves, except the highway — Lipa to Batangas— were the usual 
country dirt roads, which, subjecte<l to tropical rains, either improperly drained, or 
not drained at all, and left for years without repairs, presented the usual diflEiculties 
of broken bridges, impassable mud holes, etc., which made draft more or lessdifiicult^ 
and necessitated the cutting down of banks and the preparation of by-passes aroona 
these obstacles. 


The daily marches of the right and center platoons were neither lone nor hurried, 
as the guns remained with the infantry and dismounted cavalry, and were limited 
by their movemente. 

The left platoon had longer marches, between Calamba and Batangas and return. 


Expended. — A total of 979 rounds was expended in action by the battery — 762 
shrapnel, 201 shell, and 16 canister. More canister could have been advantageously 
expended had the supply carried been greater. In addition, 150 rounds were expended 
in July and August in target practice under the nearest approximation to service 

The ammunition was used very sparingly, as the transportation for it was limited. 
Fifty-two rounds were carried in each limber chest. An additional supply was car- 
ried on the trail and gun seats, bull carts, and occasionally in the escort wagons with 
the infantry ammunition. Forage was also carried upon the limber and gun. 


The ranges varied from 50 to 4,100 yards. A good deal of the firing was within 
700 yards. 


The recoil even on a level hard road was never sufficient to cause any trouble or 
to seriously interfere with any required rapidity of fire, although the number of 
cannoneers was always much less than the maximum. The most trouble waa experi- 
enced when the pieces were fired on soft ground and the recoil distance to the rear 
was least. 


Two, or at least one, telescope on light tripod ought to be supplied to each battery. 
It ought to have a large field, maximum power, and plenty of light. The necessity 
for such an instrument to locate the enemy's position, observe the fall of the ranging 
projectiles, and the effect of the fire is so evident that it seems unnecessary to dilate 
upon it. The economy of ammunition in accomplishing a given object would cover 
the expense many times. 


The necessity for and advantage of the telescopic sights soon made themselves felt, 
and at the earliest opportunity a bracket was put upon each piece. 

The present position of these brackets mignt be improved. The telescopic sight 
is now difficult to get at, requiring an unnatural position on the part of the gunner. 
The width of his Ixxiy is between the sight and the gun, and the bracket int^erferes 
with the cannoneer when he has to occupy the axle seat. 

If the bracket was placed upon the left rim base the disadvantage mentioned would 
be eliminated, and the gun could be more quickly aimed. 


Some of the copper vent bushings were rendered unserviceable very quicklv by 
the action of the gas. They were replaced bv brass bushings, which extended the 
whole length of the spindle, which gave variable results. Some became unservice- 
able more readily than the original bushings, and from additional causes; others 
stood quite well. The original copper bushings appear to be the best, some of them 
having quite a long life. Extra ooturators must be carried with each piece. 

An improvement upon the present method of firing the piece is very desirable. 
The present method is simple and effective, but requires altogether too much time. 
The necessitv, after the piece is aimed, for putting the end of the lanyard with the 
primer attached through the block handle, insertmg the primer, then stepping out 
and doin^ so without having the lanyard partially withdraw the primer from the 
vent, is hable at critical moments to cause fumbling on the part of the best-drilled 
No. 2 and a missfire; and all this is done after the piece has been aimed and the 
gunner has stepped out. 

How this valuable time could be saved is difficult to say. An obturating primer 
with slotted screw threads which could be inserted and fastened by a one-fourth rev- 
olution would save the wear on the vent; it could be removed after firing or inserted 


while the block is opened. No. 2 coold then step oat aimaltaneoasly with the gun- 
ner and the piece be fired as soon as aimed. 

In aU other respects we have but unstinted praise for the gun in the work it has 


The axles, axle plates, flasks, and wheels show no signs of having been subiected 
to excessive strains. One flask was found to be cracked at its junction with the 
lunette plate, but this does not indicate an^ lack of strength in the system that needs 
remedy. The guns were at times necessarily fired in very restrictea spaces. 


There is no place provided for carrying canister; it is the most useful defense the 
battery has against sudden attack at close ranee, and should be instantly available in 
such cases. I had temporary pockets made of leather, carrying two rounds, attached 
to the flasks on the right side, as close to the axle plate as possible; these were after- 
wards replaced by metal pockets, and it would be advisable, in my opinion, to make 
them a permanent attachment to all field carriages. The three cartridges are carried 
in the haversack when there is any possibility of such an attack. 

The riffht capequare keybolt of the first piece gave way in action, and in conse- 
quence the left capequare was bent, as the firing could not be stopped then. The 
right capequare keybolt of the second niece also broke. In both cases the injury was 
apparently due to a defect in the inetal of the keybolte. There does not seem to be 
any necessity for any changes looking to a remedy. 

In both cases the pieces were sent to the arsenal and so promptly repaired that 
their absence from the line was not noticeable. 


Although four bowsprings were broken in the recoil brakes, they were so readily 
replaced, and otherwise the brakes worked so successfully, I have no recommenda- 
tions for any change. 


The mud soon took the paint off the fellies of the wheels and off the spokes 
about half way of their length, and, although they were wetted to prevent it, the 
wood shrank, checked, and cracked from the effect of the heat and long dry season. 
Several of the caisson wheels were substituted for those of the pieces when the 
latter ^owed signs of the fellies separating from the tires. 

The question presents itself whether it would not be better to finish the wheels in 
oil; then a fresh coat could be applied when necessary and at times when it would 
be impracticable to give them a coat of paint 

When a battery is moving there is often a noise or thump in the nave box which 
apparently indicates that the wheel is not properly washer^. Upon investigation 1 
find that the wear of the axle in the interior of the nave box causes the latter to 
become elongated in one diameter; the lateral motion of the wheel, which causes 
vertical blows on the axles on the upper and lower elements of the elongated inte- 
rior, causes the noise. 

When stationed at Fort Riley I drew extra nave boxes with which the worn ones 
were replaced by the battery artificer, an additional wrench and a few extra bolts 
only being necessary. 

In an artillery repair park in the field, extra boxes and bolts and wrench would 
be advisable, also the other spare parts mentioned in this report. 


As stated in the appended report of Lieutenant Summerall, three of the nut ends 
of the side-lever eyebolts broke off. (Extra ones should be carried in the artillery 
repair nark. ) In one case, when both bolts broke, the tongs and middle transom 
jammecL In two cases the nut end, nut still attached, of the elevating screw broke 
off at the first cut of the screw thread. 

Either the wear or the shock of the dischai^ge caused enlargement of the screw 
threads of the cross-head elevating nut, so that not only was there finally' consider- 
ably lost motion, but the screw overrode and jammed; four of the six elevatmg devices 
have since been overhauled and repaired at the Manila arsenal 



Four of the trail handspikes were broken, eithe»* by the effert to move the trail 
laterally when the wheels were sunk in soft ground by firing, or by the shock of the 

The handspike handle has a piece of metal extending from end to end, and side 

Sieces of wood, the whole assemoled by iron rings; the iron strip adds to the weight, 
etracts from its strength to resist lateral strains, and the additional weight causes 
the shock of di8chara;e to be more severely felt. 

It would apparently be better if the handspike handle was of a single piece of toush 
wood, and made so tnat it could be inserted into the present socket with a simple 
fastening, so that if broken it could be readily replaced by the battery artificer; an 
extra one could be similarly carried on the caisson on the side opposite the maneu- 
vering handspike. 

The toggle for the long sponge and rammer is of but little use; usually the rammer 
is tied on, as no reliance is placed upon the toggle. 

The springs of the socket of the snort spon^ and rammer are frequently broken; 
when not broken the shock of the dischai^ displaces it so often from the firing posi- 
tion on the ^uard rail that No. 1 sometimes carried it and sometimes laid it on the 
ground outside of the wheel during the firing. 


The dropping of the pole when the carriage is in motion is due to the extension of 
the mogul springs owing to the tension of the draft which permits the pole-yoke ring 
to pass over the end of the pole pad; the maximum extension of the spring and the 
distance from the neck-yoke stop being the same, it is remedied by strapping the 
ring to the stop. 

There is now an excess of weight of about 40 pounds at the end of the pole, 
which has made sores on the necks of the wheel horses. By rearranging the packing 
of the ammunition and carrying forty-eight instead of forty-two rounds in the limber 
chest, that weight is balanced; the partitions are now being changed at the arsenal in 
one chest so that a thorough trial may be made. 

For convenience in handling and for protection against moisture the cartridges in 
the limber ought to be carried in three air-tight cases, each containing seventeen 
rounds, then when a passage of a river is necessary three cannoneers can each 
readily carry a case across, so that there will be no delay, and no danger of the 
primmg powder being wetted; to cross deep water as now arranged the cartridges 
nave to be packed in the haversacks, and when the other side is reached repacked in 
the chest, which takes time and causes delay. The lid prop plate pivot is not sufii- 
ciently well fastened; it works loose in Hie wood; the prop has sufficient lateral 
motion from the jolting of the carriage to work out off the Durr; the same motion 
also cuts loose the tinfoil covering of tne fuzes if shrapnel are packed next to it. 


The right platoon had a couple of premature explosions of shrapnel, the center 
platoon noted but one; as will be seen by Lieutenant SummeraH's report, he had a 
number of premature explosions of the snrapnel in the guns of his platoon. So far 
as known, all the projectiles used were brought out with the battery, and they were 
received from Frankford Arsenal in April, 1899; on arrival here the ammunition was 
stored in the Manila Arsenal, and drawn as reauired. 8o far in my service with the 
battery all artillery ammunition manufacturea at the Frankford Arsenal has given 
the most satisfactory results. 

I can not account for the premature explosions except that in sending supplies of 
ammunition to Lieutenant oummerall, some of the American Ordnance Ck)mpany's 
projectiles got mixed with those belonging to the battery. 


The shell used acted most satisfactorily, except that the percussion fuze was not 
quite sensitive enough, and the projectile at times would bury itself in the ground, 
which was very soft, so deeply that the smoke of explosion could not be seen in 


The saw cats on the canister case weaken it too much; some of them were broken 
by the jolting of the carriage on the march. It would be very advantageous if the 

WAR 1900 — ^VOL 1, PT V 10 


canister had a slight projection to act as a stop to prevent it from going throngh the 
bore when hastily loaded, the usual condition of its use. It fits so looselv now that 
if the piece is at an angle of depression the canister will slide through and fall to the 


The expendable six months' supplies have been found to be ample, except in the 
two items of harness soap and sperm oil. A little less than a half pound of hameas 
soap for one driver for two seta of harness for six months, or 3J pounds per gun, is 
an insufhcient c^^uantity; it has certainly proven itself so in this oattery. It would 
\)e advisable to mcrease it to 9 pounds per gun for the same period. The supply of 
sperm oil, 2 eallons, in the pamphlet of May 21, 1896, 2\ pmte on the requisition 
blanks, has also been found insufficient; an increase to 3 gallons is neoessary. 


The harness has answered the purpose admirably. The zinc lining of the collarp 
and collar-pads wears off and then the steel nists; otherwise the collars and pads are 
entirely serviceable. Some method by which they could be rezincked would be very 

In addition to the above field service, the material of the battery has had all the 
loading and unloading on the cars, and in and from the holds of the steamers, 
involved in its transfer from Fort Rilej^ to Santiago and return to New York, thence 
to these islands; yet with the few repairs and replacements made it is now perfectly 
ready for service — a i)r()of of the ex(^ellence of its material, the workmanship, and its 
adaptability for the work require<l from it. 

In this connection it is only proper to say that every requisition made upon the 
Ordnance Depot in Manila for repairs, spare parts, or ammunition was filled with the 
greatest promptitude. 

The platoon commanders. Lieutenant Snmmorall and Lieutenant McCloskey, con- 
cur witn the recommen<lation8J. 

Very respectfully, II. J. Rkilly, 

Vapta'ni Fifth Artillern, (hmmamliug Light Battery F, 


iSeptember 20, 1899, broke nut end of eyebolt in fifth i)iece at first shot. 

October 2, 1899, vent bushing loosi»iie<i during firing and toggle for long sponge 
and rammer broke on fifth piece. 

October 9, 1899, broke l)oth eyebolts of lazy tongs of sixth piece while firine. 

October 20, 1899, broke trail handspike, sixth section; seven shrapnel burst mgnn. 

October 24, 1899, vent bushing blew out of sixth piece; five shrapnel biurst in gun. 

November 13, 1899, vent bushing blew out of sixth piece; seven shrapnel bunt 
in gun. 

January 9, 1900, vent bushing blew out of sixth piece; burnt up a second bushing 
in three or four shots. 

January 13, 1900, friction primer broke in vent bushing, the vent being too small 
to admit primer its entire length; broke one 1m>w spring descending hilL 

January 21, 1900, broke elevating screw of fifth piece, and the handle, fitting too 
tightly, was broken in an attempt to remove it from broken screw ( the elevating 
scTew of this piece was broken on a pnnious occasion during target practice on 
(luadaluixj Ridge ) ; two vent bushings fell out at standing gun drill. Four wheels were 
injured by having six)kes cracked during the time the guns were in the field, but two 
of these cracks occurred wliile moving raj)i(lly over rice fields, the others probably 
resulting from the bad roads and the rest from the firing. During a military exerciM) 
a pole yoke slipi^ off the pole, breaking the ix>le and l)ending the doubletree. The 
rear hooks were broken on three doubletrees at different times. The great weight of 
the pole produced sores on top of the necks of the wheel horses. 

(Letter commenting on above tc) the Chief of Ordnance, July 19, 1900.) 


A great many of the shell made by the Ilotchkiss Comjmny were so deformed from 
bad packing that they could not 1x3 used. 
A laiige proportion of the cartridge cases made by the Winchester Company oould 


not be extracted, as the head of the case separated from the body when the breech- 
block was opened. 

The pack saddles issued for this gun are so made that they rest on four points of 
the horse's or mule^s back, and will invariably produce sores unless altered. 

One of the copper plates holding the flask to the axle was broken, and one wheel 
was cracked in the carriage of this gun. 

On account of the inclination of the rear sight in its seat, one of the guns shot far 
to the left of the line of sight. 


These guns jammed on two or three occasions, the cartridges having been wedged 
l)elow the feed. 

The middle partition of the cartridge boxes prevented the cartridges from being 
continually fed until men became expert in manipulating the box. 

The pintle pin of the carriage was so soft that it bent whenever the gun passed 
over uneven ground, and could not be removed without diflBculty. It was discarded 
and a piece oi rope was substituted. 


First Lieutenant Fifth Artillery ^ Commanding Left Platoon. 

Hdqes. Division of the Philippines, 
Office of Chief Ordnance Officer, 

Manila^ P. J., July 19 ^ 1900, 
Chief of Ordnance, U. S. A., 

Washington^ D. C. 

Sir: I have the honor to inclose herewith a report of Capt. H. J. Reilly, Light 
Battery F, Fifth Artillery, and a copy of the detailed report of Lieut. C. P. Sum- 
merall on the ordnance material of the battery from September, 1899, to February, 
1900, inclusive, with the following remarks thereon: 

The "brass bushings" were probably the ones put in at this depot. These bush- 
ings were made of the only suitable material that could be obtained; it is known 
here as "coin copper," and resembles that composition. Some of the old-style 
obturators were remodeled at this depot, and a bushing of the late pattern, extend- 
ing throughout the entire length with the large end threaded, was put in. It has 
not been found necessary to replace any of these bushings or any of the same pattern 
received from the States. 

The flask plates of a number of carriages have been cracked at the lower edge near 
the lunette, also the rivets through the lunette and flask plates have had to be 
replaced on several pieces. 

All side-lever eyebolts that have been broken have been replaced with others 
having two nuts, and the threaded portion of the bolt made the same size as the 
body, thereby doing away with the square shoulder at the junction of the body and 
threaded portion. None of these have been broken so far. 

In nearly all of the 3.2-inch pieces repaired at this depot it was found that the 
middle of the side levers had been driven down, thereby increasing the length of 
the lever, causing it to strike the head of the upper bracket bolt, thus preventing the 
depression of the piece beyond 2 degrees. These were straightened back to their 
original positions at this depot. 

In all of the trail handspikes repaired at this depot the metal center piece was 
replaced by a thicker one. Very few of these have been broken. 

The new pattern detachable handspike is not liked on account of the difficulty of 
attaching, also the difficulty of securing it when not in use. 

The limber chests on all of the piece limbers of Captain Reilly's battery have been 
changed. The change consists of^ taking the projectiles from the front part of the 
side compartments and carrying them in the rear of the center compartment. 

I am informed that with this arrangement, when the chest is filled with ammuni- 
tion, accessories, etc., and the piece limbered, the limber is nearly balanced. 

The Ud-prop pivots and pins soon become loose and have to be replaced. 

The rivets tnat pass through the side of the ammunition chest ana secure the lid- 
prop pivot plate become loose in the wood. There is also trouble with other rivets 
that pass through the woodwork, and it is thought that where rivets are used there 
should be a stiffening plate under the heads in order to present more bearing surface 
to the wood and prevent the heads from working in. 


Owing to Lieutenant SummeralVs accessibility to the telegraph, and the ease with 
which he could be reached by water transportation, all the difficult;^ he experienced 
with vent bushings, etc., were remedied at this depot, without causing delay or ren- 
dering the pieces useless. 

Respectfully, J no. R. McGinness, 

LieutenarU-Colondf Ordnance Department^ U. S. A., 

Chief Ordnance Officer. 

Appendix K. 

Annual Report for Period ending July 31, 1900. 

Hdqr8. Division op the Philippines, 

Office of Chief Signal Officer, 

Manila, P, /., AugwA 15 , 1900, 

Divition of the Phlippines. 

Sir: At the b^inning of the fiscal year there were in existence 139 miles of lines 
connecting the various he^quartersand outposts of troops in the field in the vicinity 
of Manila as they existed at that time. 

During the year there has been constructed 610 miles of field and fiying telegraph 
lines, 2,652 miles of semipermanent and permanent lines, 200 miles of cable, and 150 
miles of telephone exchange lines, the total constructed for the year amounting to 
3,609 miles oi land lines and cables. 

At present there are in operation 3,141 miles of land lines and cables, with 315 
telegraph and telephone oflBces in direct communication with Manila. In addition, 
telephone exchanges have been established at Manila, Iloilo, Cebu, and also a number 
of small systems connecting outposts and neighboring garrisons in Jolo, Cavite, Santa 
Cruz, Imus, Bohol, etc.. with 135 offices, making the total number of offices 450. 
Material has also been forwarded for the construction of similar systems at Zam- 
boanga, Cotabato, and other points in Mindanao and Leyte, from which no reports 
have been received. 

The field lines were eihployed for keeping the headquarters of the various cooper- 
ating expeditions in communication with each other and with the commanaine 
general at Manila. These consisted of either uninsulated i^dre laid upon the ground 
or upon bushes and trees, and operated with field kits of the vibratory type, com- 
monly called buzzers, and later replaced by pole construction, or of insulated wire, 
extending the r^ular Morse system. Some of the field lines were recovered, others 
abandon^, and in some cases they were completely destroyed by insurgents. 

Following up the field lines came the semipermanent construction on such poles, 
generally bamooo, as could be quickly procured. Bamboo poles, or any of the soft- 
wood poles of the islands, last but a very short time. Fine looking poles, 6 or 8 inches 
in diameter at the base, are found at the end of a few months either rotted off or eaten 
up by ants near the surface of the ground. Hard- wood poles being difficult to procure, 
permanent construction was frequently delayed on that account. Most of the trunk 
lines have, however, l)een reconstructed with hard-wood poles that are expected to 
last a year and a half or two years. Later on, when it is possible to procure such 
wood as ipal and yacal, the life of poles will be much longer, and no doubt iron 
poles could be advantageously used. 

All of the lines have required incessant watchfulness and constant repairs, although 
perhaps as much as 90 per cent of the line trouble has been the result of cutting by 
msui^nts. The duty of repairman has been one of great hardship and personal 
danger. During the year 4 men have been killed, 2 missing (killed or captured), 
2 wounded in a^on, 4 captured, 3 died of disease, 5 accidentally wounded, and 20 
sent to the United States for treatment. A large percentage of the sickness has 
been the result of exposure incident to the work. 

The operators have been on duty from twelve to fourteen hours every day. The 
number of messages sent and received during the last six months averaged 173,283 
per month, increasing as the lines were extended. T\^'o million five hundred thou- 
sand words were transmitted by tele|z:raph during the month of July, 1900, and in 
addition to this a large volume of business was transmitted exclusively by telephone. 

The system of communication in the Philippines consists of the Eastern Fxtension 
Australia and China cabk's from Hongkong to Manila, 736 knots; Manila to Iloilo, 
392 knots; Iloilo to Bacolod, 25 knots; Iloilo to Cebu, 167 knots; a military cable, 


Cebu to Ormof; military land lines and cables on the islands of Luzon, Panay, Nej?ros, 
Cebu, Bohol, and Leyte, and the visual signal systems between the islands of Cebu 
and Bohol and Cebu and Negros. Over this system is transmitted daily from the 
Manila Observatory the time of the one hundred and twentieth meridian at 11 o'clock 
a. m. Ships' chronometers may be compared at all offices; in the vicinity of Manila 
the captain of the port's office, the naval station at Cavite, and the office on Corre- 
gidor Island will be found most convenient. 

Vessels passing Corregidor Island will be reported when displaying their number 
by international code. The lookout and signal station is at the lighthouse. 

The extension of the system, which it is hoped to complete by the end of the year, 
includes a cable from Jolo to Zamboanga, Zamboanga to Tuburan, Tuburan to Cotta- 
bato, Misamis to Dumaguete, Dumaguete to the island of Cebu, west coast of Samar 
to the island of Masbate, thence to Donsol, on southern Luzon; and the extension of 
land lines to all garrisoned posts. 

The material, except poles, has been distributed for an entirely new five-line wire 
from Manila to Dagupan, along the line of the Manila and Dagupan Railroad. Poles 
are being purchased as fast as they can be procured, but there has been great diffi- 
culty experienced in securing poles of proper size and of a suitable wood. Many of 
the lines will require repairs to the extent of almost rebuilding during the next dry 
season, and poles are bemg purchased for that purpose as opportunity occurs. 

The laying of submarine cables has been under the direction of Maj. J. E. Max- 
field, Signal Corps. Through his efforts the cable on the wrecked cable ship Hooker, 
together with the machinery and equipment, was recovered, and 149 miles of cable 
repaired and successfully laid. The cable, as recovered, w^as coiled on the dock near 
the mouth of the Pasig River and was exposed to the intense heat of this climate 
from its recovery in October and November, 1899, until its final disposition in May 
and June, 1900. Portions of the cable were strained by the handling received dur- 
ing recovery and the insulation resistance lowered from exposure, but all of it has 
been working satisfactorily since its submersion. The sterling properties of this type 
of cable, both electrical and mechanical, reflect extraordinary credit upon the Ameri- 
can manufacturer, and, taken in connection with the history of similar cable laid 
during the Spanish war, would seem to settle conclusively that for military purposes 
cable with a properly constructed rubber insulation is the best type that can at pres- 
ent be designed. Had this cable been insulated with gutta-percha, twenty-four hours 
of exposure would have rendered it entirely worthless. 

Major Maxfield in his report commends Mr. Strubel and Mr. Henry Winter, cable 
engineers, for the excellent work done by them. Also Lieutenant Kennedy, First- 
class Sereeant De Kast, Sergeant Bohler, and Cable Seaman Kock. The cable crew 
consisted of 30 natives, who developed great adaptability for the work. Four of 
them have been permanently employed. 

Lieutenant Stamford and 10 men, fully equipped for signaling and for building 150 
miles of telegraph line, accompanied the Ninth Infantry, the first regiment sent to 
China. Major Scriven sailed on the 21st for China, and a small detachment will go 
on the next steamer. 

The loss of even this small number of men has been felt, the extension of lines 
and the multiplication of offices having left no margin of men for emergencies. 

The demand for oi>erators in the islands has demonstrated the fact that a suffi- 
cient number of suitable men can not be easily procured and retained, if required to 
do the amount of work demanded, for the inducements offered. To keep the force 
in the Philippines up to its present number during the coming year will require 10 
new men per month. The average number received from the United States for the 
last ten months was 20, and 4 men per month were transferred from the line. The 
present number of operators is inadequate, and to provide for the extensions in 
Mindanao and the Visayas 15 new men should be sent out each month. The reduc- 
tion of the number of troops in these islands will not lessen the demand for telegraph 
offices, and in order to provide for the year 1902 as many young men as possible 
should be enlisted with a view of giving tnem a year's instruction at the signal school 
at Fort Myer. 

Appended is a list of officers of the Signal Corps serving in the Philippines during 
the year. 

Maj. Richard E. Thompson was chief signal officer of the Division of the Philip- 
pines from July 25, 1898, until December 20, 1899. All of the operations of the Sig- 
nal Corps were under his personal and direct supervision during that time, and whicn 
includes the first half of the year covered by this report. 

Maj. Georee P. Scriven was chief signal officer of the Department of the Visayas 
from November, 1899, until July 21, 1900. His able and energetic management nas 


resulted in the present extended system of (communications throughoat the Visayan 

Capt. Edgar Kussel, chief signal officer of the Department of Southern LfUzon, lias 
been on duty in the Philippines since August 24, 1898. He has rendered invaluable 
service in the field, and as chief signal o&cer of the department. In addition to hia 
other duties, Captain Russel has l^en in charge of the telegraph and telephone lines 
in the city of Manila and of the Signal Corps machine shops. His report is appended. 

Capt. Daniel J. Carr, chief signal officer of the Department of Northern Luzon, has 
been on duty in the Philippines since August 12, 1899, and has shown marked ability 
and untiring energy in the field and in the management of lines in his departments 

Attention is respectfully invited to the detailed reports of the chief signal ofi&oers 
of the departments, and appended hereto, especially to the record of the officers and 
men. The services of these officers and men, characterized by valor, fidelity, and 
ability, commend them to the Executive and to the Congress in future appointinents 
and legislation. 

Respectfully submitted. 

James Allen, 
Lieutenant- Colonel, Signal Corps, 
Chief Signal Officer, Division of the Philippines. 


lIi^QRs. Division op the Philippinbs, 

Office of Chief Signal Officer. 

Lis<t <f officer i^^ Signal Corps, United States Army, serving in the Philippines. 




Lieut. Col. James Allen 

Maj. Richard E. Thompson 

Mai. George P. Scriven 

MaJ. Joseph E. Maxficld 

Capt. Edgar Russel 

Capt. Daniel J. Carr 

First Lieut. Leonard D. Wildman . . 

First Lieut. Frank E. Lvman, jr 

First Lieut. Walter L. Clarke 

First Lieut. Basil (). Lenoir 

First Lieut. William O. Bailey 

P'irst Lieut. William Mitchell 

First Lieut. Richard O. Rickard . . . 
First Lieut. Henry W. Stamfoni . . . 

First Lieut. William E. Da vies 

First Lieut. Charles S. Wallace 

First Lieut. George S. Gibbs 

First Lieut. Mack K. Cunningham. 

First Lieut. Alfred T. Clifton 

Second Lieut. William W. Colt 

Second Lieut. Charleys M. Duffy 

Second Lieut. Neils P. Yurgensen . 

Second Lieut. John Kennedy 

Second Lieut. Henry S. Hathaway. 
Second Lieut. Magnus Nordquist. . 

Second Lieut. Burt E. Grabo 

Second Lieut. Clifton R. Berry 

Second Lieut. Rush P. Wheat 

Second Lieut. Charles £. Booth 

Dec. 19, 
July 25, 
Nov. -23. 
June 26, 
Aug. 24, 
Aug. 12. 
Dec. lo, 
Jan. 2, 
June 2(), 
Aug. 21, 
Aug. 21, 
Nov. 2, 
Oct. 27, 
Nov. 7. 
Sept. 19, 
Dec. 15, 
Julv 25, 
Aug. 24. 
Nov. 7. 
Sept. 11, 
June 2(), 
July 24, 
June 20, 
May 1, 
Sept. 19, 

Present duty. 

J 900 


Dec. 28,1899 
July 21.11K)0 
Julv 1,1900 

Julv 15.1900 

June 27,1900 

June 15,1900 
July 1.1900 



C.S.O., Division. 
Asst. C. S. O., Army. 
En route to China. 
En route to United States. 
C. S. O., Dept. So. Luzon. 
C. S. O., Dept. No. Luzon. 
Comdg. Det., Camarines. 
Comdg. Det., Dagupan. 
En route to Unitea States. 
Comdg. Det., Solano. 
Signalofficer, Aparrl. 
Comdg. Det., China. 
Comdg. Det, Cebu. 
Comdg. Det.. Leyte. 
Aljscnt sick leave, Japan. 
En route to United States. 
Comdg. Det., N^roe. 
With Companv E. 
Comdg. Det., Vigan. 
W ith Company P. 
Comdg. Det., Guinayangan. 
With Company £. 
Inspctg. material, Tarlac. 
Sick in hospital. 
Comdg. Det., Atimonan. 
Comdg. Det., Tayatwjt. 
With Company E. 


Exhibit B. 

Hdqbs. Division of the Philippines, 

Office of Chief Signal Officer, 

Manila f P. /., August i, 1900, 







July 1, 1899 



















City exchanges 


Total completed to date 























Exhibit C. 


















August 1 

Miles operated (including reconstruction) 





per man. 










of men. 



Messages sent and 




Per man 
per day. 









New con- 









Including 150 miles, city exchanges. 

Exhibit D. 




















NumboT nt men present fiiHl at month. . . 






































SSJfSiiwS ""' " 


isSisS ■:::,„ 







T M 






> Sallv<l fur Ihe United BUtea. 

< Prcwnt and HvalUble (nr duty In the Pblllpplne*. 
EzniBiT ¥.. 


iJiaNAL Oftick, 
lUAlo, 1'. I., July 10, 1900. 
Chief Siqnal Officer, Manila, P. I. 

(Through Chief Signal Officer, DiviBioti Philippines.) 

Sir: I have the honor to submit the following rc|)ort an t^hief signal officer of this 

The present llepartment of the Visayas comprines the greater part of the former 
Visayaii military (listrict I'reated by (jeneral Oraen", No. 8, llcadquarterg Department 
Pacific and Ei^ith Army Con«, Manila, P. I., March 1, 1899, with the addition o( 
other islftiHlu. It waa established by War Department onlers of March 29, 1900, and 
c-onsiata in general of the iulandH of the Philippine sroii^, except Masbate, contained 
between parallels 12° and 9° of nortli latitude and longitude 121° 45' east of Green- 
wich, east to the Straits of Surigao and thence northeast beyond the southern extrem- 
ity of Samar, thence north to parallel 12°. It is composed of four districts, vix: 

Firft district, embracing the islands of Saniar and Le>-te (Samar detached tempo- 
rarily from Departnient ofthe Vinayas; General Orders, No. '&i, headquarters Divisioii 
of the Phili|>pine8, Manila, P. I., June 21, 1900. 

Second district, the islands of Bohol and Cebu. 

Third district, the island of Negros. 

Fourth district, the island of Panay. 

Signal officer, first district^ First Lieut. Charles 8. Wallace. 

Signal officer, second district. First Lieut. William K. Davies, Ccbu (island of 
Bohol— First Lieut F. S. YouDg, assistant signal officer). 

Signal officer, third district. Second Lieut. Alfred T. Clifton. 

Signal officer, fourth district. First Lieut. Leonard D. Wildman, <-ummandiDg 
Company H. 

The electric communications consist of both land lines and cables. The^e are aup~ 

Elemented by heliographic communication between Cebu and Bohol, to which wul 
e ailded additional permanent heliograph or semaphore stations as cunditiou 



(Mies — English, — The cables of the Eastern Extension Australasia and China Tele- 
graph Company, Limited, were, until April, 1900, the only external and interisland 
lines of the Visayas. The system was inaugurated in October, 1897, and consisted of 
a direct cable from Manila to Capiz, island of Panay, from which Iloilo was reached 
by land via Dumarao. From Iloilo the cable was carried to Bacolod, island of Negros, 
thence by land line around northern coast to Escalante; thence cable to Tuburan, 
island of Cebu, thence by land line via Toledo and Naga to Cebu (city) . The land 
lines were owned and bmlt by the Spanish Government, and were operated under the 
direction of the army. Upon the outbreak of disturbances in the visayas, difficulties 
arose in the maintenance of this system, and in October, 1898, the stations of 
Escalante and Tuburan were abandoned on account of the insurgents and not since 
reopened. In March, 1899, the cable from Manila was cut by the companv at Carabao 
Island, off the northwest point of Panay, carried via west coast of tne latter island 
around the peninsula of Antique and brought into Iloilo from the southwest. The 
Bacolod line was detached, and in May, 1899, a direct cable to Cebu (city) was laid 
around the north coast of that island. It was during the attempt of the English ship 
Recorder to recover the cable at Escalante that the Volunteer Signal Corps of the Army 
lost a most valuable officer in the death of Capt. George filly, murdered by the 
natives when unarmed and defenseless in the water off that station. 

The present cable system in the Visayas of the Eastern Extension Australasia and 
China Telegraph Company consists therefore of a direct line from Manila to Iloilo 
(Panay), distance 391.83 Knots f office to office); a direct line Iloilo to Cebu (city), 
aistance 187.29 knots (plus land line at Iloilo, .56 knots; total, office to office, 187.85 
knots); and a direct line, Iloilo to Bacolod (Negros), distance 25.14 knots (plus land 
line, Iloilo, .56 knots; total 25.70 knots). The present commercial tariff rates, 
reckoned in Mexican currency, are 22 cents, 20 cents, and 20 cents, respectively, 
per word. Government rates are fixed by agreement. 

Cahle»— United States Government. — In April, 1900, Liloan, east coast of Cebu, was 
connected hy Government cable with Ormoc, island of Leyte, distance 80 miles, by 
Major Maxneld, U. S. V. Signal Corps, in charge of the steamer Romulus^ temporarily 
assigned to this dutv. The cable was opened April 19, and a branch laid from Liloan 
to neighborhood of the Lazaretto, Cebu (city), where connection is made with a 
branch land line to Cebu. Both have since worked without interruption. About 
the same time 2 miles of deep-sea cable were laid by the Romulus from Tacloban to 
a point on the opposite coast of Samar, but the ends of this cable remain sealed. It 
is probable from the character of the country and the temper of the people that no 
land connection between the present terminus on Samar and Catbalogan, the capital, 
can be established and maintained without great difficulty, and that the cable must 
eventually be carried from Tacloban direct to Catbalogan unless, indeed, the latter 
place is connected with the telegraph system of southern Luzon, to which department 
the island of Samar has recently been temporarily attached. It is not considered 
in detail in this report. 


In default of sufficient cable to connect the island of Bohol with Cebu, heliograph 
stations have been established at Argao, east coast of Cebu, and Loon, west coast of 
Bohol, and these stations connected by land telegraph with Tagbilaran, capital of 
Bohol, and wuth Cebu (city), respectively. The heliograph distance is approxi- 
mately 16 miles. 

This system is found to answer fairly, but can be considered only a makeshift to 
be maintained until cable js laid. At night the acetylene lantern is used with suc- 
cess except in certain positions of the moon; but annoyance is experienced from the 
lights of fishing boats that frequently cover the coast like a luminous veil of fire- 
flies. Under ordinary circumstances the acetylene lantern is visible with the naked 
eye from shore to shore. The station at Loon, approximately 250 feet above the sea, 
is placed on the bastion of an old fort built as a defense against the Moros of Min- 
danao; that at Argao, about 40 feet above the sea, occupies the top of a stone arch, a 
sallyport of the wall that once protected the water front of that town. 

It may be remarked that the heliograph, lantern, and semaphore are of consider- 
able value in this department in connecting the smaller islands, not sufficiently 
important to warrant a cable with the larger. The value and number of permanent 
visual stations should increase rather than diminish with the extension of the tele- 
graph lines to coast towns. It is intended, in default of cable service, to establish on 
the southeast coast of Negros, near Amblan, a heliograph and semaphore station to 
connect with San Sebastian, Cebu, as soon as the latter place is garrisoned and the 


coast telegraph from Argao, now building, arrives there. In thig way comrnnnica- 
tion can be had with the important town of Dumaguete, Negros, now isolated and 
not readily accessible by lana lines. Guimaras, Siquijoij and other small islands may 
be similarly connected and the network of communication in the Yiaayius thos 


It is recommended that the interisland cable system of the Yisa^ras be extended 
to include the island of Bohol, and that a cable be laid from Cebu (city) to Tabigon, 
an important port of entry on the northwest coast of Bohol; or from Ai]eaOy Cebu, 
to Tubigon or Tagbilaran, the capital. This cable, continued by the land line now 
building to Ubay, northeast coast Bohol, and bv a short cable to Leyte, will give a 
second line from Cebu to Leyte near Maasin, should the construction and mainte- 
nance of a land line from Ormoc to Maasin prove impracticable. From Maasin a 
land line and cable can reach the important Surigao district of northeast Mindanao, 
which is believed to be practically maccessible oy land from Zamboanga and the 
south. It is thought that either the route from Cebu to the Sorigao country, \ia 
Ormoc-Maasin, or that via Ubay-Maasin, tapping, as each does, important towns and 
well-peopled regions, should be elected as tne line of communication with northern 

Besides the cable to Bohol and shore lines hereafter mentioned, a short cable is 
considered necessary from a point on the southeast coast of Negros, say Amblan, to 
San Sebastian, southwest coast of Cebu, a distance of 5 or 6 miles. This, in con- 
nection with a land line of 35 miles, would bring the important region about Duma- 
guete into the interisland system, from which it must otherwise long remain cut off 
owing to the impracticability of building and maintaining a line either across the 
mountainous ladrone district of the interior between Himamaylan and Dumaguete, 
or along the east coast from Calatrava south. 

As there is now a cable from Ormoc to Cebu, the Ubay-Leyte line is not a neces- 
sity, and there remains to complete the interisland system of the Yisayas only the 
line from Cebu to Tubigon and Amblan to San Sebastian, say 30 miles in all, 
besides the cable to Catbalogan along the west coast of Samar, which need not be 
considered here. It is thought that few more potent influences can be brought to 
bear in civilizing and quieting the people of these islands than quick and unfailing 

In this connection it is desired to point out the need of a cable from some point of 
the Visayas, say Dumaguete or Iloiio, to Zamboanga and Jolo. 


The present permanent tel^:raph system of the island of Panay, as will hereafter 
be narrated, dates practically from December 26, 1899, at which time there was but 
one telegraph station^ outside the city of Iloiio, \iz, at Jaro, 2} miles ^m head- 
quarters. At that date two working squads of the newly oi^nized signal company 
(H) of the Visayas, arriving December 24, were put in the field by the signal officer 
of the h irst Separate Brigade, Eighth Army Corps, under the command of First 
Lieut. Leonard D. Wildman and Second Lieut. Charles S. Wallace, U. S. Volunteer 
Signal Corps. Since that time — six months and a few days — the following lines 
have been built and are now operated, with the exceptions noted: 







Santa Barbara. 















^ A temi)orary line to Molo existed, but was replaced by a permanent wire used 
for telephone service. — G. P. S. 


iLoiLo TO San Jost de Bcena Vista. 




San Joaquin 

San Jos<^ 

Santa Barbara to Janinay. 




Santa Barbara 














Sara - 


Calivo to Lagatic. 


from . 






Leon to Iobaras. 




Guim bal 










Barotac Nuevo 








Cabatuan to Maasin. 


Maajsin . . . 

Sara to Ajui. 









Capiz to its Port. 









Central office, department headquarters. 

Residence of commanding general. 

Office of adjntant-general. 

Office of (;hief clerk, adjntant-general. 

Office of captain of port. 


Cable office. 

San Augustine Barracks. 

Palace (hospital and sales commissary) . 

Brigade hospital. 

Hospital storehouse. 

Fort and general prison. 



Office of chief paymaster, 

Office of judge-aavocate. 

Office of Captain Gordon, Jaro. 


Chief quartermaster's office to storehouse No. 1. 

Chief quartermaster's office to storehouse No. 2. 

Chief quartennaster's office to office depot quartermaster. 

Chief commissary's office to commissary warehouse. 

Signal corps storehouse to signal corps Iiead(iuarters. 

Amount of wire, 22 miles. 

Total amount of wire strung, telegraph an<l telephone, on Panay, 306 miles. 

The line from San Joaquin to San Jos<5 has l)een useless since it was put in on 
account of the unsettleil condition of that part of the island. No troops were avail- 
able for its protection, and it has ]>een reported that at least 20 miles have been 
entirely torn down and removed. 

All the telegraph line cm Panay is of No. 9 galvaniztnl iron wire, strung on hard- 
wood poles set 4 feet in the ground. Where rivers are crossed the poles are set in 


the ground 6 feet and are very large and high. The river between Gnimbal and 
Miagas is cabled with river cable, the only place on the island where this has been 
necessary. The telephone lines are of No. 9 galvanized iron wire, strung on hard- 
wood poles, with the exception of the line between Barotac Nuevo and Banate. This 
was a quick line, and insulated wire strung on bamboo poles and bushes was used. 
Several attempts have been made to replace this line with No. 9 wire, but a guard 
necessary to protect the signal corps party could not be furnished. 

The character of the country diners widely in the different sections, from the low, 
swampy lands along the coast, to the high mountainous region between Dumarao 
and Sara. Almost every kind of difficulty has been met, from quicksand and rock 
in which to set poles to bamboo jungles and wide rivers over which to string wire. 
When first put up the Unes were chiefly strung on bunga or betel nut poles, tor the 
reason that time was of great importance and these poles could be obtained in the 
neighborhood. They were, however, in the nature of a temporary support, and have 
been almost entirely replaced by good-sized hard-wood poles on all the lines, except 
the telephone line, Sara to Ajui; but the bunga obtained in that region seems to be 
of much greater strength and durability than that obtained in low, swampy districts, 
and has as yet given no trouble. It will, however, be replaced in the near future by 
hard wood. 


[Extracts from Lieutenant Wildman's report.] 


In the six and a half months ending July 10, 1900, the lines on the island of Panay 
have been extended to include 83J per cent of the garrisoned towns. The system 
comprises 306 miles of telegraph and telephone line, with 16 telegraph stations, 8 
branch telephone stations (which form in reality a part of the telegraph system) , and 
a city system of 28 telephones at Iloilo. 

The operation and maintenance of these lines through hostile country with a force 
of men entirely inadequate to the needs of the service is at best a difficult matter, 
and the fact that communications have been so well kept up during the six months 
speaks well for the efficiency, willingness, and personal bravery of the enlisted men 
employed. 'For the maintenance of the lines the system has l>een divided into eight 
sections, each section employing one native hneman. This Hneman works under 
the immediate direction of the operators in his district, who are in turn controlled by 
the chief operator of the island. One district, that from San Jos(5 de Buena Vista to 
San Joaquin, has practically been abandoned, as some 45 miles of territory is unoccu- 
pied by troops, and therefore impossible as a route for the tel^raph line. The sec- 
ond section, from San Joaquin to Oton, contains six stations— San Joaquin, Miagas, 
Tigbauan, Guimbal, Igbaras, and Leon. The native lineman has his home station 
at Tigbauan. The operator at San Joaquin, in case of trouble on the line between 
his station and Miagas, is expected to repair it himself, as he can leave his station 
without interfering with the work of the line. In case of trouble between Miagas 
and Oton, the native lineman is instructed to proceed immediately to the point of 
trouble and to make temporary repairs as quickly as possible. These repairs are 
usually made with li^ht copper wire, of which he can carry quite a large amount 
without burdening himself. If the interruption is of sufficient extent to necessitate 
a large amount of material, he is furnished with a squad from the nearest point and 
given the material with which to make permanent repairs. A reasonable supply of 
all materials is kept at each telegraph station. This same method of repair is carried 
out on each of the seven sections, with the exception of the one between Pototan and 
Dumarao. This section has been particularly troublesome, owing to the activity of 
the insurgents, and a Signal Corps corporal has been stationed at Dumarao to oversee 
these repairs. With this one exception, the operator and the native linemen have 
done all the repair work which did not require good-sized squads and large amounts 
of material. The stations of the native linemen are as follows: Tigbauan, Iloilo, two 
at Pototan, Dumarao, Sara, and Capiz. 

The sixteen telegraph stations are open continuously night and day, the main office, 
Iloilo, being the only one with two operators. In each of the other stations the opera- 
tor sleeps in the same room with his instrument and is never away from it without 
permission from the chief operator except at meal times. The faithfulness of these 
operators is shown by the fact that but two complaints have been made during the 
entire six months. 

The eight telephone stations are in reality a continuation of the telegraph system, 
but telephones were substituted for the instruments in order to save operators. All 
calls, day or night, are answered by some member of the guard who is always within 
hearing of the bell. The telephones are cared for, however, and the lines maintained 


entirely bv the Signal Corps. They are nearly all of them short and have proven 
very satisfactory. In February the lines of the island were thrown open to paid com- 
mercial messages. This has necessitated a large amount of extra bookkeeping by the 
operators and at headquarters, but has resulted in a considerable amount oi money 
and has been a great convenience to the merchants along the line. 

[Extract from Lieutenant Wildman's report.] 

At least 90 per cent of the interruptions on Panay have been due to malicious inter- 
ference on the part of the natives. These interruptions range from apparently wan- 
ton cutting of the poles with a bolo, to organized resistance to the passage of the line. 
In the case of the western line between San Jos6 and San Joaquin (see Lieutenant Wal- 
lace's report) this resistance was manifest from the time the line was started until it 
was finished. A guard of 100 men accompanied the Signal Corps squad and waa fired 
upon nearly every day. The nature of the countrv made it possible for the natives to 
conceal themselves on the high hills overlooking the road and to take occasional shots, 
with almost no danger of molestation from the troops. On this expedition an effort 
was made to run the line through the Tiolas pass (which would have saved some 30 
miles) . After reconnoitering, however, it was seen to be clearly impossible to main- 
tain it and the line was carried around the end of the peninsula alon^the shore road. 
Numerous cuts were made behind the troops and that section of the line was never in 
complete working order. After reaching San Joaquin the construction squad was 
ordered in, and almost immediately the entire line which they had built was torn 
down and carted off. The opei-ator, who had been left at San Jos^, on trying to inves- 
tigate the cause of the interruption, was ambushed with his guard some distance below 
Antique, and all his material, his line tools, and his instrument were captured. After 
this me attempt to maintain that section of the line was abandoned until the country 
could be garrisoned. This has proven to be the worst spot on the island for tel^rapn 

At the time the main line to Capiz was commenced there was no garrison at Passi, 
but as the line advanced it was seen that without a garrison at that point the portion 
through the pass could be torn down at will, with almost no danger to the insurgents. 
The chief signal officer, therefore, asked that a garrison be stationed at Passi, which 
was immediately done. While this garrison was there the disturbances were few, 
but as soon as it was removed, on May 23, there was a determined effort by the 
insurgents to interrupt the communications between the north and south ends of the 

On May 25 the first cut was made about 4 miles north of Passi. Two poles were 
chopped down and about 150 yards of wire carried away. The Passi lineman and a 
guard went out immediately, and the line was open but three hours. 

On May 26 the line was again cut a short distance below Passi, and was again put 
in working order almost immediately. 

On the 28th the line was cut again near the crest of the pass. This time 1 mile of 
poles and wire were cut down and taken away. A squad was immediately sent out 
irom Dumarao and the mile break was put in within thirty hours, in spite of the fact 
that the squad which repaired it was ambushed by about 50 insurgents. Two of the 
detachment were seriously wounded, and 5 of the guard kept the insurgents in check 
from 9.30 a. m. to 2 p. m. , when reenforcements from Dumarao were sentto theirrescue. 
The native lineman and all his tools were captured and have never been heard from 
since. The loss of these tools necessitated a night ride to Capiz and return, a distance 
of 82 miles. When these tools reached Dumarao, a detachment of 25 men went to the 
point of trouble, and the 2 wounded men were found in a shack, where they had been 
abandoned by the insurgents. One of the wounded men had made application 
(which had been favorably indorsed and forwarded) for transference to the Signal 
Corps. He is now in hospital, with nine bullet wounds. 

On June 1, at almost the same place, 4 miles more of wire were cut out and 
destroyed. Owing to the fact that the small amount of material placed at Dumarao 
for emerwincies of this kind had been exhausted, the supply ban to be sent from 
Capiz, which had been stocked as a depot for the northern half of the island. A 
detachment was sent from Dumarao to regarrison Passi, and an operator was dis- 
mtched from Iloilo on horseback, with relays of guards, to take charge of the office. 
On his arrival at Passi he moved his office to the end of the break and relayed the 
north and south messages until the line could be repaired. Actual communication 
was not disturbed for more than two days, although it was five days before the 
repairs were completed. 

On June 16 the same })erformance was repeated and 3 miles of wire were cut out. 
At this time the line was open for three days, but was repaired by the Dumarao squad. 


On Jnne 23, the detachment having been again removed from Passi, 4 miles more 
were taken away. As all the troops at Dumarao and Pototan are occupied in chas- 
ing the insurgents in another part of the island, the break has not yet been fixed. 
Runners are, however, employed from Signal Corps funds, and the north and south 
messages are exchanged as often as possible by this means. 

It can readily be seen that this section of line, 33 miles long, through some of the 
worst country m the island, will be impossible to maintain if a strong patrol is not 
established or if the garrison at Passi is permanently withdrawn. With the small 
supply of material on hand in this district it is out of the question to keep 20 or 25 
miles of line material on hand at each telegraph station to provide against these 

When the station at Passi was abandoned, an attempt was made to leave the line 
material which had been sent to that point with some responsible person. The 
presidente of the town and the padre both refused to have anything to do with it, 
saying, * * As soon as the garrison leaves the insurgents will come in and take it away. ' ' 
This material, therefore, had to be taken to Pototan. The second time the post was 
abandoned, the presidente was forced to take charge of a small amount of wire and 
brackets, as there was no transportation to carry it across the pass to Dumarao 
(in which direction the garrison retired). The night after the garrison left, ladrones 
visited the presidente and took away these stores. 

A short time before this they captured a cart with 9 coils of wire, 3 digging bars, 3 
shovels, a pocket relay, insulators, brackets, pliers, and comealongs. This cart was 
on its way from Pototan to Passi in charge of the native lineman only, as no guard 
could be obtained at Pototan. It was halted by insurrectos about 5 miles from Passi, 
but the lineman escaped after being shot at a number of times and chased for 2 miles. 
The driver of the cart was related to some of the ladrones, and upon his representa- 
tion that he would be killed by the Americans if the material dia not reach Passi he 
was allowed to deliver it at that point. 

Between Dao and Capiz, where the trail over the mountain to the sea crosses the 
main nMul, there have also been numerous cuts. It is understood that the insurrectos 
Uvinp in the mountains are under orders to cut the line at this point, practically as 
a de&nce, every time they cross. The cutting commenced before the line-construction 
squad had reached Dumarao and has continued with some frequency ever since that 
time. It was near this point that a wagon train bringing supplies from Capiz to Duma- 
rao was ambushed. After the ambush, a small fort hollowed out of the crest of the 
near-by hill was discovered. This fort had existed for a long time, and its presence 
was entirely unsuspected by the American soldiers who had passed by that point 
times innumerable. 

There has also been much trouble on the line between Banate and Pototan. This 
line passes through the town of Barotac Nuevo, which is only a short distance from 
Dumangas. The country around that point has for the last month been the center 
of insurrecto disturbances, and the line has been cut many times. This is the only 
line on the island at present which is not permanent. It was constructed of insulated 
wire at a time when there were no brackets or insulators in the department. A 
SQuad was. sent out a short time ago to replace it with No. 9 G. I. wire on poles, but 
after staying seven days at Barotac Nuevo, was forced to return to Iloilo, as there were 
no prospects of a guard being furnished to finish the reconstruction. 

The total numl^r of serious interferences with the wire since February 2 has been 
about 35, 23 of them having occurred in May and June. 


The present signal oflBcer, Department of the Visayas, reported at Iloilo, head- 
quarters Visayan military district and First Separate Brigade, Eighth Army Corps, 
December 1, 1899, in accordance with Special Oraers No. 324, headquarters Department 
of the Pacific and Eighth Army Corps, Manila, P. I., November 25, 1899, and on the 
following day reported in person to Brig. Gen. R. P. Hughes in the field at Pototan, 
Panay. At this time the signal force in the Visayan military district consisted of 
three detachments: One on the island of Cebu, under the command of Second Lieut. 
William E. Davies, Volunteer Signal Corps, composed of 1 commissioned officer and 
10 enlisted men, who were reported direct to Manila; a second detachment composed 
of 4 enlisted men stationed on the island of Negros, under the temporary command 
of Second Lieut. Israel Putnam, Sixth Infantry, acting signal officer, who were 
reported to Second Lieut. AlfretlT. Clifton, Iloilo; a third detachment under the com- 
mand of Second Lieut. Alfred T. Clifton, signal officer, Panay, composed of 1 commis- 
sioned officer and 11 enlisted men, comprised the signal force on that island. 


At this date, December 1, Second Lieutenant Clifton was in the field at Pototan with 
the commanding general, and with him were 4 privates. Signal Corps, with 1 man, 
Twenty-sixth Infantry, U. S. V. , attached. This party was provided with flags, helio- 
graphs, and oil lanterns, but had been unable, owing to the character of the country 
and to cloudy weather, to maintain communications between the command and ite 
base at Jloilo, though strenuous efforts were made to do so. (See Lieutenant Clifton's 
report, **A.") Electric communication could not at this time be laid in Panay. 
Lieutenant Clifton and his detachment accompanied the column of General Hughes 
on its march to Capiz, and later proceeded to Romblon, where service was rendered 
with visual signals. Second Lieut. Max Wagner, Twenty-sixth Infantry, U. S. V., 
accompanied by a small detachment, at his own rejjuest performed the duties of a 
signal oflBcer during an auxiliary expedition to Capiz, sent by sea to cooperate with 
General Hughes. (Report appended, B. ) 

At various times detachments of the Signal Corps were attached to commands in 
the field, and on all such occasions acquitted themselves well. I especially desire to 
commend Private (now First-Class Sergeant) Jay M. Faimce for steadiness under fire 
when signaling the ships during the action at Antique, island of Panay, January 18, 
1900, r^arding which a letter (Appendix C) has been received. 

I also desire to mention the conduct of Sergt. Philip J. Golden and Private (now 
Corporal) Alexander E. Whitworth, Signal Corps, and a detachment of the Twenty- 
sixth Volunteer Infantry, in an affair near Oton (Panay) , reported to the Chief Sig- 
nal Oflficer of the Army, and to the colonel conimandmg Twenty-sixth Volunteer 
Infantry (Appendix D). 

When transportation was available, as in combined land and sea operations, these 
parties were provided with flags, acetylene lanterns, Coston lights, rockets, and bombs. 
The lanterns proved serviceable. 

By Orders, No. 41, Headquarters Department Pacific and Eighth Army Corps, 
oflice chief signal oflBcer, Manila, P. I., December 16, 1899, Company H, Signal Corpw, 
was organized, with the following oflScers and enlisted force: 

First Lieut. Leonard D. Wildman, Volunteer Signal Corps. 

Second Lieut. Chas. S. Wallace, Volunteer Signal Corps. 

Second Lieut. Alfred T. Clifton, Volunteer Signal Corps. 

Second Lieut. Wm. E. Davies, Volunteer Signal Corps. 

Three first-class sergeants, 5 sergeants, 4 corporals, 33 first-class privates; total 
enlisted, 45. 

On December 24, Lieutenants Wildman and Wallace, with 19 enlisted men, arrived 
at Iloilo. The several detachments in the field had returned, and on December 26 
the construction of the present telegraph system of Panay was begun in accordance 
with the plans of the signal officer of the military district, approved dv the command- 
ing general. From time to time thereafter the enlisted force of H Company was 
increased until it reached its present strength of 76. 

In regard to the enlisted men of the Signal Corps, in the Visayas, I believe it is not 
too mucn to say that so fine a body of men is seldom brought together and that their 
efficiency, energy, and steadiness have been remarkable. Intelligent and well 
instructed, they have shown a keen interest in corps work, and far from needing a 
spur have required a check to keep them from continuing on duty w^hen broken with 
long and arduous service in the field. The difficulties and hardships of constructing 
communications on these islands have l)een great; but the men, constantly in the 
midst of a treacherous enemy, working at times through dense jungles, always in 
intolerable heat, and frequently in drenching rains, have shown an energy and spirit 
worthy of the highest commendation. But the strain at times has been severe. In 
a report to the chief signal officer. Division of the Philippines, the signal officer of 
the Visayas remarks: 

" I am sorry to have to tell you that our number of sick is large, and that appar- 
ently strong, well men drop down suddenly with fever or stomacn trouble. To-aay, 
April 24, we have 7 men sick in hospital at Iloilo and in quarters, 5 convalescents, 12 
in all out of a total of 44 enlisted men on the island; and others who have a very 
weak hold upon health, and though they are on duty and willing to work, are unfit 
for the field. Two of the 7 have typhoid, and 1 of them. Corporal Chamberlain,* is 
still in a dangerous state, but with strong hopes of his recovery. It is hard to see 
the fine men, who came out a few months ago strong and full of energv, pulled down 
almost to skeletons, and mo\dng about like tired old men. * * * Once w^ell, 
energy seems to come back to a moderate extent and the men remain in fair health, 
but tney seem to wear out rapidly. The heat is sweltering now from 9 in the 
morning to 5 in the evening, though there is usually a breeze and the nights are cool; 

* Still (July 5 in hospital), but improving. 


bat each day comes without a cloud to break the glare of the sun and often with 
swirls of dust blowing along the roads and whitening the vegetation, for we have had 
no appreciable rain for weeks/' 

Climatic conditions improved with the beginning of the rains, and the health of 
the command in Panay is, at this time, good. 

Total enlisted strength^ Company H^ July Wj 1900. 

















1 3 

1 i 3 








Mindanao .... 




United States 












Shortly after the completion of the trunk line, Iloilo to Capiz, and by direction of 
the general commanding the military district, a toll was imposed upon private mes- 
sages passing over Government lines. 


The following regulations have been established and control the transmission of 
messages over the united States Government lines in the Visayan military district: 
Messages will be sent in the following order: 

1. Messages from the military governor. These will take precedence over all other 

2. Military messages in order in which they are filed. 

3. All official messages other than military. 

4. Private messages of officers of the United States Government. 

5. Private messages of civilians, native or other, if countersigned by a post com- 
mander, adjutant, or a signal officer. 

6. The following tariff will be collected for messages of class 5, transmitted over the 
tel^raph lines of the Visayan military district: Telegrams on each islmid, 2 cents 
(gold) per word; address signature counted. The minimum charge for any message 
will be the regular tariff for 10 words. 

7. Lines wiu be cleared for transmission of messages of classes 1 and 2 at the signal 
"9,*' and all such messages will be delivered by operator immediately upon receipt 
at any time during day or night. 

8. At the signal "99'* all operators will remain on duty at their instruments until 

A copy of these regulations w^ill be posted in each telegraph office in this district. 


Total number of messages handled by each office and commercial receipts (trans- 
mission at the rate of 2 cents, gold, per word) are as follows: 





Santa Barbara. 
















Santa Barbara... 



















WAR 1900 — VOL 1, PT V 















10. « 








8, Ml 




to. 70 







T iBl 


76. » 


2. AS 

as- 22 





16. W 



iif Ihu VimfHK. monthH < 



On December 26, 1899, construction work began on the trunk line from Iloilo to 
Capiz^ north coast. Two detachments were sent into the field, one under Lieut. L. 
D. Wildman, to build from the vicinity of Jaro, via Santa Barbara and Pototan, into 
the mountain pass between Passi and Dumarao. A second under Second (now First) 
Lieut. C. S. Wallace to Capiz bv boat to work south via Panitan, Dumarao, and the 
pass, until it should meet the nrst party. Second Lieut. Alfred T. Clifton was sent 
to Bacolod, Negros, as signal officer of tnat island. 

At this time tne island of Panay waa in a very disturbed condition. Bodies of insur- 
gents or lad rones were prowling about the countr}^ attacking trains, firing upon trans- 
port canoes and small bodies of men, and into villages, but no large force could be 
found and attacked. As a consequence, bodies of our troops were stetioned at various 
towns of the coast and interior, and it became necessary to build rapidly a network 
of telegraph lines to brin^ these widely scattered detachments into communication 
with headquarters. Rapidity of construction was the first essential, but a certain 
d^ree of solidity was needed to resist storms. It was unfortunate that no insulated 
wire could be procured for temporary lines and that no naked wire lighter than No. 
9 galvanized iron was at hand tor the construction of branch lines. Transportation 
was and has continued to be limited in the Visayas, and the diflficulties of carrying 
heavy wire and large insulators over trails impassable for wheels, and even for pack 
bulls, were enormous. All the early line transportation was done with bull carts, 
bamboo sledges (called carusas), or with carriers. 

The construction party under Lieutenant Wildman, consisting of 14 signal men and 
3 men temporarily attached,* started with rations, hammocks, and blankets, but no 
tentage, this being considered unnecessary in a region where bamboo huts fairly line 
the roads. The occupancy of these shelters, however, brings the risk of smallpox, 
which is very prevalent in the Visayas, and whenever practicable the men were 
quartered in the conventual building found in every considerable town and usually 
unoccupied. These buildings are of brick or stone and are separate from the 
churches. Many of them were formerly used as schools. Each man was armed with 
a pistol, but three rifles were carried in the bullock carts, of which 5 were assigned 
to the detachment. In accordance with the instructions of the commanding general, 
poles were to be cut from the adjacent lands, and the deta<^hment was at first com- 
pelled to dig the post holes themselves. This labor, however, soon proved to be so 
severe for Americans in a tropical climate that the request of the signal officer for the 
hire of native labor was granted, and after January 1 a party of 10 natives was hired 
to accompany each squad in the field in addition to the drivers of the bull teams. 
Native labor was as a rule easily procured by notifying the presidente of a town or 
the cabeza de barrio to obtain the number of men required, out wages varied in dif- 
ferent localities from 10 cents, Mexican currency, per man a day — about 5 cents 
gold — in the neighborhood of Pavia, to 50 cents, Mexican — 25 cents gold — which 
became the usual rate, and seemed to be established by an understanding among 
the natives themselves after they had learned the rates of pay in Iloilo, where wages, 
first fixed at a dollar Mexican per day without rations, were reduced to 80 cents per 
day, or 50 cents with rations. A ration was given to each man engaged in line build- 
ing of 2 pounds of native rice per day, hard bread, and one tin of salmon to six laborers. 
The men thus employed were the ordinary type of the Filipino — small, spare, but 
very wiry. When at work they are almost naked, wearing usually merely a breech 
clout and straw hat, but they probably possess somewhere at home, for Sunday use, 
a pair of white cotton trousers and a gauze shirt, the latter worn in the native fashion — 
tails out. The hat in the field serves as a plate for the rice, the chief necessity of 
life, which is simply boiled with a little salt, doled out by the handful, and gobbled 
standing, or carried, as a dog carries a bone, to some secluded corner and there 
shoveled from hat to mouth. 

At first the natives seemed to care little for meat, but they later grew eager for the 
scraps left by the soldiers and literally licked the platters clean. Of coffee, too, they 
beciime very fond, reboiling the grounds and chewing them after the liquid was gone. 
Fish is a great luxury, but the main article of food, of course, is rice, of which they 
prefer the dark native variety to the fine, white imported grain; rice from the 
beginning of life to the end, ii only they can get it, but the 3 or 4 cents a day neces- 
sary to buy enough for a man's support is not always easy to earn. When at work 
the natives eat as hearty a meal as possible before leaving camp in the morning, but 

* Given somewhat in detail as showing methods of construction, character of the 
people and of the country. 

* Shortly afterwards relieved. The line building in Panay was done by signal men 
and hireKl native labor. 


when not working the morning meal is little or nothing. They work steadily and 
well for long intervals of time, but are silent, almost gloomy, the meanwhile, rarely 
speaking, and with never a joke or a song, even in camp when the day's work is 
over. Back from the field they gather at dusk around the fire where stsjids the pot 
of boiled rice. Each man takes his share on hat or on a broad leaf, eats it in some 
corner, lies down on a bunch of grass or leaves in what shelter he can find and sleeps 
till day breakH, without blanket or cover. They are sturdy workers, but it is doubt- 
ful if they have the strength of the white man or can carry his burden. In certain 
kinds of work, however, such as lx?aring burdens for long cfistances, they seem almost 
tireless, provided they can so adjust the load as to carry it balanced at the end of a 
stick placed across the shoulders. They are capable also of making enormous jour- 
neys over bar! roads and mountain trails; but they do not seem strong in health and 
have a deadly fear of certain regions traversed by the telegraph, such as the lower 
slopes of the mountains, whert^ fever is prevalent and dangerous. Of medicines and 
doctors they, of course, have none, and even when in the hands of our own physi- 
cians sometimes resist treatment, with unfortimate results to themselves. The people 
who are willing to work for the pittance mentioned are probably no poorer than their 
neighbors. On one or two occasions, indeed, sons of the chief men of the locality 
were employed with working parties, a little ready money being a strong induce- 
ment to even the more prosperous. With one party, for instance, was the son of the 
presidente of a town near Iloilo, a man who owned carabao and cattle and rice fields, 
yet who had so little cash that he could ncjt afford to pay the 10 cents per day it 
would cost to live in Iloilo even for a few days in order to avoid the robber bands 
that were constantly visiting him and forcing contributions. In fact, the people in 
the interior of Panay we»e, at this time, miserably poor; they had little to eat but 
rice and yams. Fruit was scarce ; chickens, except game cocks, few, and natives 
could not affortl to eat their best friend, the caralxao. Cattle and horses are never 
plentiful and, as for money, a silver piece in the smaller villages could hardly be 
found. As a rule, therefore, there was little difficulty in obtaining labor, though on 
a later occasion, in Anti(|ue province, on account of the hostility of the natives, it 
became necessary to employ a show of force to obtain it. No particular danger from 
the insurgents ordinarily threatened the natives employed, but these were worked 
only in their oWn province and by direction of their presidente. This, however, was 
not the case with native linemen later hired, who at all times ran serious risk oi life 
or capture. All labor wa*^ paid, as nearly as practicable, the market price of the 
locality in which men were hired. 

From Iloilo to Santa Barbara the countrv is low and flat and the telegraph line 
follows the road closelv. The latter, a well-built metaled highway, runs through 
strips of jungle of bamlxK), and vines intersi)ersed with banana bushes, and cocoa- 
nut and bunga trees, and giving place, as the road runs north toward the Aganan 
River, to fields of cane an<l extensive rice paddies, in which at this time the grain 
was ripening. In this section the polos first set up were the bunga or betel nut, a 
small, symmetrical palm of just dimensions for telegraph }X)les, but which experience 

Erove<l to be useless after three or four months in the ground, for, l)eing soft and 
brous, the wood shrinks awav from the outer shell and becomes spongv and fri- 
able as punk. However, spee<t was important, and transportation limit^, and the 
line first built experimentally answered its puriK)ses well, much better than if bam- 
boo, the other available pole (or rapid work, had been used. The wire was No. 9, 
galvanized iron, and the insulators Western I'nion standard, and the brackets were 
both nailed and tied on with No. 9 wire, which was also used for tying in. Poles 
were sunk 3 J to 4 feet in the ground, tampe<l and placed at an average of 50 vards apart, 
later increased. The poles were afterwards replaced by hardwood, or iulndul, the 
native cottonwood, and from the time of its construction has worked practically 
without interruption, except when cut by insurgents. Occasionally on the route the 
remains of the old Spanisn lines could l)e seen in a heavy porcelain insulator or 
fragment of No. 14 wire, but this had mostly disappeare<l to give place to a stretch 
of crude insurgent line of No. 14 wire attached to snaky bamlx)o poles, often without 
insulators. There can be no doubt, however, that the insurgents employed the tele- 
graph to some extent, using the Spanish printing instniments, but it is said* that 
none could read by sound except the chief of the corps of telegraphers. V^isual 
signals were, however, used by them, such as columns of smoke by (lay and fire by 
night, and tree tops cut in peculiar forms. Often, too, the line of march of our 
troops or their presence was indicated by a white flag sMTung from huts during an 
advance. A code was, no doubt, emploved on Panav, as on Cebu, where a copy was 
captured and sent to the Chief Signal Officer at Wasfiington.' 

*See reiiort of Second Lieut. Max Wagner, Twenty-sixth Volunteer In&mtry, 
forwanleii to the Chief Signal Offiwr of the Army. 
* By Lieutenant Davies, signal officer, U. S. V. 


Lieutenant Wildman reached Santa Barbara January 2, 1900, and an office was 
there established. But one important river was crossed, and that near Pavia, which 
has a width of 150 feet between steep banks 10 feet high, but with a depth of water 
at this season of only about 3J feet. This river was spanned. It is crossed only by 
a slight bamboo footbridge. 

From Santa Barbara a single No. 9 galvanized iron wire was run to Cabatuan, an 
important point in the foothills of the mountains, and telephone connection estab- 
lished January 8. This line, like the former, follows an excellent metaled highway 
which, after leaving Santa Barbara, passes over a pleasant, undulating country, well 
cultivated and lined almost continually with bamboo huts. The road is fringed with 
trees and passes through frequent thickets of bamboo, and there was comparatively 
little difficulty in obtaining hard-wood or dul-dul trees for poles. Occasionally a 
living tree was used, but the precaution was taken by Lieutenant Wildman to run 
the Ime through a wire loop attached to insulators and the strain of tree motion was 
thus relieved, giving a serviceable and strong line, which has since worked very 
successfully. About two miles from Cabatuan a river is crossed in one span of 320 
feet, but the supporting poles are well sunk and heavy. This stream — the Tigon 
River — has low banks some 300 feet apart backed by slightly higher ground and a 
depth of water at the ford of about IJ feet at this season. There is no bridge on the 
main road. Some months later (in May) , when garrisons were placed at Janinav and 
Maasin, Cabatuan was changed into a telegraph office and the telegraph continued 
to Janinay. Maasin and Cabatuan were then connected by telephone. At various 
times during the construction the signal officer of the military district inspected the 
lines and was with Lieutenant Wildman's party ujwn its arrival at Cabatuan. After 
the construction of the Cabatuan branch, work was resumed on the main line from 
Santa Barbara to Lucena. Upon leaving the former village, a considerable native 
town of bamboo, the telegraph and highway — still a good metaled road — passes for 
some miles through heavy jungles interspersed with large trees. About a mile from 
the town a large river — the Tigan again — is reached, which is here about 180 feet 
wide between heavily wooded banks some 8 feet in height and with a depth at this 
season of 3 feet at the ford. There is no bridge on road. The river was spanned, 
and beyond the line continued past bamlxK) houses — many of which had been aban- 
doned — for some miles through a wooded region gradually growing more open and 
undulating as the foothills of the mountains were approached. Rice fields became 
less frequent, but grazing land, somewhat bare of stock, was seen on either hand. 
Betel-nut poles were used mainly at first, but later replaced by dul-dul or hard- 
wood. At this time it Ijecame necessary to obtain strong guards from the nearest 
detachments for the construction party for the region about Lucena, midway 
between Santa Barbara and Pototan, which was much infested by ladrones or insur- 
gents. Called by either name, these armed bands wandering over the country were 
a pest to friends and enemies alike. They levied contributions upon the former in 
the name of the cause or perhaps walked off with a bullock or a woman they hap- 
peded to fancy, and waylaid and shot at the Americans from ambush when oppor- 
tunity offered, and afterwards dispersed to their homes, hiding their guns and taking 
to the fields, where they appeared soberly at work, harmless as doves. Usually they 
wore no unifonn, and, dressed in the ordinary white of the country, came into town 
or walked around the highways unrecognized.* 

* The ambushing of trains and small bodies of men and raiding of towns have con- 
tinued. The very day on which the above was written, June 30, 1900, three small 
afifairs of the kind occurred — one in the vicinity of a working party of the Signal 
Corps near Leon, where a uniformed band of insurgents attacked and captured 4 of 
a party of 5 of our people, releasing them afterwards, but retaining their guns; the 
ambush and wounding of a solitary soldier between Passi and Santa Barbara; an 
insignificant raid upon the town of La Paz, across the river and hardly a mile from 
Uoilo, and a serious engagement on the coast near Dumangas. 

On January 16 the line reached Pototan, the most important point of the region, 
containing several stone buildings and a large church. A stone bridge formerly 
crossed the river — the Suague — on the northern outskirt of the town, but it has 
now disappeared and nothing has taken its place. The banks of the river at the 
crossing, about 100 feet apart, are high, and though the depth of water was only 
about 2J feet, it was eviaent that during the rainy season the stream is unford- 
able. From Pototan to Dingle the road, a metaled highway as before, crosses a roll- 
ing upland, with here and there a thicket. The country was less thickly peopled, 
deserted houses were more frequent, and the inhabitants seemed less friendly than 
before. On January 22 the telegraph line reached Dingle. The town of Dingle is a 
wretched collection of bamboo huts clustering about a stone church that faces a great 


From Dueilas to Passi the road, which is followed by the telegraph, continues as 
before, passing over a rolling country by turns open and brush covered. This region 
was then, and still is, infested by ladrones and insurgents, who were quiet for the 
moment on account of the presence of our troops and gave oomi>aratively little trou- 
ble while the strong garrison of Passi was maintained, but when that place waa 
abandoned, in May, the line cutting became incessant, and as there is no probability 
of troops being stationed between Pototan and Dumarao for the present, it is feared 
that telegraph communication can not l>e maintained between those places during 
tlie rainy season.* Passi lies on the north bank of the Julaur, which has here low, 
sloping banks 150 feet apart. There is no bridge, but at the ford the water is only 
about 2 feet deep — a clear, rapid stream. The town is small but pleasant, with the 
usual church, convent buildmg, and plaza, but is wretchedly poor. The people, 
including priest and presidente, neemea friendly. At Passi the wagon road from the 
south ends and the trail across the mountains to Dumarao begins. This trail is impas- 
sable for wagons at all times, and in the wet season nearly so for horses and balls. 
It has an evil reputation for fever, and the signal officer was cautioned not to permit 
men to sleep more than two nights in the pass, but as this caution could not be 
regarded, the detachment and every signal officer on the island remained in the pass 
(luring the continuance of the work with no apparent bad effects. When near 
Dueiias a cipher dispatch was received from Lieutenant Wallace to the effect that 
the northern party would reach the Lamunang River, midway of the pass, about 
January 25, and upon arrival at Passi the signal officer of the military district started 
with a detachment of the Twenty-sixth Vohinteer Infantry, under command of 
Lieutenant Fales, to make a reconnoisance of the country in aavance, leaving a strong 
guard and garrison for Lieutenant Wildman's party, who was to send his carts and 
spare material back to Iloilo and follow across the pass, hauling his supplies on bam- 
boo sledges, which were found better than pack saddles for use with the small native 
bull or carabao, our only transport animal. No trouble was experienced from insur- 
gents, and on Januarv 25 Lieutenant Wallace's camp was reached, about 5 miles 
south of Dumarao, and next day the signal officer returned with this party south to 
the Lamunang River, where a temporary camp was established, and near which the 
two detachments met. The telegraph line running north from Passi follows a rough 
trail across foothills covered with trees and jungle. Few betel nut trees grow, but a 

neglected plaza overgrown with grass. The town was and is a nest of insurgents, 
and much of the subsequent line cutting occurred in this neighborhood. At Dinj^le 
the signal officer of the military district joined Lieutenant Wildman^s party, having 
ridden from Iloilo along the new line, which was found to be well built and seiTice- 
able, and next day accompanied the party to Dueiias and thence to Passi, where an 
office was established January 25. From Dingle to Dueiias the country traversed by 
the telegraph is similar to that south of the former place. The road continues the 
same, but is more shut in by brushwood and crosses nigher hills than before. Hard- 
wood trees were fairly abundant. Near the entrance to Duenas a broad river — the 
Jalaur — is crossed, the wire resting on two heavy poles. The southern bank of this 
stream is high; the northern low, fiat, and marshy in the rainy season. The river, 
about 100 feet wide, contained about 2^ feet of water at the ford. There is no 
bridee. The town of Duefias, on high ground a third of a mile from the river, 
is a oamboo village of the usual character, with a large plaza, on which stands a 
really fine stone church and a large building, once a school and convent. The people 
are very poor, but seemed friendly. 

* The day after the above was written the following dispatch waa received from the 
operator at Pototan, who had been instructed to send messages by runner if possible 
across the gap between Pototan and Dumarao, where no garrisons now exist: 

Pototan, July 2^ 1900, 

Searched all over town this a. m. for messenger. Offered as high as 50 pesos. No 
success. Later had talk with vice-presidente and chief of police who stated it was an 
impossibility to get anvone to undertake trip, even if offered 100 pesos, as the insurrec- 
tos have all routes to Dumarao and Sara guarded, and kill and mutilate all who try 
to pass. Route via Tapas guarded also. One native, j ust arrived here from Dumarao, 
states he had hard work to get through, and companion who was with him was 
caught and hamstrung so he could not get away. Does not know his ultimate fate. 
States saw large numwr of dead bodies all along road. Could not induce him to go 
back to Dumarao for any amount of money. Brother of Searcharias, here other day, 
says all who try to pass from Passi to Dumarao have been killed. I believe it impos- 
sible to secure runner from here. 



better, if less sightly hard wood, was found for poles. Beyond the jungle-covered 
hills the line reaches a more open country, grass covered and rolling, and follows in 
general the eastern foothills of the Lamunang River, taking practically the route of 
the old Spanish line, some poles of which were still standing and had taken root. 
The Spaniards endeavored to build their lines with dul-dul trees, which frequently 
take root if placed in the ^ound at the beginning of the rains, but the effort was 
hardly successful in this rei^ion, as few of the old poles remained standing. In fact, 
here, as elsewhere in the Visayas, iron poles with cast sockets should be used. The 
deterioration of wood is so rapid that nothing else can be economicallv employed in 
permanent work. The country bordering the trail is uncultivated and very sparsely 
settled, and the people so poor that it was difficult to buy even a chicken or a cocoa- 
nut. A few yams could l^e obtained, but there was no fruit. The filth and squalor 
of the inhabitants ()f this region were remarkable. Many of the huts were aban- 
doned, but the prevalence of smallpox was evident, and people with festering pus- 
tules were met on the way, walking unconcernedly under the burning sun. About 
6 miles from Passi the trail reaches the Lamunang Kiver, near a little village or barrio 
of the poorest description, where not even a cocoanut or banana could be bought, 
yet whose poverty had not prevented its being raided by the ladrones or insurgents, 
a few days before, and 2 women, besides all available loose property, caiyied off. 
The river at the trail crossing is a clear, pretty stream, confined between high wooded 
banks about 60 feet apart. It is eviaently impassable in wet weather, and even 
at this season the water — 2 feet deep at the ford — was 7 or 8 feet deep in places. 
There is, of course, no bridge. The telegraph crosses on two lar^e hard-wood poles. 
North of the river the telegraph, still following the trail, contmues first through 
jungle, where much cutting is necessary, and across wooded barrancas to open grassy 
hills, a fine grazing country, abounding in wild fowl, deer, and monkeys, which con- 
tinues into the province of Capiz. As Dumarao is approached the hills fall off into 
an undulating region, well cultivated with rice fields, with cocoanut and bunga groves 
surrounding the huts that appear at intervals along the roadside. On the outekirts 
of Dumarao a wagon road is reached, and this continues, in general, a good metaled 
highway through Cuartero, Dao, and Panitan to Capiz. 

On January 2^, the north and south ends of the trunk line were joined about a 
mile north of the Lamunang River, and Ilolio was connected with Capiz. With new 
men, through a difficult and hostile country, with insufficient transportation and 
that of the slowest kind, cutting their own poles and working in intense heat, the' 
two small detachments under Lieutenants Wildman and Wallace had in a few days 
more than a month completed a line which the Spaniards were seven months in build- 
ing.^ Great credit for this work is due to the officers named and the men under 
them. (See Lieutenant Wildman's report, appended, E; Lieutenant Wallace's report 
appended, G.) 

Upon the completion of the trunk line both detachments moved north to Dumarao 
accompanied by the signal officer of the district, and preparations were made for 
building a line from that place to Sara, Concepci6n province, the headquarters of the 
Eighteenth Infantry. 

At Dumarao the telegraph office was established in a large stone and wood build- 
ing^ next the ruins of a fine church; this building, once presumably a convent, was, 
and is, used as a barracks for our troops. Dumarao is a small town built almost 
entirely of bamboo, but with a few houses of a better kind. It consists of the usual 
grass-grown plaza, at one side of which are booths where the natives on market days 
display their wares. The village lies in a pleasant country near the head waters of 
the Barbaran River, which lower down enters the Panay, a large stream navigable at 
most times by cargo canoes from Capiz as far south as Dao. After one day for rest 
and the washing or the clothes work was l^egun on the line from Dumarao to Sara, 
and on the same day, February 1 , the signal officer of the military district, accom- 
panied by Lieutenants Wildman and Wallace, and a detachment under Second Lieu- 
tenant Pasco started upon a reconnoissance to Aatorga across a country into which 
our troops had not penetrated. After leaving Dumarao it soon became evident that 
the difficulties in line building would be serious and that the country was the worst 
encountered on Panay. The trail, leading across wooded hills, continued for some 
miles up the valley of the Barbaran, steadily growing worse as it advanced until a 
horse could hardly follow it; then leaving the river crossed a succession of hills cov- 
ered by a jungle grass reaching far above a horseman's head, so dense as to be impene- 
trable and a perfect heat trap without shade. Between the hills flowed rivulets 

^ And presumably in time of peace. Information deemed trustworthy. G. P. S. 
^ A frequent method of construction on Panay. The lower walls are of substantial 
stone upon which a wooden second story is built, the whole covered with nipa thatch. 


through deep barrancas overgrown with prickly bamboo, through which the trail 
rose and fell like the teeth of a saw and be^^me so narrow at times and bo deeply cut 
into the earth that a horse could not put one foot before the other. Rain fell inter- 
mittently and made the clayey soil slippery as grease. Across this region the trans- 
portation of heavy poles and No. 9 wire— all we had — seemed well-nigh impossible. 
The country was desolate in the extreme; there were no fields, no houses, no inhabit- 
ants. The people had l)een driven away by fear of the robl>er bands of the neigh- 
boring mountams, it was said, and the one large bamboo village on the way, called 
Lavaan, where we passed the night, was a scene of dreary desolation; not one inhabit- 
ant remained; the houses stocKl empty and a herd of horses, wandering about the 
plaza overgrown with grass and bushes, was the only sign of life. Beyond the trail 
continual through jungle grass and barrancas, fording many streams to Astorga, 
where the map showeila considerable villa^, but w^here was found a charred and 
blackened doorpost, the only sign of habitation left. As a reconnoissance had been 
ordered from Sara to this |)omt the Dumarao reconnoissance was not carried bevond. 
Shortly after the return to the latter place the detachments under Lieutenant Wild- 
man move<l out to Lavaan to establish their camp and commence the difficult work. 
Neither sledges nor bull packs could be used on parts of this trail, and much of the 
transportation was done by carriers. At times more than fifty natives were employed ; 
but labor was not easily procure<l, for the region is dreaded by the natives on account 
of disease as much as because of the ladrones. However, the line was built. On 
February 22 it had reached Tina, and the more difficult part was finished. Here 
Lieutenant Wildman, having been orderefl to return to Iloilo by the signal officer to 
begin the construction of the w(»stern line to Antique province, relinquished the com- 
mand to Lieutenant Wallace, who carried the line into Sara March 2, and continued it 
by telephone to the coast at A jui March 9. It has since workwl admirably, but much 
of the subsequent illness in the signal corps detachment is to be attributed to the 
Astorga trail.* (See Lieutenant VVildman's report, appended, F, and Lieutenant Wal- 
lace's report, G. ) 

Returning to Dumarao after this reconnoissance, the signal officer of the militarr 
district, accom})anie<i by Lieutenant Wallace and a detachment of the Eighteenth 
Infantry, left Dumarao February 5 to inspect the line to Capiz, which follows a good 
road across a level country well cultivate<i with rice. Betelnut poles — ^afterwards 
replaced — had Ihh^ largely usi'd, except in the vicinitv of Cuarten), a large town on 
•the Panay River, where for a considerable distance living trees carry the wire. The 
line is of the same character as l>efore. At Cuartero escorts and wagons were to be 
exchange<l with a detachment from Dao, but as the Dumarao train approached the 
town a rei)ort was received of heavy firing across the river. Pushing on, it was 
found that the Dao detachment had been attacked and driven back, 2 men and a 
native driver wounde<l; but the insurgents retreateil on the approach of the second 
detachment, leaving the wagons and their contents uninjun»d on the road. The 
attack had l)een made from a hill about 60 yards from the road, where a hut 
showing traces of long o('cuj)ation . stood surn^mded by trees and bushes. In 
front was a deep trench; and in rear the reverse slope of the hill, dropping into thick 
woods, gave an excellent opportunity for escape from a strong force, whfie through 
an opening in the brush in front perfect command of the r()ad anci telegraph line 
existed. A cut in the wire here and the repair man's fate would never be known. 
The nest was burned out, but probably many such exist, for at this time ambuscades 
were frequent, especially on the Panav River, where traiisjM)rt canoes had l)een 
several times attacked. This method of warfare has not ceased, but a more vicious 
position than the one near Cuartero is not oft(»n found. 

The Panav River at this jMunt is crossed by a span of about 30() feet, the longest on 
the line. The poles are sunk 7 J feet in the ground, and 25 men were required to put 
them in place. This span has given no trouble. The river l)anks are about 15 fcet 
high, abrupt on the south, but <m the north extending in low, sandy ground to 
wooded hills, l)en(»ath which the roa<l passes. There was alM)ut lU feet of water at 
the ford, and no bridge except a slight bamln^x) crossing and hand rail. Bevond 
Cuartero the line continues along the highway (the original bungii poles having l)een 
replaceil by hard wcmxI) to Dao. Dao is the largt»st town of the n»gion, and is gen- 
erally considerecl the head of the navigabh* river. It contains a few stone buildings 

* In his report on this part of the line Lieutenant Wallace says: "In this connec- 
tion might be mentionea the civilizing influence of the telegraph. On the return 
trip the barrio of Lavaan, formerly deserted, was found to be occupied, while aloiiff 
the trail little clearings appeared and houses were being built. The natives explained 
that the i>assing of Americans through the country would keep away the wandering 
bands of ladrones and make the place habitable again. 


and church, but for the most part is of bamboo. At Dao the line again crosses the 
Panay, which is here deep and crossed by a ferry — two canoes joined by a bamboo 
platform and capable of carrying horses and wagons. The banks of the river are 
some 18 feet hign and 200 feet apart. Beyond, the line and highway follow the river 
valley across a flat country bordered by hills, well cultivated with rice fields, and 
with many habitations by the wayside. The road is good in the dry season, but is less 
well metaled than before and probably impassable for wagons during the rains. The 
telegraph ig a single No. 9 wire there, supported on bun^ poles for the most 
part, but afterwards changed. Pony insulators were used m part. This line has 
done excellent service, and is creditable to Lieutenant Wallace for the speed with 
which it was constructed in a region where poles were difficult to obtain and at a 
time when the country was very actively hostile. The line from Dumarao to Capiz 
has stood for nearly six months practically without interruption from breaks, 
and with only trifling interruptions from the insurgents, though passing through a 
restless and d-isturbed region. The only explanation that can be offered of the fact 
is a report that reached the signal officer of the military district to the effect that the 
general commanding the insurgents in Capiz Province (one Diocno) had ordered 
that no injury be done the telegraph, possibly with the hope that it might later be 
useful to the insurgents themselves. Whatever the cause, the lines in Capiz Province 
have been little interrupted. Passing on through Panitan, a somewhat large but 
unimportant town where there is neither garrison nor telegraph office, the line con- 
tinues to Loctugan, a town similar in character to Panitan. Thence running north 
through a fertfle, well-peopled region, growing more thickly wooded toward the 
coast, it reached Capiz. 

Capiz is a well-built, clean, and pleasant town, with many excellent houses and 
fine church and government buildings, which are used as headquarters. The people 
seem prosperous and orderly. 

Having finished the inspection of the trunk line from Iloilo to Capiz, the signal 
officer of the military district returned to the former place on the gunboat Pampanga, 
arriving there February 9. 

The necessity of a western line from Iloilo to San Jos^, province of Antique, now 
became urgent. Troops had been sent to occupy the town, but on account of the 
hostile attitude of the people and difficult roads communication with it was practi- 
cable only by sea. On February 23 a detachment was put in the field U) build a line 
from Iloilo to Tigbauan and San Joaquin, thence either by the Tiolas Pass or by the 
coast road to San Jos6. The r^on traversed as far as San Joaquin is flat, covered 
by brushwood and large timber. It is well peopled and contains several lar^ towns. 
Tne road, once probably a good metaled hign way, is out of repair, very bad m places, 
and almost witnout bridges. Good hardwood or dul-dul poles were obtained, and a 
strong, serviceable line constructed with double wire from Iloilo to Molo, thence 
single No. 9, Western Union standard insulators and oak brackets.* On March 26 this 
line had reached Mia^. It was inspected in part by the signal officer of the mili- 
tary district, and by Lieutenant Wildman in the absence of the former officer on duty 
in Bohol and Cebu. (March 14 to April 13). 

On March 27 Lieutenant Wallace was sent by Lieutenant Wildman to San Jos6, 
Antique Province, to construct a permanent line from that place to San Joaquin. 
This proved difficult work (see Lieutenant Wallace's report, Appendix G), but was 
completed, though on account of the absence of troops the line was destroyed in 
rear of the building party and never used. It was manifestly impossible to maintain 
a telegraph line through a hostile country unoccupied by troops if the enemy desired 
to interrupt communication, and the commanding general ordered that the repair of 
the line be delayed. The signal corps, having constructed the line, could do no 
more until the peninsula of Antique, a nest of insurgents and ladrones, was cleared 
and occupied by garrisons. This nas not yet been done. When it is, the destroyed 
section — about 30 miles — will be rebuilt. 

Lieutenant Wallace, having reported the Tiolas Pass impracticable, was directed to 
follow the coast road or attempt a lower pa^* and on March 29 commenced con- 
struction from San Jos6 south. The conditions surrounding this work were more 
difficult than those before encountered. Lieutenant Wallace reports as follows: 

"Antique Province is a long, narrow strip occupying the entire west side ol the 
island, the mountains following the coast line quite closely. The people are mostly 
in sympathy with the insurgents and unwilling to work. It was foimd necessary to 
impress all labor employed outside of San Jose. The roads were wretched, bridges 
rotten or entirely gone, and transportation crude and scarce. However, work was 

*At the time of writing, July 5, a second wire is being put from Tigbauan to Goim- 
bal, to connect the former place with Igbaras by telephone. . 


promptly started with 5 signal corps men, later increased to 7, a gaard of 85 men, 
commanded by Capt. H. L. Roberts, of the Nineteenth Infantry, and the usual fol- 
lowing of carts and native laborers. 

"Owing to the scarcity of timber along the coast and the consequent diflSculty of 
replacing rotten poles, 1 determined to use the algodonero tree for poles. This tree 
sprouts on replanting and becomes a growing tree, which, if kept trimmed out, would 
be far superior to the punky, quickly decaying timber sometimes used for poles. To 
insure their growth the holes were made very deep, and in order to secure sufficient 
timber of this particular kind poles were often unusually large, some of them having 
a diameter of 2 feet at the butt. 

**0n the morning of the 10th of March, about 2 miles north of Dao, the party was 
fired upon by insurgents concealed in the hills, which are close to the road. The 
place was admirably selected for attacik, the party being in an open rice field entirely 
devoid of cover except the narrow rice dykes. The firing was quite spirited for half 
an hour, but no casualties resulted. It is interesting to note that 3 of the 5 Signal 
Corps men were found on the skirmish line, 2 armed only with revolvers, the other 
had borrowed a rifle from a member of the guard. Two days later the party was 
again fired on, but no harm was done other than delaj^ing the work. 

**The people through this province showed a disinclination to work that was 
pathetic. On entering a pueblo where it was desired to change workmen, I would 
immediately notify the presidente of the number of laborers I would require the 
following morning and he would invariably assure me that they would be there at 
the hour named, but in no instance did the men appear. In every case I found it 
necessary to send the guard through the town, taking every able-bodied man found, 
until the number required was secured. In one lot thus impressed were the secretary 
of the presidente, 2 members of the police foroe, and the head of a neighboring 
barrio. These men were redeemed by laborers before work began. The occupation 
of these people is raising rice and fishing. As this is not the planting season and 
fishing is done by traps, visited once or twice daily, the men pass their time in almost 
complete idleness. 

"The road is passable for carts as far south as Pta. Sandal, between Casayand San 
Francisco. At this point the cliffs extend to the water's edge. Here the carts were 
sent back to San Jos^ and l)ambo() sledges substituted. Supplies and sledges were 
passed down into the surf and up onto the road on the other side, by hand, the 
carabaos swimming around. 

**The line was completed to a point 7 miles west of San Joaquin and connections 
made with Iloilo on April 26. Forty-five miles of line were put up in twenty-nine 
days, including Sundays and days devoted to moving camp and fighting. 

**0n April 24 a communication was received from the presidente of Dao to the effect 
that the insurgents had destroyed the line behind us from a point 4 miles south of 
San Jos^ to Dao, about 14 miles, and were working industriously along south with 
the evident intention of destroying the entire line. The (commanding officer of the 
guard considered it unsafe to detach men from his command to return to Dao, there- 
fore nothing could be done. This information was immediately sent to the chief 
signal officer by me, and to the adjutant-general by Captain Roberts." 

In an unofficial letter Lieutenant Wallace writes as follows: 

a* * ♦ J (-an not make any estimate of time necessary to complete the line, aa 
no American has ever been south of Anini, as far as I can learn. We are unable to 
camp at the proper places for fear of attack, and hours are spent on the road waiting 
to flank the hills before the line can go on. When a full day's work is put in on the 
telegraph line, 2J miles are gotten up. No man can be detached from the guard to 
conauct supplies ahead or to guard them except in camp. The country is absolutely 
devoid of anything green and the carabaos give out for want of feed. The captain 
and I both lost horses and equipage in the first fight. I am carrying 30 native 
laborers and 9 teams, putting up a good line. Do not know of Dao bemg garrisoned. 
A native lineman could not be mduced to work here without a guard. Unless con- 
ditions change, repairs must be made by armed parties. I will not be able to repair 
the line if it is cut in my rear. I expect it to be cut as soon as I leave Dao. We are 
now hauling poles 3 miles and do not know how long the poleless country will last." 

On April 26, Lieutenant Wallace telegraphed from San Joaquin that the line was 
completed from San Jose to that place, a distance of 43 miles, and on the same day 
reported to the signal officer as follows: 

**From reports received from the presidente, Dao, and other native sources, the 
line was destroyed on the 24th instant from Milandog to Dao. This is a distance of 
about 14 miles north of Dao. From the same source I learn that insurgents are col- 
lecting in large numbers at Dao. I would like to return to Dao and see this thing 


Lieutenant Wallace was ordered to return to Iloilo to await the clearing up of the 
Antique peninsula. He arrived there April 30, and a few days thereafter was ordered 
to proceed to Ormoc, Leyte, as signal officer of the first district. 

With the occupation of the eastern islands of the Visayas, Bohol, Leyte, and 
Saniar, it became necessary to extend the connections, and the signal oflBcer of the 
military district accompanied Maj. H. C. Hale's expedition which sailed March 14 
to take possession of the first of these islands. We met with no resistance; indeed, 
found the people incapable of making a fight, as they were practically without fire^ 
arms. So after a paper protest. Major Hale receivea the surrender of the govern- 
ment, which by the way, proved well organized and creditable to the people. 
Bohol is a most interesting island. The towns, especially of the southern coast, are 
pretty and clean, with good stone houses buried m green and facing white streets 
cut from the coral rock, or little bamboo dwellings. The people are industrious and 
well fed and have little of the sullenness of expression so common in Luzon and 
Panay. The troops were landed as if under fire and marched to the capital about 
2 miles away, and the signal party with our excellent type E kit and 7-strand naked 
wire, connected headquarters with shore station, and thence with the shipping by 
flag in fifty minutes from the time of landing. This wire works well, but the banana 
must be avoided, as it is so full of water that it almost gives a ground. The woode . 
box of the kit is not satisfactory, for the bottom, when the magneto is attached, is 
so much cut away that in three of the six sent me the magnetos have come loose, 
carrying the wood with them. I think, too, that the boxes are too compact and 
crowded for field use. 

After connecting the only outlying outpost then established in Bohol with the capi- 
tal, the signal officer traveled along the western coast of the island with Major Hale, 
and from a town called Loon discovered that it was practicable to connect Bohol with 
Cebu by heliograph, and so requested that a small detachment, and the one signal- 
man that could be left on Bohol, be sent there to open station upon the arrival of a party 
on the other coast. From Loon the journey was continued to Tubigon where, with 
two sergeants and a native, the signal officer embarked in a banca for Cebu, and on 
the day afterward started with Lieutenant Davies down the coast of that island in a 
merchant steamer that by the courtesy of the owners was to drop the party off at 
Argao, the second heliograph station. There was a small detachment of our troops 
here, and Lieutenant Davies had recently carried the telegraph into the town, where 
all the day before the people had watched the twinkle of the heliograph on the 
Bohol coast. The station was opened at Argao next night with a carbiae lantern, 
which acted fairly, though the night was light with a young moon directly behind 
the station, and the distance 16 to 18 miles. On April 7 a heliograph station was 
opened and the result proved most excellent. 

A brief inspection was made of the telegraph line near Aiyao, which was found 
strong and well constructed. On this island hard wood or dul-dul poles are ordi- 
narily used. (See report on island of Cebu.) 

After the completion of the Bohol connection, which has since served its purpose 
well, though of course it is much less satisfactory than a cable, the signal officer of 
the military district returned to Cebu and thence to Iloilo, arriving at the latter 
place April 13, since which time the telegraph system, island of Bohol, has largely 


The island of Leyte (and Samar) having been included in the department of the 
Visayas, Lieutenant Wallace was ordered May 11, to proceed with 11 men to 
Ormoc, Leyte, to construct first the communications on that island. He arrived at 
Ormoc on the 19th and immediately began construction. 












LAND LINES, ISLAND OF LEYTE, JULY 10, 1900— Continued. 














Total length of wire, island of Leyte 


By cable advices dated Ormoc, June 22, the signal officer of the department was 
informed that the Ormoc-Jaro line would reach Tacloban in about ten days. 


Owing to the infrequency of mail communications between these islands, full 
reports have not yet been received from Leyte. Under date of May 22, however, 
Lieutenant Wallace says: 

*** * * Colonel Murray arrived on the Francisco, he having come over from 
Tacloban to send some messages. He went over the situation pretty thoroughly. 
He authorized the employ of the necessary labor and transportation, but did not 
want me to take trees for poles from the towns or yards of the people. This makes 
the first few miles of construction a little slow, but I am getting along fairly well. 
He wishes the line to Jaro built first, then a branch to Carigara and mrago, then 
Jaro to Tacloban. The distance from Ormoc to Jaro is about 25 miles, 10 of which 
is over a very bad mountain trail, impassable for pack animals. I have decided to use 
the 10 miles of insulated wire which I found here for this part of the trail, it being 
lighter and easier carried. 

** The colonel has gone to one of the southern ports to bring up a guard. When 
. he returns I will move out on the work with an officer and 40 men. * * * 

"At the colonel's suggestion, all surplus property has l)een packed for shipment to 
Carigara, and the Francisco will take it on her return trip. From Carigara what is 
necessary can be sent in to Jaro, and I can send the balance around to the east coast 
when the Carigara line is completed. I think I will make the Carigara branch a 
telephone line, using Type E kits until the telephones arrive. The colonel tells me 
that there is no town or troops at the other end of the Samar cable, and that he 
desires the lines on the east coast of Leyte built before the lines south from here. I 
inclose a rough sketch drawn by Colonel Murrav. The figures show the estimated 
distance. I am informed that except between here and Jaro there are good roads, 
passable for carts, but very muddy." 

Report from Lieutenant Wallace, dated Alangalang, Leyte, June 24, states: 

"Line completed to-day to a point between Alangalang and Santa Fe, 9 miles east 
of Jaro. Some work has been done on ( -arigara line. We return to Jaro to-morrow 
and will complete Carigara line next and then go to Tacloban and finish line." 















Danao - 







El Pardo (used with telephone) 





Point reached July 10, vicinity of San Sebastian (approximate) 



















Cable landing 










Total length of branch line, 21 miles. 


Office of district commander. 

Residence of district commander. 

Office of post commander. 

Residence of post commander. 


Signal officer. 

Captain of the port. 

Fort San Pedro. 

Officers' mess. 

Post guardhouse. 

Company H, Nineteenth Infantry, at San Nicolas. 

Company D, Nineteenth Infantry, at Parian. 

Total length, telegraph, Cebu, from Danao to San Sebastian miles. . Ill J 

Total branch lines do. . . 20} 

Total telephones do. . . 5 

Telephones in use 16 

Total length of wire, Cebu miles. . 137 



[From the reports of First Lieut. William E. Davies, signal officer, U.S. V.] 

On December 1, 1899, the length of the telegraph lines, island of Cebu, was about 
25 miles; offices were open at Cebu, El Pardo, Naga, Carcar. There were also in 
operation about 3 J miles of telephone and 12 stations on one wire, but no exchan^. 
No old Spanish lines were in use; in regard to which it was stated that the Spanish 
line had been seldom in service, the wire broken often, and it usually required sev- 
eral days to repair. On the arrival of the signal officer, October 4, 1899, the line was 
in bad condition, only about half enough insulators having been used. However, it 
was worked continuously, with but one interruption, from October 9. By December 
18 it had been put in tolerable repair. The telephone line on houses and bamboo 
poles was also semipermaijent. Work was commenced on the repair of the telegraph, 
and by December 18 it was in fair condition. On January 4, 1900, the signal officer 
took the field with a detachment (see report of operations, appended, K) and was 
absent during a large part of the month.* On February 18 the hne from Cebu (city) 
to Mandaue was commenced, and finished in three days, with 2 Signal Corps men,' 1 
man attached, and 9 native laborers employed at 40 cents, Mexican currency, per day; 

1 at 50 cents per day; 1 2-mule team, 1 bull cart furnished bv the quartermaster's 
department, and by February 25 the line was carried to Consolaci6n. 

These lines were built on trees when possible, and when no trees were available 
bamboo poles were generally used, though a few cotton-tree poles were cut when 
suitable. Our line to the north will follow the old Spanish road, which is built 
almost entirely of stone and macadamized. The road in many places is too narrow 
to build a pole line and clear the dense growth which lines it, and I have adopted 
the plan ot placing my brackets in as many of the high trees to clear these obstacles, 
stretching my wire by the aid of the bull and c^rt. 1 avoid using bamboo whenever 
possible, and use a few men for trimming trees and dense brush in preference to wast- 
mg time and energy cutting green bamboo. 

February 26. — Closed office at Camp Rowan at noon. Returned to Cebu evening 
of February 27. Some of the bamboo, which has not yet lost its natural color, was 
bent considerably, while others were almost broken off by the strain on them. (Six 
native laborers were employed at about the same rate as before. ) 

March 6. — Commencea construction of telegraph line, Consolacion to Danao. 

March 7. — Opened to Li loan. 

March 10. — Opened to Compostela, sending station. 

March 13. — Opened to Danao. Distance from Consolacion to Danao, 14i miles. 
Returned to Ceou with party. Underbrush was very dense, but was cleaned up by 
cutting and hanging the wire high in the trees and frequently crossing the road. A 
few hard-wood poles were found along the road and hauled to the places where road 
crosses through swampy land and where it would have been impossible to cross with- 
out poles. Less than 20 poles were used on line, 5 of which were bamboo. Brackets 
were tied to trees with one tie, usually, but in case of a long stretch or unusually hard 
strain two ties were made. Particular attention was given to cleaning up its path. 

The quartermaster furnished one 4-mule team and 1 bull cart and driver. 


8 natives, 9 days, at 40 cents each $28. 80 

2 natives, 9 days, at 50 cents each 9. 00 

Total 37.80 

I was compelled to secure nearly all new laborers for this trip, as the majority of 
the laborers previously employed failed to report at the hour designated, and after 
searching their neighborhood I found 8 of them and compelled them to go with me. 
I took this action oecause they were all men who had some experience, and good 
workers. They were practically on a strike, as they had promised twice within forty- 
eight hours to rei>ort lor duty. The majority of the men left town to avoid us and I 
placed the first two I found in the guardhouse until I secured enough men. They 
claim the work is harder than they are compelled to do in town for the same pay. 

I hauled all the supplies I could on the wagon and sent the balance to Danao by 
boat. When my wagon load of supplies was exhausted I went to Danao, secured 
more and built back to where I discontinued for want of supplies. Distance, 14 miles. 

* Lieutenant Davies says: "During my absence, took part in action on Lan^yon 
River, destruction of Mount Ainai trench and i)roperty January 28, destruction of 
trench and property, with lot of ammunition, 5 miles from Mount Amai, and takins 
and destruction of fort and property of Montacop. No signal work. Commanded 
advance guard." 


I have all telegraph offices on one circuit from Carcar to Danao. 

March 17. — B^an repairing telegraph line, Cebu to Carcar. 

March 21, — Completed repairs to Carcar. Distance covered, 25 miles. 

When the line, Cebu-Carcar, was built originally it was put up hastily, without 
insulators a greater part of the distance. When I arrived here in October it was reported 
to me as having been impossible to work beyond El Pardo for several days at a time. 
I have sent small repair parties over it and kept a man on it regularly until lately. 
The line works contmuously, but will not work satisfactorily when extended 20 miles 

I will commence this work as soon as the commanding officer can arrange to send 
my supplies to Carcar by boat, so that when the line is completed I can commence the 
work of construction from Carcar to Argao. 

March 22. — With same party commenced construction line from Carcar to Argao. 

March 24. — Opened to Sibonga. Distance built, 18J miles. 


7 men, 14J days, at 40 cents $40. 60 

3 men, 14J days, at 50 cents 21. 75 

Total 62.35 

One 4-mule team used entire trip. One bull cart used fourteen days, paid by quar- 

April 27. — Left Cebu with Sergeant Hart and Corporal Russell of Signal Corps and 
5 natives. Property on one wagon furnished me bv quartermaster and some wagons 
in ration train going to Carcar. To avoid using bufl carts, the quartermaster decided 
to use banca for wire. Arrived at Sibonga April 28. 

April ^O.^3ommenced w^ork. On account of bad roads I ordered 7J miles iron to 
Sibonga and 10 miles to Dumanjoc, only taking 2J iron and 2} insulated with me. 
When I completed 2} miles wire had not left Cebu for Sibonga, and I decided to go to 
Dumanjoc, setting poles, putting on insulators and brackets, and put up the wire 
returning to Sibonga. The quartermaster's failure proved to be a lucky one. We had 
all the carts we comd handle on that road on account of the grade, bad places, intense 
heat, and lack of water. 

The country which the line traverses is hilly and the soil not very deep, so that we 
were compelled to dig post holes through from 12 to 30 inches of rock. 

The country is all under cultivation and few places where poles could be secured. 
Your instructions to not buy poles and Colonel Snyder's to not cut them from other 
people's property would have made it impossible for me to build the line had I not 
adopted the Spanish policy of asking for wnat you want and ordering the tenientes to 
get their people out cutting trees to present to us. All the tenienl^ did very well, 
and as a result the following figures will show the foundation of the line: 

Poles with insulators, 206; without insulators, 71. 
Trees with insulators, 139; without insulators, 8. 

I took 2 barrels of insulators with me, which w^ere invoiced 500. We used a few 
on line, not more than half a dozen, and the balance, 345, with an allowance of 6 for 
use on line, represents the contents of the barrels. 

I insulated brackets with tape where iron wire was used without insulators, and 
used 2J miles of insulated wire to make the line work well till I could return to 

I completed the line May 17 and returned to Sibonga. Remained there until May 
22, and returned to Cebu morning May 23 with Sergeant Hart and 2 natives in a banca. 

I man 26 days, at 60 cents per day $15. 60 

4 men 92 days, at 50 cents per day 46. 00 

8 men 99 days, at 40 cents per day 39. 60 

Total cost of labor 101. 20 

128 days' carrometa hire, at $1.50 192. 00 

4 days carrometa hire, at $2 8. 00 

II days' carrometa hire, at $1 11. 00 

Total transi)ortation 211. 00 

The list of poles and trees used may seem small for this mileage, but I promised 
you I would build this line as strongly as I possibly could to avoid future troubles, 
and I think the appearance of the line will justify me in saying that I did my best. 
Nearly all the trees were within 5 miles of Sibonga, and the line can be cleaned up 






Loon , 

Tabigon . . . 


from Tag- 







Lila (completed July 10) 

Jagna. Gondulman. Ubay in construction 
Total mile^i completed. Bohol 




On May II a signal detachment, consisting of First-ClasB Seieeant Ganoa and 2 
men, were sent (I additional had been left at Tagbilaran) from lloilo to that island 
to build the neceasarj- lines. The ^rstem planned consists of a shore line from Tabi- 
gon (to be extended, if neceasan-. along the western coast) to Tagbilaran, the capital, 
and thence along the southern coast, through Jagna to Gundulman; thence inland 
to Ubav, an important shipping point on the northeast coast. Total distance abont 
130 mifes. On July 10 the land line, as reported by cable, extended north to Tabi- 
gon and east to Lila. 

Full reports by mail have not vet been received from Bohol. Mail commonication 
is infrequent. Little difficulty, however, is to be anticipated in the constniction and 
maintenance of telegraph line? on this island. 





Blnalhagan .. 




San Enrique. 











Sagay \ approximate i . . . 

Total miles of wire 




On July 9, a squad of 4 si^almen, under command of First-Class Seret. Ambrose 
S. Collins, started from Iloilo by steamer to Dumaguete, Negros, witn necessary 
material to connect the stations on the southeast coast with Dumaguete. and to estab- 
lish heliograph and semaphore stations at some point on that coast and on the oppo- 
site coast of Cebu near San Sebastian, which place Lieutenant Davies was at that date 
approaching with the telegraph from Argao. This line is marked **In construction " 
on the map and should be nearly completed bv the end of July; it will be used both 
as a telegraph and telephone Ime and will place the now isolated town and head- 
quarters of Dumaguete in connection with the interisland system via Cebu. 

[From the reports of Second (now First ) Lieut. A. T. Clifton, Volunteer Signal Corps.] 

On the 1st of December, 1899, the telegraph system of the island of Negros con- 
sisted of 28 miles of old Spanish telegraph line in a bad and unsatisfactory condition, 
on which were 3 oflBces, namely, Silay, Bacolod, and Bagao; together with 17 miles 
constructed by the California volunteers. The latter was a makeshift line strung on 
bamboo poles, trees, or anything that v/ould hold the wire from the ground. The 
wire itself was old telephone material taken down in Iloilo after the fire, alternating 
with wire from hay bales, office wire, and anything else that could be picked up and 
utilized. The two offices on this line were San Enrique and La Carlota. In addition, 
24 miles of poles had been set ready for the wire north of Silay. On the 8th of 
December work on these 24 miles of wire was commenced, and completed by the 
Ist of January, 1900. Two offices on this line were opened, namely, Saravia and 
Manapala. On the 13th of January Lieutenant Clifton was sent to Bacolod as signal 
officer for the the island of Negros and found that work on the lines had almost 
stopped, as the corporal in charge of the work w^as ill and because no orders had 
been received for poles necessary for the Himamaylan extension. After consulting 
with the adjutant of the Sixth Infantry, Lieutenant Clifton put all his men at work 
to extend the line from Manapla to Cadiz Nuevo, as troops nad at that time returned 
from the mountains and the necessary escort could be secured at Silay. It was 
thought inadvisable at that time to push the north line through to Escalante, as 
the country was very bad and it was reported to Lieutenant Clifton that it would 
take two months to clear a way for the line. The office at San Enrique, which had 
been closed on account of the small number of operators on the island, was reopened 
for business about this date. For various reasons the building of the line to Cadiz 
Nuevo was abandoned and all the squads transferred to the southern branch, one 
squad starting to build from Himamaylan, through Binalbagan to Isabela, and another 
squad starting from La Carlota and building down. The line between Himamaylan 
and Binalbagan was completed on the 8th of March and both offices opened for dus- 
iness. The distance l)etween these two places is 8 miles, but work was delayed on 
account of having to cable two wide, navi^ble rivers. Great delay was caused 
between Binalbagan and Isabela by the inability to get poles, and it was not until 
the 17th of March that the office at Isabela was opened. The 8q[uad coming from 
the north was also seriously hampered bv the difficulty of getting poles between 
La Castellana and Isabela, which must be hauled from 15 to 20 miles by carabaos. 
It was intended on this line to use poles which had been ordered bv the presidente 
of La Carlota from the island of Guimaras. They did not arrive, however, and 40 
men with carabaos and carts were started for the mountains when the line reached 
La Carlota. This line is an extremely strong one, and has been in good working 
order since it was finished. The presidentes of Silay, Talisay, Bagao, Sumog, and 
Bacolod w^ere at this time notified to furnish poles for the rebuilding of the old 
Spanish line which had almost ceased to work. On the 18th of April the two squads 
met between La Carlota and Isabela, and the southern line was completed. On the 
evening of the 26th of March the town of Silay was almost entirely burned and 
the line through that place destroyed. The offices in operation at this date were 
Manapla, Saravia, Silav, Bacolod, Ba^o, San Enrique, La Carlota, Binalbagan, and 
Himamaylan. Immediately after finishing this southern section the work of recon- 
structing the old lines was commenced. Almost all the old poles were replaced from 
Bago to Sila}^ and a large amount of cutting out was done through thick underbrush 
and heavy timber. This section has now been completely reouilt and is in good 
working order. After finishing these repairs the squads returned to the Cadiz Nuevo 
and Escalante sections and completed through to Cadiz Nuevo on June 6. Escalante 
was reached about July 10, and this section of the line completed. 

The conditions on the island of Negros have been entirely different from the con- 

WAR 1900 — VOL 1, PT V 12 


ditions on Panay, aa it has been the policy of the ._ _ 

dentee of towns, prisoners, and men detailed from the lii 
in construction and maintoianc^ of its lines. Preside 
tiimish and diatribule poles nhead of the Signal Corps wire party, and in most caaee 
ihis has been done. In one ca.-^, where the preeidente had been extremely slow in 
(jetting out the posts, carip, carabaos, and men were sent from Barolod and the nec- 
essary expense charged up against the town itself. Native prisoners have also been 
extensivelv employed in dignine the laige number of post holes required. 

The report of Lieutenant Clifton for February (appended, I ) gives much interest- 
ing information on this subject. 

In addition to the 306 miles that have been i-onetrueted, the land lines on Pansy 
should be continued from San Jos^, Antique, alon); the west roast to Pandan, say 100 
milei>, anda table lud fnim Lefjatic, theportof Calivo, toCapiz, say 25milet>. Tnese, 
with a few short connecting lines, will complete the system necessary for Panay. 

With the construction of the line, Dumaguete toBaia (espected about July 31), the 
land system of Negroa will be measurably comiilctc, unless it is desired to nm a line 
along the somewhat sparsely settled east coast ironi Kecalante Kouth. This line will 
probably be extended to San Carlos, but the ad visabibty of continuins it beyond that 
point is doubtful. The advantage will be direct communication with headquartere 
at Bacolod and the saving of cable tolls from Cebu. A few branch and temporary 
lines will of course be needed from time lo time. 

With the completion of the aouthem extension froni Argao to San Sebastian (or 
Sainbuan) , about July 10, the onl}[ line now needed in Obu is from Dunuutjoc to 
Balamban (west coast) , about 45 miles. It in possible that the northern line may 
later oe extended beyond Danao Ut Cannen or Cailmon to reach small garriBonfi on 
the eat^t coast, but this extension and the branch and temporary lines are incoDsid- 

On Bohol the system, bh has l>een stated, contemplates a coast line from Tubigon to 
Tagbilaran, thence, via Baclyan and Jagmi to (iundulman and across the island to 
Ubay, with po.'iHible branch telephone and telegraph lines to the interior. The trunk 
line, whose len^ is approximately i:iO miles, reai^hed Lila July 10, and will be 
completed as rapidly as the four sifrniilmeii, who alone could be spared lo this isWd, 
ran nuild it with the assistance given. The scanty soil overlying the coast rock 
makes line building difficult. 

In addition to lines eonslructed as mentioned in this report, there remain to be 
built in Leyte, in order that the communications on that island may be satisfactorily 
completed {see sketch), the following: 

P«lo to Teimvan, IdcphnTio 


Total additional miles proposed, island of Leyte, 151, besides branch and temporary 

In other words, at this date, to bring the island and interisland systems of the 
Visayas up to a reasonable degree of completion, there is needed about as follows: 



Interisland cable 30 

Island of Panay , additional 25 

Total cable 55 


Panay, besides short branch lines 100 

Negros, a few branch interior lines 

Cebu 45 

Bohol, nothing except branch lines now building 

Leyte 151 

Total for Visayas, about 296 

This work should be completed in two or three months after the people have been 
reduced to such a frame of mind as to permit the telegraph to remain standing. 


The number of signal men assigned to this department has been relatively large 
as compared with the total strength of the corps. The calls upon it nevertheless 
have been severe, and at no time within the knowledge of the signal officer of this 
department has there been a sufficient number of officers and men to carry out 
properly the necessarj^ work. At the headquarters at Iloilo the scarcity of men has 
been so great that at times, on account of demands for •detachments, even the com- 

Eany clerk has been sent into the field, and not one enlisted man remained in the 
arracks besides the headquarters' operator. Once, upon a sudden call, both operators 
were sent with an expedition, and a convalescent was the only man available for 
lieadquarters* work. These are isolated instances and were of short duration; still 
much necessary work has been delayed for lack of men. It is understood that every 
effort has beenmade, both at Manila and in the United States, to secure officers and 
men, and that the department of the Visayas has had its full quota, perhaps more, 
of the present strength of the corps in the Philippines; but both the commissioned 
and enlisted force allowed the Signal Corps is ridiculously small for the work it is 
called upon to do, and it is believed that the entire enlisted force of the corps would 
not be more than sufficient to meet the needs in the Philippine archipelago alone. 

In this connection I desire to call attention to the excessive amount of clerical 
labor required by a company organization under conditions such as obtain in the 
Visayas, where small detachments are widel)^ scattered over various islands, between 
which mail communication is infrequent and irregular and the data for the numerous 
returns difficult to obtain and often weeks late in arriving. Prompt returns under 
these circumstances are impossible, for the remarks required on rolls are too extended 
and involved to transmit by cable. Delayed returns are of small value. The papers 
relating to the personnel of Company H alone, in addition to the various property 
papers, are as follows: 

Monthly. — Four copies monthly return — 1 to adjutant-general's department, Visa- 
yas; 2 to chief signal officer, Manila; 1 retained. 

Two copies consolidated report — 1 to chief signal officer, Manila; 1 retained. 

Two copies roster — 1 to chief signal officer, Manila; 1 retained. 

List of changes in company durmg month — 1 to adjutant-general, Manila. 

Bimonthly. — Three muster rolls — 1 to Adjutant-General, Washington; 1 to chief 
signal officer, Manila; 1 retained. 

Three pay rolls — 2 to paymaster; 1 retained. 

Total number of montnly returns, 9. 

Total number of returns and roll, end of each second month, 15. 

The remarks on returns and rolls opposite the names of men detached from the 
company where, as in this case, nearly all men are so detached, cause an amount of 
clerical labor that is very burdensome. In addition, it is to be remarked that four 
monthly returns are required from a signal company, two more than from an infan- 
try company. It is hoped that some reduction of this routine clerical labor may 
be founa possible, or the company organization abolished. 



The chief difficulty with land lines in this region is the poles, which are expensive 
(costine in Iloilo 5 pesos, Mexican currency, each), and the durability of all wood 
is small. Three classes of wood are used by natives for supports buried in the earth. 
They are the poyot, cavavatin, and the uglin. The first two are difficult to obtain 
and costly, as they are largely used for house foundations. The uglin (or udlin) has 
been purchased for the city system of Iloilo at the price mentioned. From native 
information it appears that this and the poyot will last four years in the ground; 
the cavavatin tnree to four, but the accuracy of this information remains to be 
proven. The tree used by the Spaniards for telegraph poles was lai^ly the dul-dul 
or algodonero (cottonwood) . It is of somewhat soft fiber, but has the advantage of 
sprouting if planted at the beginning of the rainy season. Many of these are already 
growing on the present lines in Panay, notably, the western line to San Joaquin. 
Bamboo is worthless for any but the most temporary lines, not only on account of 
the difficulty in attaching insulators, but from its small resistance to storms and the 
weight of cattle and carabao, which have a habit of rubbing themselves against poles 
in the country districts. The cocoanut is useless, and the bunga, or betel nut, only 
lasts a few months. All wood in fact rots in a marvelously short time. WrougKt 
iron poles with cast-iron sockets, treated with red lead, are the only really economical 
poles for permanent lines. 


Undoubtedly for permanent trunk lines No. 9 galvanized iron wire is the best here 
as elsewhere, but a supply of No. 14 is necessary for branch and temporary lines and 
for telephones. Some of this has recently been received. It is especially valuable 
in those parts of the Visayas where roads are bad and transportation limited. Insu- 
lated wire (kerite) has not proven serviceable, breaking, as it frequently does, within 
the insulation and causing much delay and trouble, but it is, of course, essential for 
field work. The seven-strand wire (one copper overlaid bj^ six steel) is excellent in 
dry weather but has not yet been thoroughly tested in this department in the wet 
season. Other types of wir^ recently received have not yet been tested. 

The river cable, armored with copper wire, is excellent for temporary work, but 
is now proving too weak in armor to resist the friction caused by strong currents 
against the sharp stones and bowlders found in the beds of island streams. A more 
strongly armored cable is advisable. 


Both pony and Western Union standard insulators are desirable (both are now on 
hand, July 10), the former for use with No. 14 wire and to save transportation. 
Some form of tree insulator would l>e useful. It is noticed that glass seems unusually 
fragile. Insulators, apparently sound, break at a slight strain and battery jars 
frequently fly to pieces when filled. Probably this is due to the jarring of the 
journey, but the loss is considerable. 


A large supply of telephones is needed to connect branch offices with main and to 
save operators, m addition to the liberal supply already sent. 


Very serviceable, but the box should bo stronger, as mentioned in remarks on 


The pistol is essential, and each man habitually carries one in the field, but the 
new carbine provided from Manila is undoubtedly very valuable when the detach- 
ments can be so armed. A heavy cutting knife has also been issued from Manila 
which is useful in jungle and camp, but it is thought that the long native knife is 
better suited to the work of line clearing. It is believed that the equipment of the 
signal men, as now provided, can not be improved. A few horses (understood to be 
on their way from Manila) are needed for use in repair work. Transportation can 
be obtained on Panay only with the greatest difficulty or not at all, and work is for 
that reason delayed. Bicycles are useful in the dry season. In conclusion, it may 
be said that this department has been very liberally supplied; every request has been 
fulfilled, and the few delays that have occurred have been due to causes beyond the 


control of the Si^al Corps. In general the material sent has been excellent in 
quality and, in spite of the ver\' large expenditure, the department has been remark- 
ably well supplied. 

It in desired, however, to c^ll attention to the packing. Many of the boxes arriving 
here have been broken and contents scattered; bags of insulators torn and insulators 
lost. Unusual strength is required in packing boxes and barrels to resist the strain 
of the journey. 


In conclusion, I desire to say that great credit is due to the oflficers of the Signal 
Corps under my command for the faithful and arduous service they have rendered, 
both in the field and in the management of their various districts. First Lieut. L. D. 
Wildman, Volunteer Signal Corps, commanding Company H, in addition to his 
marked ability as a mechanical engineer, which nas caused him to be consulted on 
various occasions upon affairs outside his own work, has shown ener^, executive 
ability, and interest in corps work that are unusual and deserving of high commen- 

First Lieut. Charles S. Wallace has been almost constantly in the field since last 
December and in the enemy's country. His services have been of unusual value. 
Cool in danger, energetic, eager for work, and with thorough professional knowledge, 
I regard him as an officer of the greatest value to the corps. 

First Lieut. William E. DaWes has done well in Cebu and has shown great activity, 
not only in ordinary work, but against the enemy in the field, and I desire to com- 
mend him to you for it. He is a faithful, energetic, and hard-working officer, very 
capable in his position, as I have already had occasion to report. 

First Lieut. Alfred T. Clifton has done well in Negros. Considering the small 
force that could be spared him the condition and extent of his lines — second in mile- 
age to Pinay — are commendable. In the field he has shown great activity and 

The promotions recently announced of Second Lieutenants Davies, Wallace, and 
Clifton have been earned by hard work. 


Total of telegraph, telephone, and cable lines owned and built by the United States 
Government, Department of the Visayas: 



Omioc to Liloan, Liloan Loup (estimated) 80 

Tacloban to Samar coast 1.5 

Total 8L5 


Panay, telegraph and telephone 306 

Negros, telegraph and telephone 162 

Cebu, telegraph and telephone 137 

Bohol, telegraph and telephone 51 . 5 

Ley te, telegraph and telephone 63 

Total 719.5 

(irand total, land lines and cable 801 

All of which is respectfully submitted. 

George P. Scriven, 
MajoTy Volunteer Signal CorpSj Signal Officer, 

Department of the Visayas. 

Exhibit F. 

Company E, United States Signal Corps, 

Manila^ P, /., July i, 1900. 
Ad.t utant-G enera L, 

Department of Southern Luzon. 

Sir: I have the honor to submit the following report of the operations of Company 
E, Signal Corps, for the year ending June 30, 1900, being a summary of reports sub- 


mitted to mo, and of my reports before January. My report subsequent to January 
is also included. 

In July, 1899, the construction of a telephone system in Jolo and the laying of the 
Calamba-Taguig cable by a detachment of the company under the direction of Maj. 
J. E. Maxfield, Signal Corps, were the principal events. 

Extensive repairs of destruction due to typhonic storms were necessary. 

In August, due to heavy rains and cessation of field operations, opportunity waa 
taken to refit the city offices. 

The central office was reorganized and refitted, a battery room and testing room 
being established. 

Lieutenant Cunningham laid a cable (insulated wire) from Calamba to Los Bafios 

In September, Standard — one hundred and twentieth meridian — time was arranged 
for by the Signal Corps and the director of the Manila Observatory. Through relay 
arrangements the 11 o'clock signal was automatically repeated on the city lines and 
to Iloilo and Cebu through the cable to those places. 

In October active field operations were resumed. The reports of the behavior of 
the detachments of this company during the severe fighting around Imus and Bacoor, 
October 2, appended hereto, tell a story of splendid heroism and unflinching devotion 
to duty. 

I especially urge suitable official recognition of the services of Lieut. M. K. Cun- 
ningham for gallantry in action, and Sergts. Lynne S. Brown, David T. Flannery, 
Frank L. Beals, Gregor X. Miller, and Charles Barrett for coolness and bravery in 
making repairs under heavy fire. 

Corpl. Ole Gunderson was killed while heroically doing his duty under fire. 
Sergeant Beals was wounded. 

J^rgeant Flannery's achievement in sending important messages to Imus without 
any instrument, using the ends of the broken wire, is worthy of note. R«;om- 
mendations are now being prepared looking to the award of certificates of merit or 
medals of honor to tlie proper ones. 

The Signal Corps detachment under Lieutenant Clarke, Signal Corps, accompany- 
ing General Schwan's expedition south of Bacoor, l^etween October 6 and 13, per- 
formed excellent work. 

Lieutenant Clarke specially commends the gallant services of First Class Sergt. 
C. R. Berry, Sergts. L.S.Brown, C. A. Guswiler, H. S. Hathaway, C. D. Smith, and 
O. V. Wilcomb, of this expedition. 

On October 17 1 started north with a detachment, consisting of Lieutenant Cun- 
ningham and 22 men, to report to General Lawton and accompany his expedition. 
We were equipped with material for construction of 20 miles of line* (insulated wire). 

The accompanying report, giving the details of oj^rations during our advance from 
Arayat to Cabanatuan during the month, shows the difficulties pro<luced by adverse 
climatic conditions, -distance from base of supplies, and inadequate transportation. 

In this month and November all the temporary lines between Arayat and Cabana- 
tuan were recovered and replaced by pole hues. ' 

Corporal Salisbury's report of his capture and life among the insurgents is 

In November the detachment continued the advance with General Lawton's com- 
mand, the struggle to ciirry the line through from Cabanatuan to San Jos^ during the 
heavy rains of November being an exf)erience few would care to repeat. The line 
was a temporary one, first partly insulated and partly bare on the ground, later 
changed to insulated wire only. 

The health of the men was badly broken up by the exposure and severe work. 

The performance of the ** buzzer" in working over uninsulated bare wires is to be 
noted nere. The accompanying map shows the northern limit reached. The fresh- 
ets and impassable roads made it impossible to get material enough from Manila to 
carry the line north of San Josd, altnough, pursuant to General Lawton's instruc- 
tions, the detachment went as far as Tayug. 

Lieutenant Yurgensen's report of cable repairs on lake and Lieutenant Colt's report 
of management of transportation and supplies are appended. 

In December the party began the return movement, reaching San Isidro Decem- 
ber 9. On December 11 a temporary line was laid to San Miguel de Mayumo, follow- 
ing General I^wton*s advance. By December 18 a pole line was built from San 
Miguel to Baliuag, the latter being termimis of line from Malolos on the railroad. 

Sergeant Brown and party subsequently recovered the line from San Miguel to San 
Isidro. The successful use of rockets in locating Hayes' cavalrj- command in the 
hills near Biacna-bato is to be noted. 

The party returned to Manila by Dei^emlxT 25. 


On December 21 Lieutenant Gibbs and 8 men of this company constructed a tele- 
phone line from the Pumping Station to San Mateo. 

It is difficult to name those whose services were most valuable during this expedi- 

Lieutenants Cunningham, Rickard, and Colt all worked most loyally. Serjeants 
Berry, Brown, Wheat, Hathaway; Corporals Wolfe, Todd, Lyon, Mann; Pnvates 
Lee, Mack, Gri belle, Mc Kinney, Furlong, and Taylor performed most efficient serv- 
ices. Lieutenant Cunningham's and Corporal Lyon's night repair of Unes near 
Arayat, the carrying of messages through dangerous country by Privates Peters and 
Gribelle, the clever piece of night repair performed by Lieutenant Cunningham and 
Sergeants Wheat and Hathaway near Baloc, and the untirin't industry and skill in 
line work exhibited by Sergeant Hathaway and Private McKinney are especially 
worthy of mention. 

In January extensive field operations in southern Luzon, under (ienerals Bates and 
Schwan, taxed the company's resources of men and material to the utmost General 
Schwan's expedition from Ta^ui^ along the lake shore to Binan, then across to Silan, 
Indang, and Naic, returning to Binan; from thereto Calamba, Li pa, Batangas, thence 
to San Pablo, Nagcarlang, Majayjay, and Santa Cruz — expeditions being sent from 
latter place south into towns of Tavabas Province — were all followed by Lieutenant 
Clarke and a party of 9 men of tnis company, with native laborers and suitable 
transportation and material. 

A cable was laid from Taguig to Binan under the direction of Major Maxfield, 
Signal Corps, assisted by a detachment of this company. 

General Schwan cooperated with General Bates in Cavite Province, General Bates 
being accompanied by Lieutenant Cunningham and a party of 8 men of E Com- 
pany, with native laborers and a due supply of transportation and material. Lieu- 
tenant Cunningham laid temporary line from Imus to Silan; afterwards accompanied 
General Schwa/i's expedition from Calamba to Batangas, putting up line in a work- 
able condition after Lieutenant Clarke, who, following the column, attempted only 
to make it workable for the " buzzer." 

The great distances covered by these detachments, the close communication kept 
up with the rapidly moving columns and existing lines, is worthy of note. 

Owing to the difficulties of transportation and need of light wire suitable for fol- 
lowing rapidly moving columns with the "buzzer," at the suggestion of the chief 
signal officer (Colonel Allen), I had the copper armor wires untwisted from 2 miles 
of river cable. This gave 40 miles of small copper wire, from which excellent results 
were obtained in the field in "buzzer" communication. The ingenious method of 
untwisting and reeling this wire was due to Sergeant Boeler, E Company. 

Major Maxfield laid a cable from Los Bailos to Santa Cruz, assisted by a detail 
from this company, completing it January 31. 

The party under Lieutenant Rickard, consisting of 5 men of this company, who 
left the latter part of December for Aparri, arrived January 4, but could not accom- 

f)li8h anything before January 24. By the end of the month they had extended the 
ine up the Cagayan River to Lallo. 

Lieutenant Lyman and a party of 3 men of this company and native laborers 
constructed an excellent pole line from Bacoor to Naic (Cavite Province); also a 
hne from Noveleta to Cavite outpost. 

Lieutenant Colt, assisted by details from the company, reconstructed the telephone 
sjTstem north and east of the city centering at Deposito, and extended the telephone 
line from San Mateo to Montalban. 

All lines north connecting with the railroad, except the Cagayan Valley, were 
turned over to Captain Carr, of F Company, February 1. 

In February Lieutenant Clarke's and Lieutenant (Junningham's parties were still 
in the field. The former extended temporary lines from >lajayjay to Tayabas, and 
the latter was occupied in .completing the excellent pole line he constructed l)etween 
Calamba and Batangas. 

Early in the month Lieutenant Lyman's party in Cavite Province had put up the 
line between Imus and Silan in permanent condition. Lieutenant Lyman was placed 
in charge of a party of 5 men of the company, and on February 15 embarked with 
General Bates' s expeditionary forces for the Camarines. His signalmen on the several 
ships gave very useful service en route. 

The party landed and proceeded with headquarters to Nueva Caceres, where con- 
struction began in March. 

Lieutenant Rickard reported construction in the Cagayan Valley as far as Ilagan, 
100 miles from Aparri. He worked under every natural difficulty, and his party 
suffered much from fever. 

Lieutenant Gibbs, assisted by details from the company, built a telephone line from 


Pasig, through Taytay and Antipolo, to Morong over very difficult country. He then 
constructed a bamboo-pole line from Taguig to Binan, thus completing land commu- 
nication from Manila to Calamba direct. Lieutenant Gibbs and a party of 6 men 
constructed a permanent line connecting Santo Tomas and San Pablo, in Laguna 

In March, Lieutenant Lyman and party repaired and laid 88 miles of temporary 
line north to Libmanan, and south following the advances in the Camarlnes, and 
constructed 21 miles of semipermanent lines. Although construction south went 
practically as far as Legaspi, the insurgents very soon destroyed the lines as far as 
Iriga, that being as far as communication might be considered as established. 

The energy and ability exhibited by Lieutenant Lyman in these operations is most 

In the Cagayan Valley Lieutenant Rickard carried construction work from Ilagan 
to Estella, 47 miles. 

Lieutenant Cunningham completed the permanent line from Batangas to Calamba, 
and built a semipermanent telephone line from Taal to Batangas. The latter part 
of the month detachments under his charge completed a pole line from San Pedro 
Macati to Guadalupe Kidge, and rebuilt the temporary telephone line from Pasig to 

Sergt. H. P. Allen, E Company, in charge of work around Tayabas, put up a tem- 
porary line for "buzzer" work oetween Tayabas and Lucena. 

In April Lieutenant Lyman was kept so busy repairing damages done to his lines 
by insurgents that he had no time for additional construction. His report for the 
month gives an excellent idea of the conditions existing. 

Lieutenant Rickards's party were almost completely blocked by sickness and lack 
of supplies due to difficulties of transportation. 

In tnis month a detachment of F Company began working north from Cabanatuan 
to meet him. 

Lieutenant Clarke and a detachment of 5 men, assisted by native laborers, made 
a "buzzer" line between 8ilan and Naic — a light permanent line, permitting tele- 
graph to be used direct to Naic from Manila, via Bacoor and Silan. 

Sergeant Allen constructed a "buzzer" line from Lucena to Atimonan, through 
exceedingly difficult country, although continual cutting by the insurgents did not 
permit much use of it. He also constructed a "buzzer" line from Tayabas to 

On May 1* the Cagayan district and party were turned over to Company F, Signal 

Lieutenant Gibbs, with a party of 6 men and 10 natives (laborers), starte<i the con- 
struction of a pole line from San Pablo, Laguna province, to Sariaya, via Tiaon and 

This was to secure communication with Tayabas from Calamba over some other 
route than by way of Santa Cruz, as south of Santa Cruz the insurgents had twice 
(completely destroyed the temporary line, the last time beyond hope of repair. 
Poles had been carried across the lake to Calamba and hauled an average of 35 miles 
over bad roads to accomplish this. A wagon train was organized at Calamba and 
the work went on through May. Lieutenant Gibbs fell sick, as well as mo^t of his 
party and teamsters. Insurgents destroyed liia lines several times. Sergeant Lyons, 
who took Lieutenant Gibbs's place, was sick, but kept working. At the end of the 
month only 10 miles had been built, so great was the sickness. More men would be 
sent out, only to go down with fever in a few days. Sergeant Lyons and Corporal 
TyOghry deserve great commendation for their work under difficult circumstances. 

Lieutenant Cunningham and a party of men and 10 natives went to Taal on May 
20 to construct a line west of Taal. Upon arriving they found the line to Batangas in 
need of attention, and devoted the rest of the month to reconstructing it. 

Sergeant Beals and a party of 2 men, assisted by 4 natives, started the reconstruc- 
tion of a pole line south of Santa Cruz. They completed 5 miles before the end of 
the montn. 

Lieutenant Lyman reported from the Camarines that he had reconstructed and 
made permanent the lines from Nueva Caceres to Libmanan and Pasacao. 

Major Maxfield, Signal Corps, assisted bv a detail of men from this company, laid 
a cable from Pasacao to Guinayangan, and First-Class Sergeant Kennedy, in charge 
of a party of 5 men, left Manila May 18 to construct a line across the wild country 
between Guinayangan and Atimonan. 

The report he sends shows the difficult character of the work, after going out 6 

First-Class Sergeant Berry left May 27 for Atimonan, with a party of 5 men, to 
work toward Sergeant Kennedy. 


In June Lieutenant Lyman's reports indicate that, through lack of escoMs and the 
lack of clearing out the country, construction was not possible in the Camarines. 

Lieutenant Cunningham completed a strong pole line from Taal to Balayan on the 
south coast, although he and the party suffered greatly from sickness and climatic 

Seiigeant Lyons and party continued the struggle against sickness, bad roads and 
delays, due to the long distance everything hadto be hauled, and succeeded by the 
last of the month in carrying the line to Sariaya. 

Sergeant Beals and party carried the line through from Santa Cruz to Tayabas, 
about 10 miles being insulated wire, along a mountain trail, the rest being light, per- 
manent line. Sergeant Beals's party was attacked by a large force of insui^ents near 
Majayjay, who were successfully repelled without casualties in our party. 

The reports of Lieutenant Kennedy and Lieutenant Berry from the Atimonan- 
Guinayangan line show great natural aifficulties overcome, and many repairs neces- 
sary of destruction wrought by roving "ladrone" bands. 

Lieutenant Kennedy's wort was especially difficult and praiseworthy. 

Major Maxfield, Signal Corps, assisted by a detail from this company, laid a cable 
from Naic to Corregidor. 

Lieutenant Hathaway then connected the Corregidor station by telephone to the 
lighthouse on the hill and installed a telescope, international code flags, etc., for sig- 
naling and reporting vessels. 

The following shows in a brief tabular way the construction, by the month, of lines 
built by this companv. A statement of stations on July 1, 1899, and changes since 
then is also appended: 


July, 1899. 

Land end Calamba-Taguig cable 
Island of Jolo 

Total, July 

August, 1899. 
Calamba to Los Bafios, cable, stranded (okonite) ... 
Total, August 

October, 1899. 

Schwan's expedition, laid and recovered, insulated 

Arayat to San Isidro, poles, bamboo, stranded 

Lawton's expedition, insulated, partly recovered . . . 

Total, October 

November, 1899. 

Cabanatuan to San Jos6, insulated 

Cabanatuan to San Jos^, laid and recovered, insulated 
San Isidro to Cabanatuan, repaired and stranded 

Total, November 

December, 1899. 

San Isidro to San Miguel, insulated, laid and recovered 

San Miguel to Baliuag, stranded, poles 

Santolan to San Mateo, bamboo, No. 9 

Total, December. 

January, 1900. 

Bacoor to Naic, No. 9 and poles 

Noveleta to Cavite outpcwt. No. 9 and poles . 
San Mateo to Montalban. No. 9 and bamboo 
San Felipe to Deposito, No. 9 and 20 poles . . . 

Santa Mesa to Deposito. No. 9 and poles 

La Loma to Deposito, No. 9 and poles 

Binan to Silan, small copper 

Silan to Indang, small copper 

or field 







or pole 













or field 







or pole 








Jnmuiry, ;9W>— Continued. 



Indanf^ to Naic, small copper , 

ImiiH to Silan, insulated 

Imua to Silan. No. 14 and bamboo 

Calamba to BataiiKa.**, repaired, old Spanish and small copper 

San Pablo to Santa Cruz via Nagcarlang, Magdalcna, and Majayjay. 

repaired and small copper 

Calamba to Binan, No. O.and poles 

Aparri to Lallo, No. 9 




Total, January 

February, liMH). 

Majayjay to Tayabas, repairs and insulated 

Lallo' to Ilagan. No. 9 

Calamba to Lipa, No. 9 and poles 

Santa Tomas to Tanauan, No. 9 and poles 

Paaig to Morong, stranded— bamboo 

Santo Tomas to San Pablo. No. 14 and bamboo. 
Binan to Taguig, No. 14 and bamboo 


Total, February 

Marrfi, V.hhl 


or pole 


San Pedro Macatl to Guadalupe Ridge, No. 9 and poles. 

Paslg-Morong line to Taytay. reconstructed 

Taguig to Manila, one aaditional wire, No. 9 and jMiles. . 

Nueva Caceres to Libmanan. No. 8, old 

Nueva Caceres U) Pasacao. partly No. 14, bamboo 

Nueva Caceres to Gulnobatan 

Buhi to Nabua 

Daraga to Legaspi 

Lipa to Batangas, No. 9 and |M)leH 

Batangas to Taal, No. 9 (temponiry poles ) 

Ilagan to Estella, No. 9 

Tayabas to Lucena. No. 9 





Total, March 

April, liHH). 

Silan to Indang, stranded and bamboo 

Lucena to Atimonan. repairs, No. 14 and insulated. 
Tayabas to Sariaya, No. 14 and bamboo 



Total, April 

.Va//, IfHMK 

Batangas to Taal (reconstniction ) 

West of Guinayangan.No. 14 amd insulated 

Nueva Caceres to Libmanan 

Nueva Caceres to Pa.««icao 

San Pablo to Tiaon, No. 9 and |)oles 

Santa Cruz, south, No. 14 and iwles 

Total. May 

Jtnir, V.MM). 

Taal to Balayan, No. 9 and jmles 

Tiaon to Sariaya, No. 9 and jk)1os 

Atimonan to (iuinayangan. No. 14 and insulated 

Santa Cruz to Tavabas, No. 14 and insulated 

(:k)rregidor Island telephone, lance and No. 11... 
Naic, land end Corregidor-Naic cable. No. 14 

Total,. Tune. 




Tern- Perma- 
perary nent 

lines, lines. 



12 I 





















Cablea — Department of Southern Luzon. 


Tagiiig to Calamba 20 

Taguig to Binan 14 

LoH Banos to Santa Cruz 16 

Cavite to Manila ( repair) 1 J 

Pasacao to Guinayangan 48 

C'orregidor to Naic 12 

In the table below is given the statement of offices opened, closed, and transferred 
from the control of the company owing to change in territorial lines. 

Besides those indicated as ** opened by the company " were numerous field oflBces 
which were opened for from a few hours to a week or more. 

Offices in operation under control of Company E, July 1, 1899 21 

Turned over to Company E by Nineteenth Company, Volunteer Signal Corps, 

July, 1899 7 

Opened during the year by Company E 64 

Closed during the year 6 

Turned over to Company F, Signal Corps 22 

Leaving telegraph offices controlled by Company E, July 1, 1900 64 

Besides these, 35 telephone offices in Manila, and small local telephone systems at 
Imus, Santa Cmz, Calamba, and Corregidor were maintained by this company July 
1, 1900. 

Ver}' respectfully, Edgar Russbl, 

Captain^ Volunteers^ Signal Officer^ Commanding Company E, 

Exhibit G. 

Company E, United States Signal Corps, 

Manila J P. /., July 1, 1900. 
Chief Signal Officer, 

Divmon o/' the Philippines. 

Sir: I have the honor to submit the follow^ing supplementary annuai report of 
operations of Company E in establishing the city telegraph and telephone systems, 
central office equipment, and machine shop. 

On July 1, 1899, the city telegraph system included eleven offices, seven of which 
were on a local line, the other four being local offices on lines leading to outside 
stations. Since that time one other local office has been established. 

The lines were hastily constructed affairs, partly the old Spanish lines and wires 
put up on the city electric light and telephone poles. Until March, 1900, owing to 
the impossibility of obtaining suitable poles, no reconstruction could be attempted. 
At this time the arrival of cross arms, pins, etc., and men out procuring good poles, 
permitted the construction to proceed. About 250 30-foot poles, carrying from 2 to 
16 No. 9 galvanized wires, have been put up. Under these were put the cross arms 
carrving the telephone wires. As many as 40 No. 14 galvanized wires are on some 
of the poles. 

At the central office all the wires were "dead ended " on a large pole, the telegraph 
wires being attached to lead-covered cable and carried under the noor of the central 
office to the switch board. The telephone wires are attached to heavily insulated 
wires and brought down to the new telephone central in another room of the same 
building. All wiring in the central office is concealed. 

In August, 1899, the central office, owing to strenuous field work, was still in a 
makeshift condition. At that time it was refitted, a glass-partitioned operating table 
put in, the office was rewired, the battery taken out of a dark closet and installed in 
a tiled-floor back room on good racks. A testing room waa established, a " Wheat- 
stone bridge'* set being assembled out of the junk heap of the old Spanish School of 
Arts. It proved to be a verv good testing set. 

Meantime, Major Maxfield turned over from the Hooker a D' Arsonval galvanom- 
eter with two interchangeable coils, and universal shunt, telescope, and scale, one- 
third M. F. condenser, reversing key and discharge key, all made by Willyoung. 

Since that time the room has been furnished with glass cases for instruments, and 
quite a number of small galvanometers, telephones, and useful small appliances 
received from the School of Arts have been placed there. A Western Union tangent 
galvanometer is used for measuring line currents, having been calibrated by the cop* 


per coltameter method. An ohmmeter was received in January and has proven a 
most useful instrument. Portable Weston voltmeters and ammeters are the most 
recent useful acquisitions. 

The fitting out of the machine shop began in August, soon after the electrical 
property of tne Spanish School of Arts was turned over to the undersigned. A mass 
of instruments and supplies were piled in a building on Palacio street in the walled 
city. The metal working shop, engine and dynamo room and wood-working shops 
pertaining to the school are situated in the large building in front of the General 
Hospital. In the first shop we found a power shears and punch drill shaper, a metal 
planer, a power and a foot lathe. These machine tools were driven by a G-horse- 
power oil engine of German make. These machine tools and the engine were well 
mstalled and in fair condition. Most of the small tools had been removed. In the 
second was a dismantled switch board, a Paris-Edison bipolar, 4-kilowatt dynamo, a 
2 J-kilowatt gramme, and a Brown-Boveri arc dynamo of about 2-kilowatt capacity. 
A large motor (type not given) was also partially set up. These were arranged to 
be belted to verv well set uj) countershafting driven by a 20-hor8epower engine made 
in Manchester, tngland. 

The latter, and the upright boiler and fittings in a small outbuilding, were in fair 

The wood-working shop was in great confusion. In it we found numerous work- 
benches, and a planer, two circular saws, mortising machine and band saw installed. 
AH the latter were in bad repair, with many parts missing. A partly set up storage 
battery of 30 cells (French type) was found in this room. The w^hole building was 
in great disorder and required nmch cleaning out. 

By requisition from the quartermaster and some purchases, the shops were put in 
order for repair work. In January the arrival of an oil engine, a 6-kilowatt, ipole, 
general electric compound dynamo, a 2i-kilowatt bipolar general electric dynamo, 
two small charging switch boards, 110 type E, 7-inch and 125 E, 5-inch chloride 
accumulators, made it possible to proceed with the setting up of a plant for replacing 
the bluestone cells in the central office. There were already 350 of these and the 
room was badly overcrowded. 

These cells were taken out and set up temporarily on the floors of adjoining 
rooms, while the 120 E 5-inch storage cells were put on the racks of the battery room. 
Six of the E 7-inch cells were put in to l)e used as locals. Temporary switching 
arrangements were provided. 

Onlv half of the battery was connected to the telegraph lines, it being so arranged 
that tnese cells were connected 60 in series, while the other half could be connected 
in two groups of 30 each for charging. Wires leading from every fifth cell made it 
possible to give any line voltage up to 120 in graduations of 10. Incandescent lamp 
resistances and fuses were put in as safety devices. 

Meantime at the machine shop the general electric 6-kilowatt dynamo had been 
placed on the base from which the old Edison machine had been moved and one of 
the new switchboards put up. 

The change from gravity cells to storage cells was accomplished without interrup- 
tion to the telegraph service. It was fortunate they were put in, for the rapid exten- 
sion of lines would have soon put it beyond our power to have installed enough 
gravity cells. 

A No. 5 copper line (H)nnected the central office with the dynamo, a distance of 
about 700 yaras. 

Since that time, at the machine shop, 60 of the E 7-inch storage cells have been 
set up. These are used to light the central offices. 

The machine tools have l)ecn put in order and are much used for construction" and 
repair work. New small tools have been recently sent from the United St&tes. 

The oil engine has been excellently set up on a brick foundation and is used to 
drive the small 2J kilowatt dynamo, thus givmg an auxiliary plant. A neat battery 
room switchboard has been constructed, using the switches recently received from 
the United States. 

Practically all the work in the machine shop has l)een done by First-Class Sergt. 
W. R. Tavlor and Sergt. F. W. Bohler, of this company. 

In the fatter part of February, upon its arrival, tne new 50-strap tele^ph switeh- 
board, fitted with jacks, cords, etc., was put in the central office, a suitable cabinet 
being built for it, as shown in accompanymg diagram. 

Another operating table of four places was put in the room where the switeh board 
is, giving us two additional places and making it much easier to carry on the work, 
which at that time had come up to about 1,000 messages per day in central office 
alone. The oflfice was rewired throughout with lead-covere<l wires, ninning under 
the floors. Electric lights were installed, fed by the storage battery in the machiue 


shop. In June the finishing touches were put on the battery room. It was rewired 
throughout, and a new switchboard put in, made up from the new switches received 
from the United States for doing in an easily unaerstood way the rather compli- 
cated switching required. A diagram of racks and switchboard is appended. In 
this the setting up of the central office switchboard, the rewiring of central office, 
and the fitting up of the testing room, I am indebted to the great technical skill and 
knowledge of Lieutenant Hathaway. 

The military telephone system was inaugurated in September, 1898, when a few 
telephones were put in for the use of the chief of the military police. A 10-drop 
switchboard was established at police headquarters, that being the limit of the serv- 
ice until May^ 1900. A 100-drop metallic circuit board was received from the United 
States in April, and that was installed in one of the rooms adjacent to the operating 
room at the central telegraph office. First Class Sergeant Peters, Company E, who 
has been in charge of telephone matters, then inclosed this board in a substantial 
cabinet and took charge of constructing the lines. These are No. 14 galvanized wire. 

At the close of June 33 stations had been put in, served by 21 lines, the 2-party 
line system prevailing. These telephones are installed in many police stations and 
in various offices and storehouses pertaining to military administration, and give 
much appreciated service. 

A wire connects with the city exchange, permitting us to make use of the 11 city 
telephones assigned for Government use under the charter. The instruments are 
excellent ones and, to the users, make the city instruments compare most favorably 
with ours. The ability and energy of First Class Sergt. F. E. Peters in installing 
this system and in putting up city telegraph lines has been most praiseworthy. 
Very respectfully, 

Edgar Russel, 
Captain^ Volunteers, Signal Officer, Commanding Company E, 

Appendix L. 

Hdqbs. Provost-Mabshal-Genebal, 

Manila, P. /., August 24, 1900, 
A D.I utant-Genera l , 

Division of the Philippines, Manila, P. I. 

Sir: In compliance with letter from your office dated July 26, 1900, I have the 
honor to forward herewith the report of operations of the provost guard, city of 
Manila, for the period from July 1, 1899, to Julv 31, 1900. 

As the former provost-marshal-general. Col. fi. B. Williston, Sixth U. S. Artillery, 
was in command during this entire period, with the exception of a few days, this 
report was prepared by the acting adjutant-general of the brigade, in accordance with 
verbal instructions given him by me. 

The recommendations regarding the establishment of a brigade summary court, 
and that the work perform^ by lx»ards of survey be done by the Inspector-GeneraFs 
Department, are fully concurred in. 

Very respectfully, J. F. Bell, 

Brigadier-General, U. S. V., 
Provost- Marshal- General, Commanding. 

Exhibit A. 

Hdqrs. Provost-Marshal-General, 
Separate Brigade, Provost Guard, 

Adjutant-General's Office, 
Manila, P. I., August 20, 1900. 
Provost-Marshal-General, Manila, P. L 

Sir: I have the honor to submit herewith a summary of the operations of the pro- 
vost guard of the city of Manila for the period from July 1, 1899, to July 31, 1900. 


The provost guard of the city of Manila constitutes a separate brigade under the 
seventy-third article of war, as announced in General Orders, No. 20, October 6, 1898, 
and General Orders, No. 1, April 7, 1900, headquarters Department of the Pacific and 
Eighth Army Corps, and headquarters Division of the rhilippinee, respectively, is 


directly subject to the orders and instructions of the division commander, and is 
responsible for the peace and quiet of the city. The jurisdiction of the brigade com- 
mander, who is known and designated as the "provost-marshal-general," is limited 
to the city and suburbs of Manila. The work of the provost guard during the period 
covered l>y this report has been limited to police duty and to furnishing guanis for 
public property and buildings and other places of importance in various parts of the 
city. Exhibit A shows the organizations constituting the provost guard on July 1, 
1S99, and the changes that have taken place up to July 31, 1900, while Exhibit B shows 
the stations of the various organizations on the latter date. 

As will be seen by Pixhibit B, certain companies are designated as '* police com- 
panies, ' * and are stationed in various districts of the city. These companies are directly 
under the orders of the chief of police, and, together* with the native police, perform 
all the various police and patrol duties of the city. During the year new stations 
were established at Trozo, San Lazaro, Herran street, Malate, and at Paco. 

The remaining companies of the provost guard, with the exception of two on custom- 
house duty, are designated as "provost companies." The <luty performed by these 
has been mainly guard duty, similar to that perfonned in ordinary garrison. Guards 
have been furnished various supplv depotij, division and brigade headquarters, various 
public buildings throughout the city, the city gates, and Bilibid Prison. This guard 
duty, as a rule, has been very hard, although effort ha^ always been made to so adiust 
it as to afford the men two nights in bed, although this has not always been possible. 
In order to equalize this duty among the various organizations the details have been 
regulated from these headquarters. 

In order to afford better police protection throughout the city and supplement the 
work of the military police, a battalion of four companies of native police was oi^^an- 
ized under the authority of the military governor of July 15, 1899. Exhibit C 
shows the original organization with the additions that have been made since that 
date, together with the present stations, by platoons, of the different companies. 


During the period covered by this report there have l)een orders issued from this 
office promul^ting sentent^e of general (rourt^-martial in 525 cases. This great num- 
l)er was due, m part, to the arrival of the volunteers, who left many cases behind in 
the city when leaving for the field, and to the openitions in the field, when a great 
many cases were tried in this citj by the provost guard which would otherwise have 
been tried in the different divisions to wnich the men belonged. Every effort has 
been made to have cases tried iis quickly as possible, but oi>erations in the field, ren- 
dering it often difficult to obtain witnesses, frequent changes amongthe officers of the 
provost guard, and difficulty in obtaining the services of stenographers, have often- 
times caused great delay; in many cases men under charges have remained months 
without trial. 

Close observation, based on actual experience of the working of our present S3rstem 
of military jurisprudence, in so far as relates to general (^ourts-martial, convinces me 
that it is not suited to a time of w^ar, or, at h^ast, to conditions such as have existed 
in this city, and should l)e revised. It certainly is not in the interest of discipline for 
enlisted men to be confint^i for months awaiting trial on charges which, although as 
a rule considered beyond the power of inferior courts to properly punish, are yet 
more or less of a minor character. 8uch a state of affairs has, however^ existed in 
this city during the last year, in spite of every effort to relieve it, and it will exist 
again under similar conditions. At one time, Huring September, 1899, I had in my 
hands 90 charges awaiting reference for trial, and yet, at the time, three general 
courts were working overtime endeavoring to catch up with the work. To somewhat 
relieve the situation, instructions were given to the regimental commanders of the 
provost guard to resort to trial by summary court whenever practicable, even though 
the punishment awarded by the summary court might seem inadeouate, and many 
cases of enlisted men belonging to the provost guard were thus au«|K)sed of that 
would otherwise have be(Mi brought l>efore the general court. It was, however, only 
when the provost guard was sufficiently increased to furnish officers for four general 
courts-martial that substantial progress* was made toward the clearing of the general 
court docket. The experience of tlie ]>ast year in this work emphasizes the need, in 
time of war, of a summary coui-t with a punishing power very much greater than that 
of the ordinary' court as it exists to-dav and to whit*h ('(»nld Ix^ referretl the majority 
of the cases now referred to the general court, reserving to the latter all cases of more 
serious nature, including, of course, all sucli as, according to the Articles of War, 
would be classed as capital offenses. It is believe<l that a brigade summary court, 
consisting of three field officers and a judge-advocate, with punishing power limited 
to dishonorable discharge and one year's confinement, would answer every purpoee 
and would not be too radical a change from the present system. 


The need havine been felt of a summary court for the trial of cases of enlisted 
men belonging to the organizations outside of the provost guard, who happened to 
be arrested for minor offenses within the city of Manila, General Orders, No. 21, 
headquarters provost-marshal-general, October 6, 1899, created a summary court for 
the trial of such ca^s, and Parian station, formerly occupied as headquarters for 
the provost-marshal-general, was set apart for the confinement of such men. From 
the establishment of this court to July 31, 1900, 396 cases were tried, with an equal 
number of convictions, all charges except three being laid under the sixty-second 
article of war. The effect of the establishment of this court has been very bene- 


In addition to the great amount of work that haa devolved upon this office and 
the officers of the provost guard by courts-martial, 151 requests for boards of survey 
were referred durmg this period by department and division headquarters to the 

grovost-marshal-general for necessary action. The majority of these requests came 
■om quarterma^r and commissary officers of transports and from the various 
supply departments in this city, the value of the property to be acted upon amount- 
ing often to many -thousands of dollars. The work in this line has not been satis- 
factory, owing to the cumbersome nature of the system of disposing of property lost 
or damaged. Frequent changes among the officers of the provost guard, necessita- 
ting frequent changes of deteil, the necessity in many cases of obtaining evidence 
from the United States and the conseouent long delays, and the unsatisfactory 
nature, often, of the evidence submitted, have rendered this work annoying and 
unsatisfactory to all concerned. As a rule, officers perform this duty in a more or 
less perfunctory manner and, in spite of the regulations on the subject, the tendency 
is toward ** helping out" the responsible officer. It is believed that very much 
better and more satisfactory results in every way could be obtained, and at tne same 
time the interests of the Government more surely guarded, by having the work now 
done by boards of survey performed by an inspector-general, who should be 
empowered to administer the oath. 


Bilibid military prison was designated in General Orders, No. 26, October 31, 
1898, headquarters Department of the Pacific and Eighth Army Corps, as the place 
of confinement of enUsted men undergoing sentences of confinement of two months 
or more imposed by general courts-martial. This name is used to designate not only 
the military prison, but the "Cdrcel Piiblica y Presidio de Manila." Exhibits D 
and E show the number of general and garrison prisoners on hand July 31, 1899, 
and received, released, deported, etc., since that date. In addition to the returning 
to the United States of general prisoners to serve out their terms of confinement 
there, it has been the custom to send back to the United States all dishonorably 
discharged men whose terms of confinement had expired, or who had been so dis- 
charged without confinement. Similarly a number of worthless and undesirable 
characters have been returned to the United States on Government transports, and 
also a number of so-called "mascots," who came here with the different regiments, 
but who, as a rule, were turned adrift^ in a short while, without money or other 
means of support. 


The records of this office show that since the beginning of the insurrection 4,730 
insurgent prisoners have been confined in Manila. Of this number all have been 
released except 106; of these 46, classed as ladrones, have been sent to Cavite for con- 
finement at that place, while there remained in confinement in this city on July 31, 
1900, 43 officers and pohtical prisoners, and 17 soldiers. These are all confined at 
Postigo and Anda Street prisons. 


The work of this office has all been done by enlisted men, no civilians having been 
employed during the period covered by the report. As a rule the work has been 
entirely satisfactory, although frequent changes in the provost guard have caused 
much inconvenience at times. Considerable inconvenience has also resulted at times 
from lack of stationery supplies in the city and from inability to obtain a sufficient 
number of typewriters for the work of the office. 
Very respectfully, 

Chas. T. Menoher, 
Firgt Lieutenant Sixth ArtiUery, Acting Adjutant- General, 



Report of organizations forming neimrate hriguiUy provost guardf during period commenc- 
ing July ly 1899j and ending July SI, 1900, with alterations arranged chronologically. 


Organizations present July 
l,1899,and July 31,1900. 

Altcmtiuns in organizatioiiS. 

July 1 .. 

Aug. 31 
Sept. 3 . 

Sixth U. S. Artillery, 7 bat- 
teries— C, E, F, H, L, M, O; 
Twentieth U. S. Infantry, 
regiment, and Twentieth 
Kansas Volunteer Infan- 
try, regiment. 


Sept. 7 . 
Oct. 17 . 
Nov. 24 

Fourteenth U. S. Infantry, 
battalion — companies A, 


Dec. 6. 

Sixth U. S. Artillerj', 1 bat- 
tery— B. 

Fourteenth U. S. Infantry, 
2 companies— A, L. 

Twenty-eighth Infantry. U. 
S. v.. battalion — compa- 
nies I,K, L. M. 

Foufteenth U. 8. Infantry, 2 
companie8,and Twentieth 
Kansas Volunteer Inl^- 
try, regiment. 

Dec. 7 . . 
Dec. 8.. 
Dec. 9.. 
Dec. 23. 

Feb. 4... 

Feb. 22. 
Mar. 31 

Fourteenth U. S. Infantry, 
3 companies— C, E, G. 

Fourteenth U. S. Infantry, 
1 company— F. 

Fourteenth U. S. Infantry, 
1 company— B. 

Fourteenth U. S. Infantry, 
3 companies — I), H, I; 
Sixth U. S. Artillery, 2 bat- 
teries— A, N. 

Third U. S. Artillerj. 2 bat- 
teries— H, L. 

Third U. S. Artillery, 1 bat- 
tery— K. 

Twenty-eighth Infantry, U. 
S. v., Mittalion— compar 
nies I, K, L, M. 

May 14 
May 16 
July 10 

Fourth U. S. Cavalry, 1 
troop — I. ' 

July 14 
July 31 

Fourth U. 8. Cavalry, 1 
troop— F. 

Twenty-ttrst U. S. Infantry, 
2 battalions, 8 com- 
panies— B, D, E, G, H, I, 

Fourth V. S. Cavalrj'. 2 
troops— I, F. 

Third U. S. Artiller>% 3 bat- 
teries— H, K, L. 

ftixth U. S. Artillery, 9 ba^ 
teries— A, B, C, E, F, H, L. 

Twentieth U. S. Infantry, 

Twenty -first U. S. Infantry, 
8 companies— B, D, E, G, 
H, I, K, Li. 

in all. 34 troops, batteries, 
and companies, and de- 
tachments of casuals in 



Fourteenth U. S. Infantry, 1 
battalion— companies A, 

Sixth U. S. Artillery, l bat- 
tery— M, to United States. 

Fourteenth U. 8. Iniantry, 8 
companies— E, F, G, H, I, 
K, L, M, to Taku, China. 


L(tcation headquartern nf organizaiiorut and coiupaiiies of the pronM guard. 


Headquarters and ban<] Fort Santiago 

Companies E, F, and M Fort Santiago 

Company A Custom-house 

Company B * Quiapo 

Company C * Trozo 

Company D ^ Santa Cruz 

Company G ' Anda, Central, and Parian substations 

Company H Malacanan 

Company I * Binondo 

Company K ^ San Miguel 

Company L * Sampaloo 


Head(]|^uarters and officers' quarters Cuartel de Espafia 

Battenes B, C, and F Cuartel de Espafia, guard Potenciana building 

Band and Battery A Cuartel de Infanteria 

Battery E ^ Tondo 

Battery H Ayuntamiento 

Battery L Custom-house 

Battery N * San Lazaro 

Battery Santa Lucia Barracks, Malecon 


Headquarters and band Cuartel Meisic 

Companies E, G, H, and K Cuartel Meisic 

Company B * San Fernando 

Company D Vaccine station 

Company I Herran street, detachment at Ermita substation 

Company L * Paco 


Headquarters and Batteries H, K, and L Nipa Barracks 


Troop I, patrol duty Nipa Barracks, Malate 

Troop F Sampaloc 




Companies A, B, C, D were organized per authority of the United States military 
governor in the Philippines, and originally consisted of: 

Inspector 1 

Assistant inspector 1 

Doctor 1 

Clerk (now sergeant-major ) 1 

Telegraph men 2 

To each company: 

I captain 4 

1 lieutenant 4 

4 sergeants 16 

4 corporals IB 

50 privates 200 

Total original strength 246 

^ Military police stations. 
WAR 1900 —VOL 1, PT V 13 


Authorized incTeaso, OctolxT 6, 1899, jwr company: 

1 lieutenant 4 

2 serpeants ^ 

2 corporals 8 

25 privates 100 



Corporal 1 

Privates 12 



Lieutenant 1 

Sergeants 3 

Corporals 3 

Privates 25 



Privatt^s, Company T> 11 


Sergeant 1 

Corporals 3 

Privates 12 



Captain 1 

Lieutenants 2 

Sergeants 5 

Corporals 3 

Privates 51 



Five companies, 25 privates ea<li 125 

Total present stren^tli 625 


Inspector 1 

Assistant inspector 1 

Doctor 1 

Captains 5 

Lieutenants 11 

Sergeant-major 1 

Telegraph men 2 

Sergeants 33 

Corporals 34 

Privates 536 

Total 625 

Stntiotm of roinjxtiiici* of nal'ive fxylire. 

Company A, two ComiMiny B, two ' (Company 0, two Company D. thrw | Company E, two 
platoonH. pliitoons. i platoons. platoons. platoons. 

Binondo. Quiapo. . Mulate. Saninaloo. Central police 8ta> 

Tondo. San Lazaro. I'aco. San Miguel. tion. 


I^oTE. — Ono platoon !<> ea<li .vtatj<m. 



Afpinorrmfhim of general prisoners at Bilibid military prison ^ received^ released ^ discharged^ 
deported^ etc., for the period from July i, 1899^ to July 31, 1900, 






November , 
December . 


January . 


























and de- 

ferred to 
the De- 
of Cali- 

ferred to 
the gar- 

ferred to 
















742 I 


Prisoners on hand July 1, 1899 46 

Prisoners received, July 1, 1899. to July 31, 1900 795 

Total 841 

Prisoners released, discharged, deported, etc 827 

Prisoners, number of, actually on hand July 31, 1900 14 


Memoranduui of garrison prisoners at Bilibid military prison, received, released, etc., for 

the period from July 1, 1899, to Jidy 31, 1900. 

July , 


October . . . 

March ... 









Received. ' Released. 














On hand Julv 1, 1899 49 

Received July 1, 1899, to July 31, 1900 356 

Released July 1, 1899, to July 31. 1900 331 

On hand July 31, 1900 74 


Hix^ijs. Department of Northern Luzon, 

Manila, 1\ /., Aug-mt 10, 1900. 

Division of the PlvUlpjnne^^ Manila, P, 1, 

Sir: By order of the division commander I was placed in charge of 
the department of Northern Luzon April 11^ and by direction of the 
President was assigned to the commanaof the department May 4, 1900. 

At that time the department comprised all that part of the island of 
Luzon and adjacent islands lyin^ north of the provinces of Manila, 
Morong, and Infanta. • 

The troops under the orders of the department conunander consisted 
of 43 battalions of infantry, 12 troops of cavalrv, 1 battery of artillerj% 
1 company of engineers, 6 companies of Macabebe scouts, and 250 native 
scouts; the w^hoTe force, numlKM'ing about 25,000 men, occupying more 
than 150 stations. All were engaged in pursuing the scattered bands 
of the broken insurgent army, openmg roads, and accumulating the sup- 
plies necessary for the occupation of the country during the rainy sea- 
son. The country occupied had been divided into 5 districts and the 
necessary force available assigned to each district. 

During April, in the first district, comprising the provinces of Uocos 
Norte, Ilocos Sur, Union, Abra, Lepante, Benguet, and Bontoc, Brig. 
Gen. S. B. M. Young commanding, the insurgents manifested consid- 
erable activity and endeavored to take the offensive against the scat- 
tered detachments in the district. The insurgents were in every instance 
defeated, and lost more than 500 men killed. 

In the second district, commanded by Col. Charles C. Hood, Six- 
teenth U. S. Infantry, comprising the provinces of Cagayan, Isabela, 
and Nueva Viscaya, no activity on the part of the insurgents was 

In the third district. Brig. Gen. J. F. Bell commanding (provinces 
in the district, Pangasinan, Farlac, and Zambalcs), in numerous affairs 
the insurgents and lad rone bands of outlaw\s were dispersed, and the 
command of the insurgent chief, Macabulos, scattered. 

In the fourth district, commanded by Brig. G(»n. Frederick Funston, 
provinces of Nueva Ecija and Principe, scouting and minor operations 
were continuous, and insurgent plact^s of rendezvous destroyed and 
stores captured or burned. 


Fifth district. Brig. Gen. F. D. Grant, couiprising provinces of 
Bulacan, Pampanga, and Bataan. Bands of outlaws were killed, cap- 
tured, and dispersed, and operations of the insurgent guerrillas con- 
lined to the mountains. 

May 1^, by authority of the President of the United States, all that 
part of the province of Manila north of the Pasig River, the provinces 
of Morong and Infanta, and islands lying eastward of the latter, 
excepting the Cala^uas group, were incorporated as a part of the 
department and designated as the sixth district. Col. J. M. Thompson, 
Forty-second Infantr}^ U. S. V., commanding. 

June 17, the Ninth U. S. Infantry was, by direction of the division 
commander, relieved from duty in the deparment and ordered to 
Manila and from thence to China. 

During the months of May, June, and July operations were con- 
tinued; all the more important towns or pueblos and many of the small 
towns or barrios occupied. Macabulos and Aquino, insurgent chiefs, 
surrendered with such men as yet adhered to tnem. Garcia, Padilla, 
Cavestani, Prado, and other insurrectionary chiefs and leaders were 
captured. The numerous bands of lad rones and robbers infesting the 
country were generally dispersed, many of these outlaws being killed 
or captured. The mountains of Bulacan and Nueva Ecija yet contain 
bands of guerrillas, but they are given no rest and are being per- 
sistently followed by our forces. The indications at present are that 
these bands will soon be dispersed. A number of outlaws have given 
annoyance by hiding in the network of tide- water esteros or channels 
about the northeastern shore of Manila Bay. At present the}^ are 
giving no trouble, having been driven from their customary haunts by 
persistent scouting and patrolling of the numerous waterways. 

Municipal governments have been organized in all the towns occu- 
pied by our forces, order has been maintained, and justice, so far as 
practicable, administered. The natives, other than the Tagalos, are 
generally well disposed toward the American occupation, and if pro- 
tected will aid in the establishing of such form of self-government as 
they may be able to understand. The mass of the Tagalos, when con- 
vinced that we are here to sta}^ and that the authority of the United 
States is to be maintained, will acquiesce, provided they are protected 
from the men who have dominated them as leaders of the insurrection. 

The labors of the forces in the department have not been confined 
to operations in the field alone. More than a thousand miles of wagon 
road and trails for pack trains have been built, opened, or repaired. 
The telegraph lines exceed 1,500 miles, and the business of the whole 
department requires sending 4,000 messages daily. 

Supplies for the rainy season have been accumulated at nearly all 
stutions, and the chiefs of the several staff departments have labored 
with energy and ability in the performance of the duty devolved upon 

Attention is invited to accompanying reports, which exhibit labor 

accomplished. A memorandum of 162 affairs and combats, transmitted 

with this report, shows the character of minor operations and scouts 

engaging the attention of commanding oflicca's within the department. 

\ ery respectfully, 

LoYD Wheaton, 
Major- Geneiml^ U, S. F., Commanding. 


Exhibit A. 

April 2. — Lieutenant Burr, commanding Second Brigade scouts, captured, near Dina- 
lupijan, 3 rifles and an insurgent officer. 

April 3. — Lieutenant Burr's scouts capture<l 1 rifle and killed 1 ladronenear Florida 
Blanca. No casualties. 

April 4' — Colonel Freeman reports capture of a band of 10 ladrones in Barrio 
I^guitre, near Tayug, with 7 rifles and 692 rounds of ammunition. 

Ajyril 7. — Colonel Smith, with Companies A, D, I, L, and M, Seventeenth TJ. S. 
Infantry, attacked the camp of the insurgent general, Macabulos, in mountains near 
Camiling, drove them from their trenches, killed 5, captured 22 rifles, 15,000 rounds 
of ammunition. Lieutenant Morrow severely wounded in both thighs; only casualty. 

April 10. — Lieutenant O'Connell, with 15 Macabebe scouts and 13 mounted men 
of Company K, Ninth Infantry, under Lieutenant Lang, w^hile scouting in mountains 
near Dolores and Mabalacat, ('aptured 10 rifles and 298 rounds of ammunition. 

April 11. — Asingan, garrisoned by Company F, Thirteenth Infantry, was attacked 
on all sides at 10 p. m. After one nour's fighting insurgents retired, suffering a loss 
of several killed and wounded. No casualties. 

Armi 12. — Captain Collins captured, near Porac, 1 Filipino officer in possession of 
2 rines and 1 revolver. 

April 14' — Lieutenant Wright, commanding a detachment of 25 men of the Twelfth 
Infantry, struck a band of insurgents near San Augustine, routed them, killed their 
commander and 3 others, and captured 1 horse. No casualties. 

April 15. — Captain Cunningham, with a detachment of Thirty-third Infantry, struck 
a body of insurgents near Narbacan; killed 5, captured 1 gim. No casualties. 

April 16. — Lieu tenant Thomason, with a detacnmeut of 54 men of the Forty-eiehth 
Infantry, when scouting near Bangued, met a body^of insurgents near Ondong; killed 
6, captured 8 rifles and several rounds of ammunition. No casualties. 

Captain French, with a detachment of the Thirty-third Infantry, struck a body of 
insurgents, numbering about 100, in mountains north of Vintar; killed 23 and 
wounded many. No (•a.**ualties. 

Captain Reeder, with a detachment of the Forty-first Infantry, captured, at barrio 
Pangpan, near Angeles, 2 insurgents, 3 rifles, and 70 rounds of ammunition. No 

April 17. — Major Henry, in command of one companv of Macabebe scouts, under 
Lieutenants Williams and Hasson, and a detachment of 30 men. Company D, Thirty- 
second Infantry, struck a band of insurgents near Capat; scattered them, found 2 
dead and evidence of many wounded, our casualties lx?ing Lieutenant Hasson shot 
through left thigh and 1 Macabebe kille<l. 

The town of Laoag, bein^ garrisoned by Companies F, G, and H, Thirty-fourth 
Infantry, in command of Lieutenant-Colonel Howze, was entered by 200 insurgents, 
armed with 20 rifles; rest with bolos and clubs. Enemv suffere<l 44 dead, 16 wounded, 
and 70 made prisoners; captured 4 rifles. No casualties. 

Lieutenant Duncan, commanding 8 men. Thirty-fourth Infantry, met 300 insur- 
gents with 70 rifles in mountains near Ijaoag, killed 29 and captured 22. Enemy, on 
discovering our force, came back on them. Lieutenant Duncan retreated toward 
Batac, where (^aptain Rollis prepared for them. Insurgents, now numbering 600, 
made a <letermined attack, but wore repulsed, suffering a loss of 180 killed and 72 
prisoners. Our casualties, Sergt. F. Johnson and Private Hardus Hinstead, Company 
Ct, killed, and 3 privates wounded. 

AiyrU 18. — Lieutenant Admire, in command of the fourth district headquarters 
scouts, stnick a body of insurgents, commanded by Aquino, in the moimtains of 
Bulacan; scattered them; captured 8, 1 rifle, 1 revolver, and 8 ponies. 

Lieutenant Williams, with a company of Macalx^be scouts, and Lieutenant Mowry, 
in command of a detachment of Company B, Thirty-seconcl Infantry, struck a boay 
of insurgents near Limay; killed 4 and ca])tured 3 rifles. No casualties. 

Captain Do<ld, in command of a detachment of the Third Cavalry, met a body of 
180 insurgents, with 70 rifles, near Cullebeng. After one hour's fighting, killed 53 
and wounded 4, captureil 44 prisoners and a nui**l)er of bolos, a few rounds of ammu- 
nition, 10 horses with saddles and bridles; burne<i a large ('uartel and a large quan- 
tity of provisions. One man slightly wounded. 

April 19. — Lieutenant Thayer, with a detachment of Troop A, Third Cavalry , struck 
a body of 25 insurgents near Batac; routed them; killeHl4, wounded several, cap- 
ture! and destroyed 3 rifles. Private Charles A. Harris shot in the hea<l and killea. 

Captain Koehler, wnth a detachment of 40 men of Troop G, Fourth Cavalry, stnick 
an insui^ent camp at head waters of the Rio Peilaranda; killed 3 and captured 4, 7 


guns, 285 rounds of ammunition, and destroyed barnu'ks containing? a lot of clothing, 
camp equipage, and rice. 

Lieutenant-Colonel Walsh, in command of Companies F and M, Thirty-fifth 
Infantry, and Troop H, Fourth Cavalry, left Pulilan at the same time Major Geary, 
with Companies B and D, Thirty-fifth Infantry, left San Isidro, and Major Laws, with 
Company K, Thirty-fifth Infantry, and Troop F, Fourth Cavalry, left San Roque — 
each command accompanied by a detachment of Macabebe scouts — to scour the Can- 
daba 8wami)a. Each command moved at 11 p. m. Expedition cleared this country 
of all insurgents and ladrones and captured 23 rifles and 1 shotgun. 

Ajrril 23. — Near barrio Monat, 5 miles west of Aliaga, (ieneral Funston, in command 
of brigade scouts, met 12 armed men; ran them down and killed 8; captured 8 rifles, 
1 revolver, and 270 rounds of ammunition. No casualties. 

Lieutenant Caldwell, in command of 25 men of Company F, Forty-eighth Infantry, 
had a brush with 30 insurgents near Castra; killed 2, wounded several. No casualties. 

April 24. — Captain Ickis and Lieutenant Craig, with detachment Thirty-sixth Infan- 
try, captured 3 insureent ofticers and 2 rifles near Alaminos. No casualties. 

April 25. — GeneralFunston, in command of 18 men of the fourth district headquar- 
ters scouts, met 12 armed insurgents 5 miles west of Aliaga; killed 4, captured 13 rifles 
and 1 revolver. 

Captain Buck and 30 men Company L, Forty-eighth Infantry, captured the promi- 
nent insurgent, Ambrosio Patemo, at barrio Antomac, southwest of Trinidad. No 

Lieutenant McClelland, with a detachment of 22 men of the Thirty-third Infantry, 
struck an outpost of 3 insurgents near Candor; kille<l them and captured 3 rifles. 
Private Handy, of Company G, slightly wounded in hand. 

Captain Doad, with a detachment of Third Cavalry, struck about 300 insurgents 
armed with rifles, bolos, and spears near Batac. Engagement lasted one hour and 
fifteen minutes. Enemy had 1 20 killed, 5 captured, and 5 rifles, many bolos, 12 horses, 
and several rounds of ammunition; burned a large quantity of clothing. Sergeant 
Cook slightly cut by spear; only casualty. 

Major Rice, in command of a detachment of the Forty-ninth Infantry, en route to 
Suya, captured an insurgent pack train w^ith 16 carriers, $120 Mexican, quantity of 
rice, tobacco, and salt. No casualties. 

April 27. — Lieutenants Williams and Densmore, each in command of a company 
of Macabebe scouts, with a detachment of 30 men of Companies B and C, Thirty- 
second Infantry, under Lieutenant Wade, surprised an outpost of insurgents near 
Mount Samal; Jtilled 10, captured 3 prisoners, 34 rifles, and 1,500 pounds 01 rice. No 

Captain Prescott, commanding a detachment of 30 men of the Thirty-fifth Infantry, 
accompanied by Lieutenant Hughes and four Macabebe scouts, struck a band of 
insurgents near Angat; captured 20 prisoners, 37 rifles, and some tools. No casualties. 

General Funston, 8 miles north of Bongabon, captured a large insurgent store- 
liouse in the mountains, containing the following: 1,400 rounds of fixed ammunition 
for Hotchkiss 2- pounders, 500 pounds of black powder, 4,000 rounds of small-arm 
ammunition, 12 cases of petroleum, small quantity of saltpeter, 1,000 yards of cloth 
in bolt, some tents, dynamite bombs, large quantity of stationery and blanks, and 
1,000,000 stamps. Destroyed 4 tons of stuff could not carry. 

Captain Frye and Lieutenant Davidson, with 4 men Thirty-sixth Infantry, chased 
a body of 8 mounted insurgents near Balincaguing; killed 1, captured 1 gun and 4 
ponies. No casualties. 

April 28. — Captain Hodges, with a detachment of Twenty-second Infantry, in bar- 
rio San Vicente, Bataasan, and Santa Cruz, near Arayat, killed 1 and captured 10 
insurgents, 25 rifles, 4 revolvers, 3 bolos, 591 rounds 01 ammunition. No casualties. 

Aitril SO. — Pack train attacked in mountains, near Salcedo, in charge of Corporal 
Wilour, Company G, Thirty-third Infantry. Enemy driven off, leaving 6 killed and 
many w^ounded. No casualties. 

Two mounted couriers, Privates Thomas Keenan and Jerome P. Goodwin, Troop 
F, Fourth Cavalry, were attacked by about 36 insurgents near Manaoag in a running 
fight of 3 miles; 2 insurgents killed. No casualties. 

May 1. — Lieutenant Way, in command of 20 native scouts, struck a band of insur- 
gents in the barrio of Cabaritan, near Santa Maria, Ilocos Sur; killed 2, wounded 3, 
captured 4, 26 rifles, 14 ponies, and 1,200 rounds of ammunition. No casualties. 

May 3. — Lieutenant \icClelland, with a detachment of 30 men of the Thirty-third 
Infantry, while searching Guling, a mountain town, was attacked by Captain Abaya 
and 6 mounted men. Captain Abaya and 2 others were killed and 2 wounded, ^o 


CoininaiKling officer Thirty-fifth Infantry, at San Miguel, report«- capture < it 4 
rifie*s and 1 revolver. No easuahies. 

}f<iy ,5. — Corporal Roston, with 8 men Company K, Twenty-fourth Infantry, were 
attacked by a twand of 20 insurgents near Humiiigan, but routed them, capture<i 1 
rifle, 100 rounds of annuunition, and some vahial)le papers, a lieutenant ana 6 men. 
Private Newton slightly wounded. 

Lieutenant Case, with 20 mountec^l men of the Thirty-third Infantry, etruck an 
insurgent camp near Tagudin; surprised them, killed iO, captured 2 prisoners, 13 
rifles, 3 revolvers, 1,000 rounds of ammunition, 14i)onies, and burned their barracks. 
No casualties. • 

}f(n/ 6. — Si»rgeant O'Xeil, Thirteenth Infantry, commanding 3 squads, attacked a 
band of insurgents at barrio San Luciano; routed them. Private Quinn, Company 
H, killed. 

Lieutenant Chappelear, Thirty-fifth Infantry, reports (»pture of 19 rifles near San 
Ildefonso. No casualties. 

Lieutenant O'Connell, with 1 comj^any Macal)ebe scouts and 40 men. Company F, 
Thirteenth Infantry, assisted bv 3 native iK)lice, surprised a camp of ladrones in 
Vilasis; killed 2, captured 2, 7 rifles with 100 rounds of amnumition. No casualties. 

Candelaria, garrisoned by detach nients of Companies E, F, H, Twenty-fifth Infantry, 
in command of Lieutenant Coburn, wa.s attacked at 2.30 p. m. from all sides. Tlie 
enemy were charged and 6 of them killed, 1 wounded man captured with 1 rifle and 
1 revolver. No casualties. 

Lieutenant Thomas, with 25 scouts and a detachment of Company K, Forty-eighth 
Infantry, struck a l)ody of 600 insurgents intrenched under Gen. Vicente Prado 
in mountains near Alava. He reached the crest of the hill, was surrounded, and 
large bowlders were rolleil down on them. He fought his way out, leaving 10 of the 
enemy dead, and destroying 500 pounds of rice. Our casualties were 3 injure<i by the 

Afay 7. — Lieutenant Colonel Howze, with a detachment of the Thirty-fourth Infan- 
try, struck a ]x)dy of insurgents at Quieni, near Batac; killed 6; captured 1 rifle and 
8 ponies. One private slightly wounded. 

Lieutenant Jernigan, with a detachment of the Thirty-fourth Infantry, surprised 
an insurgent camp l)etween Li<'ap and San Juan de (Tuimba; killed 2; captureii 21 
rifles. No casualties. 

Captain Richardson, with Company B, Forty-eighth Infantry, under Lieutenant 
Smith, and a detachment of Company K, Forty-eighth Infantry, assisted by a detach- 
ment of native scouts, struck an insurgent stronghold in the* mountains near Santo 
Tomas, which w^as surroundtnl by a de*»p cailon 200 feet high on three sides. The 
enemy escaped through an unknown trail. Lieutenant Thomason destroyed 75,000 
pounds of rice, 2,000 pounds of salt, 1 bale of tobacco, burned the warehouse, 4 sets of 
barracks, 100 buildings, a large guanlhouse, and a stockade. No casualties reported. 

Mai/ 8. — Lieutenant Jernigan, Thirty-fourth Infantry, n^ports capture of 3 rifles 
near Bibiclat. No casualties. 

Captains Wild and Stayer, with 7 men. Company B, Thirteenth Infantry, and 2 
police of Pozorrubio, captured at Valzat, near Pozomibio, Vicente Prado, the com- 
nian<ler of the insurgents of the province of Pangasbian, with 16 other soldiers. No 

Serjeant Smith, with a squa<l of 12 men. Company M, Twelfth Infantr>', while 
escorting some inen*hants through the Iwirrio of Polosapio, near Cuyapa, turnetl back 
in Imrrio and captured 6 ladrones, 9 rifl(»s, and 100 rounds of ammunition. No 

May 9. — While Lieutenant Threlkeld, with 30 men of the Thirteenth Infantry, were 
searching the barrio of Tanaga, near Manaoag, 2 niounte<l la<lrones rode up, accom- 

1)anied by 2 dismounted, who made this l)arrio their headcjuarti^rs; 1 laorone was 
:illed; 2 rifles captured, 50 rounds of ammunition, and 1 i)ony with saddle. No 

Lieutenant Draper, with a detachment of 20 men of the Twenty-second Infantry, 
struck a band of insurgents near barrio Santa Barbara; killed 3, wounded 4, (^ptured 
29 rifles, 886 roim<ls of amnumition, and 1 horse. No casualties. 

May 10. — Lieutenant Miller, commanding a detachment Thirty-second Infantry, 
struck a band of insurgents near Samal; killed 3, capture<l 4, and some ammunition. 
No casualties. 

Lieutenant Coburn, Twenty-fifth Infantry, struck a IkmIv of insurgents near Hobat; 
captured 3 and 2 rifles. No casualties. 

A detac»hment of Company G, Thirty-fourth Infantry, struck a band of 75 insur- 
gents near Batac; killed 6 and 24 ponies, captured 1 rifle and (> jMjnies. One private 


}fn{/ 12. — Colonel Duval, Forty-eijrhth Infantry, reports capture of 5 insurjjents 
and .*» riflen. No casualties. 

Lieutenant Read, in conHnan<l of 30 men, Thirteenth Infantry, encountered a band 
of ladrones near San Manuel; routed them, killed 1, captured 1 pony and 2 saddles. 

Captain Hankins, Forty-eighth Infantry, struck a band of insurgents 2 miles south 
of Balaoang; killed 6, wounded 1, captured 10 rifles and 100 rounds of ammunition, 
and burned their stores. No casualties. 

May 13. — A detachment Twenty-fifth Iniantry, under Sergeant Thompson, met a 
party of ladrones near Santa Cruz; recovered 12 stolen carabaos and some ammuni- 
tion; Sergeant Thompson slightly wounded in the knee. 

Lieutenant Noble, commanding a detachment Company F, Thirteenth Infantry, 
captured 2 insurgents, 4 rifles, and 8 rounds of ammunition. No casualties. 

May 15. — Lieutenant Hixon, commanding 60 men, Thirtv-second Infantry, struck 
a body of insurgents in mountains west of Abucay; killed 9 and wounded 16. No 

Lieutenant Jemigan, Thirty-fourth Infantry, reports capture of 11 rifles and 350 
rounds of ammunition near Aliaga. No casualties. 

Captain Dame, Thirtv-fourth Infantry, met about 30 insurgents near Vintar, killed 
2, wounded 3, captured 1 rifle, 7 ponies, and their medical supplies. No casualties. 

May 16. — Lieutenant Naylor, with 25 men. Company F, Ninth Infantry, and 
mounted detachment of 27 men under Lieutenant Wallace, went to barrio Balibaa- 

SLS, near Victoria, captured 36 rifles, 1 revolver, and 5,000 rounds of ammunition, 
estroyed barracks and captured 4 prisoners. No casualties. 

if(/«/*/P.— Captain Waltz, Twelfth Infantry, reports engagement with 3 mounted 
insurgents; wounded 1 and rast escaped. No casualties. 

Major March, with a detachment of 100 men. Thirty-third Infantry, struck a band 
of ;^5 insurgents near Sagad; killed 3, captured 2, 5 rifles, and 4 ponies. The com- 
mander, who was mounted, was seen to fall from his horse and was carried into the 
jungle. The horse was captured and had an American saddle with an officer's field 
case strapped to it containmg papers of Aguinaldo since November last. No casual- 
ties reported. 

A detachment of native scouts, while guarding linemen near San Quintin, was 
attacked by 40 insurgents. They were scattered, our loss being 1 scout kille<l and 1 
American wounded. A few hours later (in the meantime our men being reinforced) 
the enemy attacked again, but were routed and left 6 dead on the field. No casualties. 

May 20. — Captain Rucker, commanding a detachment of Thirty-third Infantry, 
struck a band of insurgents under Captain Tinio near Cacab, who were en rout^ to 
meet Aguinaldo; rout^ them, killing their commander and 23 men, captured 23 
rifles and 10 horses. No casualties. 

May 22. — Lieutenant Coffey, commanding a detachment of Thirty-third Infantr\', 
struck a band of insurgents near Bangued; kille<l 4. No casualties. 

Lieutenant Smith, commanding a detachment of Thirty-sixth Infantrv, met a 
band of ladrones near Mangatarem; captured 1 and 4 rifles. Prisoner killefl later 
trying to escape. 

May 23. — Commanding ofiicer. Twelfth Infantry, reports engagement with insur- 
gents at Santa Monica; captured 5, 2 rifles, and 177 rounds of ammunition. 

Lieutenant McConnell, with a detachment of Twelfth Infantry, near Cuyapo, 
captured 12 rifles and 8 prisoners. 

May 24. — Captain Prescott, Thirty-fifth Infantry, reports having a skinnish 10 
miles east of Angat; killed 2, captured 2 and 2 rifles. No casualties. 

General Funston, with Troop G, Fourth Cavalry and district headquarters scouts, 
while s<'outing near Penaranda, struck an insurgent camp; killed 1, captured 15 
rifles and 700 rounds of ammunition. 

Lieutenant Matson, Thirty-fourth Infantry, near Bibiclet, <*aptured 15 rifles and 
455 rounds of ammunition. 

Captain Sullivan, commanding a detachment of Twenty-fourth Infantry, captured, 
near Aliaga, 12 rifles and 600 rounds of ammunition. No casualties. 

Lieutenant McGowan, Forty-eighth Infantry, engaged a body of insurgents armed 
with bolos; killed 7 and captured 16. No casualties. 

May 25. — The garrison at Abucay, commanded by Captain Brandt, Thirty-second 
Infantry, was attacked about 2 a. m. on all sides. Four insurgents were found dead 
in the neld. No casualties. 

Lieutenant Smith, with 16 men of Company I, Sixteenth Infantry, struck a body 
of insurgents 4 miles northeast of Allit, province of Cagayan; captured 3, 2 rifles, 
and 60 rounds of ammunition. No casualties. 

The barrio of San Luis, garrisoned by the Twenty-second Infantry, was attacked 


at midnight by about 50 insurgents; were routed and escaped in the thick under- 
brush, rrivate Hockman killed. 

.}f(nj J6. — Chief of Detectives Crispulo Patajo, in General Young* s commaiid, struck 
20 of Fontenillo*H band in mountains near Cxallano in the province of Benguet; killed 
10, wounded several, and captured 13 rifles. 

Lieutenant Thomason, Forty-eighth Infantry, while scouting near Tubao, struck a 
band of insurgents; killed 3, captured 2 rifles and 26 rounds of ammunition. No 

Lieutenant Gatchell, with a detachment of the Forty -eighth Infantry, found a band 
of insurgents near Santiago; killed 1, captured 1 rifle and 90 rounds of ammunition. 
No casualties. 

The garrisons of San Miguel and San Ildefonso, of the Thirty-fifth Infantry, were 
attacked at 10 \). m. After one and one-half hours of firing enemy retired. No 

May 28. — Captain Sullivan, Thirty-fourth Infantry, reports capture at Lieab of 18 
rifles and 495 rounds of amumnition. No casualties. 

May ^9. — Captain R<)l)erts, with a detachment of 7 men of the Thirty-fifth Infantry, 
while 8(^outin^ in the Penaranda road, near San Miguel de Mayumo, was surprised 
by a band of msurgents. Captain Rol)erts, Privates Mclntyre and Aikins were cap- 
tured; Sergeant Gallon, Privates McCourt and Greer were killeil, and Private Kin&rer 
wounded. Kinger was sent back to San Miguel by the insurgent commander, with 
a note to the commanding officer that the prisoners "will be treated in accordance 
with the laws of war and dictates of conscience." 

May 30. — Chief of Detectives Crispulo Patajo, of (Jeneral Young^s command, cap- 
tured Francisco Perez, chief of bolomen, near Santa Lucia, with 2 ladrones. 

A detatihment of Macabebe scouts struck a band of insurgents in barrio west of 
Paniqui; routed them and captured 5 prisoners. 1 Macabebe wounded. 

May SI. — General Funston, in command of a column consisting of Troop G, Fourth 
Cavalry, and a detachment of the Twenty-second Infantry, struck a large body of 
insurgents intrenched in the mountains northeast of San Miguel; scattered them, 
captured 4 ponies with saddles and 500 romids of ammunition. At 2.30 p. m. encoun- 
tered 100 insurgents occupying top of steep ridges. Took one position, but lack of 
ammunition forced him to retire. No casualties. 

Lieutenant Threlkeld, with Lieutenant Boniface, with four squads of the Thirteenth 
Infantry, surprised a body of 30 ladrcmes near Manaoag; killed 4, captured 19 rifles 
and 325 rounds of ammunition. One private wounded. 

Lieutenant Smith, with a detachment of the Twelfth Infantry, struck a band of 
30 insurgents near Banulgao; wounded 1, captured 4, G rifles, 300 rounds of ammu- 
nition, 4 bolos, and valuable papers. One private wounde<i. 

June 1. — Major Steever, in command of a detachment of the Third Cavalry, struck 
a body of insurgents at Mount Parayan, near Badoc, route<i them, killed. 27, our 
casualties being 1 man kilk»d and 2 wounded. 

Lieutenant Smith, commanding mounted detachment Thirty-sixth Infantry, cap- 
tured 25 rifles and a (luantity of amnumition near Mangatarem. No casualties. 

Captain Kuggles, commanding detachment Thirty-flfth Infantry, struck a body of 
200 msurgent.s in Bulacan Mountains near San Miguel, but could not drive tliem 
from their position on account of his small force. 

June 2. — lieutenant Watson, in command of a detachment of the Thirty-fourth 
Infantrj% captured, near Santo Domingo, 2 ladrones, 28 rifles without stocks, lairge 
quantity of artillery ammunition and parts of machinery for ammunition factory, 
1 rifle complete, and 2() rounds of amnumition. No casualties. 

Lieutenant Smith, with mounted detachment of Thirty-sixth Infantry^ captured, 
near Mangatarem, (> rifles and 1 shotgun. 

Lieutenants Rash and Read, with 16 men, Company H, Thirteenth Infantry, 
encountered a body of 30 insurgents in valley of Agno, near San Manuel, Pangasinan, 
scattered them, cai)tured a (juantity of clothing, 30 rounds of ammunition, some 
powder, and a cuartel. Evervthing destroyed. No casualties. 

June 3. — Serjeant Strong, Thirty-fifth Infantry, while scouting south of Bustoc, 
encountered 2 msurgents, killed 1 and wounded the other. 

(Jeneral Funston, m command of a column consisting of Troop G, Fourth Cavalrj', 
deta(!hment Twenty-second Infantry, and district headquarters scouts, attacked a 
body of insurgents hitrenched in Bulacan ^|ountains, 25 miles east of San Miguel, 
drove them from their positi(»n, and scattered them, our casualties being Capt. 
George J. Godfrey and Private Eth ridge. Twenty-second Infantry, killeti. 

June 4' — Captam Sullivan, Thirty-fourth Infantry, captured near Santo Tomas, 9 
Remingtons, 1 revolver, 7 bayonets and scabbards, 208 rounds of ammunition. 

Major Short, commanding detachment Thirty-fifth Infantry, encountered a body 


of insurgents about 4 miles northeast of Norzagaray; routed them. Four privates 

June 5. — A paymaster's escort from Twenty-fifth Infantr>% which was attacked near 
Cabangan, Zambales, by a band of ladrones, scattered them, killed 1 and wounded 3. 
No caHualities. 

Major Laws, in command of a detachment Thirty-fifth Infantry, struck an insur- 
gent stronghold in mountains near Sibul, but was forced to retreat on account of the 
position and his small number. Lieutenant Flint and 2 men wounded. 

June 7. — Captain Grinstead encountered a body of insurgents 5 miles northwest of 
Mariveles, scattered them, killed 1, and burned their barracks. No casualties. 

June 9. — Lieutenant Bolton, in command of a detachment of Seventeenth Infantry, 
struck a band of insurgents near Alcala, routed them, captured 2 officers, 12 rifles, 
and 1,080 rounds of ammunition. No casualties. 

Lieutenant Jernigan, Thirty-fourth Infantry, surprised a party of insurgents near 
Cabanatuan and killed 2. No casualties. 

June 10. — Sergeant McGhee, in charge of a detachment of the Twelfth Infantry, 
captured near San Juan de Guimba 15 rifles and 806 rounds of ammunition. 

Lieutenant McConnell, commanding detachment of Twelfth Infantry captured 2 
rifles and 1 revolver and some ammunition near Balauang. No casualties. 

June 11. — Lieutenant Johnson, in command of a detachment. Forty-first Infantry, 
ran down and captured the insurgent general, Hison, near Santa Ana, Pampanga. 
No casualties. 

A column commanded by General Grant, General Funston accompanying, and 
consisting of Troops H and G, Fourth Cavalry, detachment Battery E, First Artillery 
(2 guns), 9 companies of Twenty-second Infantry, detachment TKirty-fourth Infan- 
try, 6 companies Thirty-fifth Infantry, Company M, Forty-first Infantry, scouts of 
the fourth and fifth districts and of the Forty-first Infantry, and 1 compan v Macabebe 
scouts attacked an insurgent stronghold in Bulacan Mountains, 5 miles from Sibul. 
Carried position and scattered the enemy. One Macabebe scout wounded; 1 Ameri- 
can prisoner recovered. 

June 12. — Lieutenant Wood, commanding detachment Twelfth Infantry, captured 
near San Juan de Guimba 7 insurgents, 3 rifles, some ammunition, and recovered 5 
stolen carabaos. No casualties. 

Lieutenant Mapes, commanding detachment of Company M, 15 men. Thirty-second 
Infantrv, captured in mountainsnear Porac the following stores: One thousand pounds 
of powder, 200 cannon balls, 250 1-pound shells (Hotchkiss), 20 13-pound shells, 50 
6-inch shells, 100 pounds of dynamite, 20,000 Mauser shells and clips, 50 gallons of 
chemicals, and 1 Mauser cartridge machine, complete. 

June IS. — Lieutenant Harvey, Forty-first Infantry, captured at Magalang 5 insur- 
gents, 5 rifles, and 50 rounds of anmiunition. No casualties. 

June i-^.-^General Funston, commanding a column consisting of detachments 
Fourth District scouts, Troop G, Fourth Cavalry, under Captain Koehler, Major 
Wheeler, with 60 men. Company I, Thirty-fourth Infantry, ana Lieutenant Dietrick, 
attacked insurgents well intrenched at Bapaya, near Pefiaranda; routed and pursued 
them for 5 miles, killed 22 and captured 16. Our casualties were 1 man kill^ and 1 

Lieutenant Miller, commanding detachment of scouts. Thirty-second Infantry, 
while passing through Santo Domingo, Bataan, was attacked by a band of insurgents; 
routed them, killed 4, captured 7 and 2 rifles. Our casualties were 2 men wounded. 

June 15. — Major Steever, in command of detachment Third Cavalry, struck an 
insurgent camp in mountains north of Cabugao; routed them, burned their barracks, 
killed 4, captured 1, 200 rounds of ammunition, a quantity of clothing, and some 
valuable papers. 

Patajo, chief of detectives in flrst district, captured, near Balauang, 16 rifles and 
300 rounds of ammiition. No casualties. 

Major Wygant, commanding detachment Twenty-fourth Infantry, captured, in 
mountains near San Jo.s(f% 120 Mausers, 85 Remingtons, without breechblocks; also 
brought in 13 bull-cart loads of machinery for making powder. 

June 20. — Lieutenant Giddings, in command of mounted scouts, Third Infantry, 
captured 13 rifles and 1,000 rounds of ammunition near Porac. No casualties. 

Captain Seviter reports that a detachment of scouts. Company E, Forty-first Infan- 
try, had skirmish with a small band of insun?ents near Mexico; w^ounded 1 and cap- 
tured 60 rounds of ammunition. No casualties. 

Jm\e 22. — Commanding officer Thirty-third Infantry report'^, near Badoc, an insur- 
gent camp destroyed; killed 1, captured several, and burned cuartel. No casualties. 

Lieutenant Burr, commanding fifth district scouts, engaged a band of 40 insurgents 


near Calulut, killed 9, captured 2 wounded, 2 rifles, 2 poniee, and 530 rounds of 
ammunition. No casualties. 

June 2S. — Lieutenant Burr, in command of Fifth District headquarters scouts, 
captured in mountains west of Mabalacat an insurgent stronghold and a magazine 
containing 20 tons of ordnance stores, machinery of all kinds, chemicals for making 
explosives, 24 cases of 200 pounds each of powder. The stronghold and all the 
chemicals and explosives were destroyed. 

June '34. — A detachment Twenty-fourth Infantry, under Lieutenants Jackson, Hal- 
stead, Sweeney, and McMaster, while scouting, struck a body of insui^nts on the 
bank of Agno River near San Nicolas; scattered them and killed 6, wounded 4, cap- 
tured 5 rifles, and 3 prisoners equipped. No casualties. 

Lieutenant McManus, in command of 22 men of Company G, Thirty-fifth Infantry, 
struck a band of insurgents in barrio Kalaug, killed 5, wounded 4, captured 5 and 
7 guns. 

Juiie 35. — Lieutenants Matson and Jernigan, Thirty-fourth Infantry, commanding 
a detachment of Thirty-fourth Infantry and scouts, struck a band of about 40 
insurgents near Aliaga, killed 3, and captured 1 rifle. No casualties. 

June 26. — Benguet, garrisoned by Thirty-third Infantry, was attacked at 1.30 a. m. 
Enemy silenced in one-half hour. At 5 a. m. attack was renewed; enemy routed, 
leaving 7 dead and 10 wounded, and captured 20 prisoners. No casualties. 

June 39. — Sergeant Smythe, with a detachment of 10 men. Thirty-fifth Infantry, 
encountered a band of insurgents on the Guiguinto and Santa Rita road, killed 1 and 
wcmnded 1. No casualties. 

Major Short, in command of a detachment of Companies C and E, Thirty-fifth 
Infantry, struck a body of insurgents in mountains southeast of Norzagaray; scat- 
tered tliem, captured 1 officer and 15 rifles. No casualties. 

Julu 1. — Captain Wygant, Twenty-fourth Infantrv, captured, near San Jos^, an 
insurgent captain and 7 men, 1 machine gun, 1 revolver, and 9,000 pounds of palay. 
No casualties. 

Lieutenant Jernigan, Thirty-fourth Infantry, commanding Ilocano scouts, struck 
a band of ladrones near Talavera; killed 14 and captured 4 rifles and 222 rounds of 
ammunition. No casualties. 

July 3. — A detachment, Third Infantry, under Lieutenant Page, struck a bodv of 
ladrones near Hagonoy; killed 12 and capture<l 6 rifles. Our casualties, 3 men killed 
and 2 wounded. 

Lieutenant Herring, commanding detachment Twenty-fourth Infantry, engaged a 
band of ladrones near Humingan; killed 1 and captured 5, 8 rifles, and 200 rounds 
of ammunition. Corporal Preston, ("ompany A, mortally wounded. 

July 4' — The garrisons of Peflaran<la, (Japan, and Manicling were attacked simul- 
taneously. Insurgents driven off, our casualties l)eing 1 man killed and Lieutenant 
Mitchell and 1 man wounded at Manicling; 1 man wounded at Gapan. 

Lieutenant Rees, in command of detachment Third Infantry, was fired on by band 
of insurgents near Paombong; pursued enemy, kille<i 1, wounded others, captured 
1 rifle and 200 rounds of ammunition. Our casualties, 1 man killed and 2 wounded. 

July 5. — Captain Green, commanding detachment native scouts, struck a band of 
insurgents near Buguey, killed 1 and captured 1 rifle. No casualties. 

July 7. — Lieutenant Otis, commanding a company of Macabebe scouts, while 
scoutmg on river near Paombong, struck a body of insurgents; routed them, killed 
5. No casualties. 

Juhf 8. — Captain Aldrich, commanding a detachment Thirty-fifth Infantry, smr- 
priseci a band of 6 ladrones near Candaba swamp; captured 1 rifle and 6 stolen cara- 
baos. No casualties. 

Captain McRae, commanding detachment Company ¥j. Third Infantry, struck a 
band of ladrones at barrio IJbiajn; captureil 3, 4 rifles, and 195 rounds oi ammuni- 
tion. No casualties. 

Cabanatuan, garrisoned by Thirtv-fourth Infantry, was attacked at 10 p. m. by a 
large force of insurgents, who retire(i after one-half hour's fighting. Private Harrison 

Thirty-third Infantr>' wagon train attacked near Magsingal by about 50 insurgents. 
Enemy driven off, leaving 4 killed. No casualties. 

Captain Fowier, commanding a detachment of 9 men. Company F, Thirty-third 
Infantry, was attacked between Masin^l and Lapo by 100 insurgents. £nemy 
driven off, leaving 6 killed. Our ca.sualties, 1 killed and 1 wounded. 

July 10. — Major Stecver, in command of a detachment Third Cavalry, struck a body 
of insurgents in mountains near Badoc; pursued them for two days fcut lost them in 
the jungle. No casualties. 

Lieutenant Smith, (commanding <letachment 30 men. Company I, Forty-eighth 


Infantry, struck a band of insurgents near Balengoag (Trinidad), killed 2, captured 
11, 13 rifles, and 150 rounds of ammunition. No casualties. 

July 14. — Lieutenant Clopton, commanding 50 men, Thirty-second Infantry, 
attacked a cuartel in mountains near Liana Hemiosa, routed them. Our casualtieis, 
2 men slightly wounded. 

July 15. — Cabangan, garrisoned by Twenty-fifth Infantry, was attacked at 4 a. m. 
Insurgents retired after one hour's engagement, leaving 1 dead. Our casualties, 2 
killed and 1 wounded. Six native residents killed and 4 wounded. 

.////// 16. — General Funston, commanding a column consisting of 2 companies 
Thirty-fourth Infantry, 2 companies Twenty-second Infantry, and 3 companies 
Twenty-fourth Infantry, Troop G, Fourth Cavalry, detachment of district headquar- 
ters scouts and squadron Philippine cavalry, attacked an insurgent stronghold near 
Mount Corona. Enemy fled in jungle. Barracks and all property destroyed. Two 
Macabebe scouts slightly wounded. 

Lieutenant Fiske, Thirty-fifth Infantry, reports capture of 5 insurgents, 4 rifles, and 
60 rounds of ammunition. No casualties. 

July 17. — Captain Green, commanding detachment of native scouts, captured 3 
lieutenants ana 18 bolomen at Nueva Cobeta, near Santa Maria. No casualties. 

July 20. — Major Short, in command of a detachment. Thirty-fifth Infantry, 
engaged a band of insurgents near Norzagarav; killed 2, captured 1 officer, who led 
him to a stronghold of about 40 insurgents, fenemy were routed, leaving 2 dead and 

2 rifles. Barracks and supplies burned. No casualties. 

July 21. — A detachment of 17 men of Company G, Twelfth Infantry, escorting a 
supply train accompanied by a newspaper reporter, Ingram, was ambushed between 
Currimao and Badoc by about 40 insurgents. Signal ^rgeant Billman and Ingram 
were killed and 4 wounded. Everything lost. 

July 22. — Major Wheeler, of the Thirty-fourth Infantry, commanding a column 
consisting of Companies A, C, and I, Thirty-fourth Infantry, and Company F, 
Twenty-second Infantry, engaged about 50 insurgents near Mount Corona; drove 
them from their position. Private Wright, Thirty-fourth Infantry, wounded. 
Major Wheeler followed the enemy, who took a position on a very high and steep 
semicircular ridge, very strongly intrenched. Enemy now numbered 300. The 
position was charged over a slope of 300 yards, at an angle of 45 degrees. Routed 
them, killed 50. Our casualties, Captain Gibson wounded and private Fryburger 
killed, and 5 enlisted men wounded. 

July 23. — A detachment of Thirty-fourth Infantry was ambushed near Aliaga by 
about 70 ladrones. Detachment made a running fight for about a mile and a halt, 
when relief came up and enemy were scattered, suffering a loss of 9 killed. Private 
Stratton wounded in hand only casualty. 

July 24' — Lieutenant Jernigan, Thirty-fourth Infantry, commanding Ilocano scouts, 
accompanied by 15 soldiers, struck a band of insurgents near Talipapa; killed 1 and 
captured 1 rifle. At 9.30 p. m. struck same band, chased them until 11 p. m., killed 
10, and captured 5 rifles. No casualties. 

July ;^5.— Lieutenants Dalton and Leonard, Twenty-second Infantry, while scout- 
ing west of Jaen, captured 1 insurgent oflicer, 3 rifles, 7 stolen carabaos, and some 
ammunition. No casualties. 

July 28. — Lieutenants Leonard and Dalton, Twenty-second Infantry, captured, 
near Cabiao, 6 ladrones, 2 rifles, 1 revolver, and a quantity of ammunition. No 

July 29. — Lieutenant Arnold, commanding a detachment Thirty-fifth Infantry, 
surprised a band of insui^ents 27 miles northeast of San Miguel; killed 1, captured 

3 rifles, 6 bolos, 63 rounds of ammunition, and 2 ponies, and destroyed their bar- 
racks. No casualties reported. 

Sergeant Howe, commanding a detachment of Company D, Seventeenth Infantry, 
surprised a t«nd of insurgents near barrio Mobolitie, Zambales; captured 2, 5 rifles, 
and 35 rounds of ammunition. No casualties. 

General Funston reports engagement with insurgent General Tecson at Mount 
Corona. Routed them, killed many. No casualties. 

July 31. — Lieutenant Bujac, commanding detachment Thirty-third Infantry, struck 
a body of insurgents in mountains near Bugay; scattered them. No casualties. 

A detachment of 7 men, Twenty-fourth Infantry, were ambushed at 10.30 a. m., 
near Talevera, by 20 insurgents. One man returned; others captured or killed. 


(o.moltieSj Department Northern Luzon, 

































Total . . 








Report for the months of April, May, June, and July, 1900, of killed, wounded, 
and captured in the department: 

Killed ... 

Americans. Insurgents. 




Following captures made of small arms and annnnnition: 

Rifles 1,666 







Cannons . . 

Rounds small-arms ammunition 

Following surrenders received: 

Men 685 

Rifles 1,746 

Revolvers 53 

Bolos 4 

Cannons 5 

Rounds small-arms ammunition 21, 154 

Total captures and surrenders: 

Men 1,192 

Rifles 3,412 

Revolvers 113 

Bolos 197 

Cannons 15 

Rounds of ammunition 69, 805 

Shells and cannon balls 520 

Pounds of gunpowder 6, 800 


Major-General^ U. S. V.j Commanding, 


Hdqrs. Department of Southern Luzon, 

Manila^ P, /., Aicffitst 15^ 1900, 

Division of the Philippines,^ Manila^ P. /. 

Sir: I have the honor to submit the following report of events and 
conditions in the Department of Southern Luzon from the date of the 
creation of the department to July 31, 1900: 

In obedience to instructions from the War Department, the Depart- 
ment of Southern Luzon was created by virtue of General Orders, No. 
1, Headquarters Division of the Philippines, April 7, 1900. It 
embraced that portion of the island of Luzon "" lying southward of the 
northern lines of Manila Bay and entrance waters and its provinces of 
Manila, Morong, and Infanta, and all Philippine Islands situated to 
the south of those lines and north of a line passing southeasterly 
through the center of the west pass of Apo to tne twelfth parallel of 
latitude, thence east on said parallel to meridian 124^ 10^ east of Green- 
wich, thence in a northeily direction through the Straits of San Ber- 
nardino along the southern line of the channel of those straits." It 
also embraced the entire island of Mashate. 

This department was divided into four districts, the first of which 
embmced the provinces of Infanta, Morong, Cavite, and Manila, the 
city of Manila excepted. This district was placed under the command 
of Brig. Gen. Robert H. Hall, U. S. Volunteers, whose headquarters 
were established at El Deposito. The Second district embraced the 

firovinces of Batangas, Tayabas, and Laguna and the island of Polillo. 
t was placed under the command of Brig. Gen. Loyd Wheaton, U. S. 
Volunteers, whose headquarters were established at Calamba. The 
Third district embraced the provinces of the Camarines, Albay, and 
Sorsogon and the island of Catanduanes. It was placed under the com- 
mand of Brig. Gen. James M. Bell, U. S. Volunteers, whose head- 
quarters were established at Nueva Caceres. The Fourth district 
embraced all the islands of Mindoro, Tablas, Marinduque, Masbate, 
and islands west and north of the same to the west pass of Apo and 
the southern limit of Luzon. At the time of the organization of the 
department there were no troops in the fourth district except two 
companies of the Eighteenth U. S. Infantry, belonging to the Depart- 
ment of the Visayas. These companies were subsequently replaced, 
as mentioned later. 

At the time of the creation of the Department of Southern Luzon 
the stations of the troops therein were as follows: 

Headquarters Department of Southern Luzon, Maj. Gen. John C. 
Bates, IT. S. Volunteers, commanding, No. 83 Calle Nozaleda, Paco, 
Manila, P. I. 



Head([uarters First district. Brig. Gen. Robert H. Hall, V. S. Vol- 
unteers, connnanding. El Deposito, Manila, P. 1. 

Fourth U. S. Infantry, hcaai[uarters and Companies Aand C, Baooor; 
Companies B and 1), Imus; Companies F, G, and H, San Francisco de 
Malahon; Company E, Kosario; Companies I, K, and L, Noveleta; 
Compan}^ M, Cavite Vic^jo. 

Twentv-lirst U. S. Infantry, headquarters and Company L, Pasay; 
Companies K, B, I, G, H, E, and F, from Pasay, via Culiculi, Haystack 
Knoll, CemeUa-y Itidge, San Pedro Macati, to Guadalupe Ridge; Com- 
panies A and C, Muntinlupa; Companies D and M, Cuartel Malate, 
Manila; Gatling guns at Cemet(»ry Itidge, Haystack Knoll, and near 

Twenty-seventh Infantry, U. S. Volunteers, headquaiters and Com- 

fanies A, C, and D, San Mateo; Company B, Maraquina; Companies 
, K, L, and M, Montalban; Companies fc, G, and H, Camp Stotsen- 
burg; Company F, pumping station. 

Twenty-ninth Infantry, U. S. Volunteers, headquarters and Com- 
pany D, Exposition Barracks, Manila: Company F, Corre^idor; 
Companies A, B, ( -, K, M, and E, from blockhouse Is'o. 5, via La Lonia 
and Caloocan, to Malabon; Companies G, H, I, and L, out of district, 
under orders to return to Manila. 

Forty-second Infantry, V, S. Volunteers, headiiuart-ers and Com- 
panies C, D, and K, Pasig; Company A, Antipolo; Company B, Tav- 
tay; Company M, Taguig; Companies I and II, Morong; Company (j, 
Tanay; Companies E and L, Paete; Company F, Sinaloan. 

Forty-sixth Infantry, U. S. Volunteers, head([uarters and Thiixl Bat- 
talion, Silan; Companies A, B, and D, Binan; Company C, Santa Rosa; 
Second Battalion, Tndang. 

Eleventh Cavalrv, V, S. Volunteers, Naic. 

Forty-ninth Infantry, V, S. Volunteers, First Battalion, headquarters 
and Company D, Paranacjuc^; Companies B and G, Zapote Bridge; 
Company E, Las Piilas. 

Headquarters Second district. Brig. Gen. Loyd Wheaton, U. S. Vol- 
unteers, conmianding, Calamba. Laguna, P. I. 

Twenty-eighth Infantry, l^. S. Volunteers, headquartere and Third 


A and E, Tayabas; Companies B and C, Lucena; Company D, Lagui- 
manoc; Companies (t and H, Lucban; Companv F, Sariaya; Compa- 
nies I and K, Atimonan; Companies L and M, 'fiaon. 

Thirty-seventh Infantry, V, S. Volunteers, headquarters and Com- 
panies F, L, and M, Santa Cruz; Companies A and B, Majayjaj'; 
tympanies C and D, Mauban: Companies E, H, and I. Pagsajan; 
Company K, Magdalena. 

Thirty -eighth Infantry, V , S. Volunteers, headquarters and First 
Battalion, Batangas; Second Battalion, Lipa; Companies K, L, and M, 
San Jose; Company T, Bauang. 

Thirty-ninth Infantry, T. S. Volunteers, head(|uarters and Compa- 
nies L and M, Santo Tomas; Companies 1 and K, Tanauan: First Kit- 
tjilion, San Pablo; Companies E and H, Calamba; Companies F and 
G, Los Banos. 

Headquarters Third district. Brig. (Jen. James ^I. 1^41, U.S. Vol- 
unteers commanding, Nueva Caceres. Camariues, 1\ 1. 


Forty-fifth Infantry, U. S. Volunteers, headquarters and Companies 
A, C, D, I, K, and M, in the field near Sorsogon; Companies B, E, 
and F, Nueva Caceres (one-half of company at Butunga Ferry); Com- 
panies G and H, Pasacao; Company L, Calabangan. 

Forty-seventh Infantry, U. S. Volunteers, headquarters and Com- 
panies Hand I, Legaspi; Companies A and D, Donsol; Company B, 
Bulan; Company C, Virac; Companies E and G, Tabaco; Company F, 
Daraga; Companies K and M, Sorsogon; Company L, Gubat. 

Light Battery G, Third U. S. Artillery, Donsol, Legaspi, and 

Company G, Thirty-seventh Infantry, U. S. Volunteei*s (mountain 
battery), Nueva Caceres. 


Fourth U. S. Cavalry, Lieut. Col. E. M. Hayes commanding, head- 
quarters and Troops A, B, D, and E, Pasay Cavalry Bari-acks, Manila, 
P. I.; Troops C and I, San Felipe Neri, Manila, P. I. 


Headquai*ters, Capt. Sidney W. Taylor, Fourth U. S. Artillery, 
commanding, Exposition Barmcks, Manila, P. I. 

Light Battery F, Fourth U. S. Artillery, Exposition Barracks, 
Manna, P. I. 

Light Battery F, Fifth II. S. Artillery, Exposition Barracks, 
Manila, P. I. 

Light Battery D, Sixth U. S. Artillery, Nipa Barracks, Paco, Manila, 
P. L; detachments at San Mateo, Montalban, La Loma, Camp Stot- 
senburg, and with Gatling guns at Caloocan, Sunken Road, blockhouse 
No. 7, and El Deposito, Manila, P. I. 


Company B, Battalion of Engineers, U. S. Armv, Malate, Manila, 
P. L 

The limits of the department were modified by General Orders, No. 
19, headquarters Division of the Philippines, IVlay 12, 1900, by trans- 
ferring all that part of the province of Manila north of the Pasig River, 
the provinces of Morong and Infanta, and all islands lying eastward 
of the latter province, except the Calaguas group, to the Department 
of Northern Luzon. 

This change in the boundaries of the department ti*ansferred from 
my command Light Battery D, Sixth U. S. Artillery, and the Twenty- 
seventh and Forty-second regiments of infantry, U. S. Volunteei's, 
except Company M of the lat^r regiment, which remained at Taguig. 
Troops D and E, Fourth U. S. Cavalry, were retained in the Depart- 
ment of Southern Luzon, their stations being changed from San Felipe 
Neri to Pasay cavaliy barracks. 

The bounaaries of the department were further changed June 21, 
1900, by General Orders, No. 34, headquarters Division of the Philip- 
pines, by changing the island of Samar from the Department of the 
V isayas to the Department of Southern Luzon. 

WAR 1900 — VOL 1, 1*T V 14 


On the transfer of General Wheaton to the Department of Northern 
Luzon, Col. William E. Birkhimer, Twenty-eighth Infantiy, U. S. 
Volunteers, l>ecame the commanding officer ot the second district, 
April 17, 1900. 

Brig. Gen. Luther R. Hare, U. S. V., having been assigned to this 
department, was placed in command of the first district, General Hall 
having relieved Colonel Birkhimer, in command of the second district, 
June 26, 1900. 

General Hare assumed command of his district June 28, 1900, with 
headquarters at Cavite, to which point the headquarters of the first 
district had been moved on the designation of the Pasig River as the 
northern boundary of the department. 

With the exception of these changes, the boundaries of the depart- 
ment and of the districts into which it was divided have remained as 
they were originally defined. 

Ool. E. E. Hardin, Twenty-ninth Infantry, U. S. Volunteers, with 
the First battalion (Case's) of his regiment, embarked on the transport 
Indiana at Manila April 20, with orders to proceed to the islands of 
Marinduque, Tikao, and Masbate, placing one company on the island 
first named and the remainder of tne battalion on tne island of Mas- 
l)ate, unless, in his judgment, it should be necessary to place a detach- 
ment on the island of Tikao. 

At 7 o'clock on the morning of April 25 the IndUiiia^ in company 
with the naval gunboats Helena and VUlalnhon^ arrived off the island 
of Marinduque near the town of Boac. Two companies, B and C, were 
landed without op{X)sition, the insurgents having retreated toward 
Boac, about 3 miles inland. Continuing to Boac, Colonel Hardin took 
possession of the town, the insurgents and most of the inhabitants 
having fled to the mountains. Leaving the two companies in the town 
of Boac, Company D was s(»nt overland to Gasan April 26, but finding 
no insurgents they were brought back on the V!lIal(fl>os, The Indiana 
having finished unloading. Companies B and C, under command of 
Major Case, were sent overland to Santa Cruz, to which i^oint the 
Indiana and the Helena moved by the southern end of the island* and 
the Vlllalobos by the northern. 

The governor (insurgent) of the island informed Colonel Hardin on 
April 29 that all the presidentes had been notified and had had a meet- 
ing to consider Colonel Hardin's request for a conference. All those 
who had been present at the meeting agreed to accept American sov- 
ereignty, but said they were unable to surrender their arms. 

Leaving Company A on the island of Marinduque, Colonel Hardin 
started for Palanoc, island of Masbate, where he arrived on the 2d of 
May. The town was completely in the possession of insurgent soldiers 
and entirely desertt^d by the peaceal)le innabitants. Boats were immedi- 
ately lowered and two companies, C and 1), landed at a point to the 
left of the town. As soon as the boats came near the shore the enemy 
moved rapidly toward the landing, and it was discovered they were in 
occupation of a strong stone foundation which was on the point and 
appeared to be a fort; many of the enemy also hurriedly occupied 
trenches. The Helena opened fire, troops were quickly landed under 
some fire from the enemy, and the insurgents chased from their posi- 
tions for a mile or more beyond the town. No casualties were sustained 
by our troops; I Filipino was found dead on the field. 

The Indiana left on May 5 for other ports. 


On the 6th of May, Vincente Trevinio, governor of the island, sent 
his representatives to treat with Colonel Hardin. Articles of capitu- 
lation were diTiwn up, the enemy asking for fifteen days in which to 
get all the presidentes of the islands of Masbate, Tikao, and Burias 
together, which was granted. 

On the 8th of May, Colonel Hardin took the insurgent Major Serrano 
and two of his officers on board the launch Baltimore and carried them 
to the more distant towns on Masbate, Tikao, and Burias and brought 
back the presidentes of those towns, landing them at Mobo. 

Word was received from Major Serrano, May 18, that he would 
bring his forces in on the 21st and surrender. 

Tne Baltimore was sent on the 19th of May to Mobo and brought to 
Palanoc a number of presidentes who had been attending a meetmg at 
that place. After a satisfactory conference with them, Colonel Har- 
din reappointed them until elections could be held. 

On the afternoon of May 20, Major Serrano brought in and surren- 
dered his forces, consisting of 196 privates, 10 officers, 4 civil officers, 
not including presidentes, and Governor Trevinio. As arms they sur- 
rendered 41 Kemington, 38 Mauser, and 15 Amberg rifles, together 
with a considerable quantity of ammunition, the rifles being in good 
condition and the ammunition serviceable. The prisoners were 
paroled and given two days' rations of rice, as they were in the town as 
prisoners of war and had no means of subsistence. 

May 22, Colonel Hardin left Palanoc on the Baltimore accompanied 
by his regimental staff and proceeded to Boac, island of Marinauque, 
where he arrived the next morning. After making dispositions for the 
occupation of the island as far as possible with the one company left 
there, he returned to Manila, arriving May 24. 

In the occupation of these islands, which was effected successfully and 
without loss, Commander E. K. Moore, U. S. N., commanding the 
Helena^ contributed largely to the success of our forces by his cordial, 
efficient cooperation with Colonel Hardin. 

In compliance with Special Orders, No. 37, headquarters Department 
of Southern Luzon, dated May 17, 1900, Maj. E. M. Johnson and Com- 
panies I and L, Twenty-ninth Infantry, U. S. Volunteer, left Manila, 
May 25, on the transport T^w«, for the island of Romblon, taking 
with them three months' supplies as well as additional stores for the 
First battalion (Case's), on the island of Masbate. Major Johnson's 
command arrived at Romblon May 26 and relieved the two companies. 
Eighteenth U. S. Infantry, then stationed there, and which proceeded 
to stations in the Department of the Visayas. 

On June 8, Company E, Twenty-ninth Infantry, U. S. Volunteers, 
was sent from Manila to Taguig, where it took station, relieving Com- 
pany M, Forty-second Infantry, U. S. Volunteers, which proceeded to 
take station in the Department of Northern Luzon. 

June 22, Company M, Twenty -first U. S. Infantry, relieved Com- 
pany E, Twenty -ninth Infantry, tj. S. Volunteers, at Taguig, the latter 
company returning to Manila. 

As soon as the island of Samar was placed in the jurisdiction of the 
Departmentof Southern Luzon, Colonel Hardin,Twenty -ninth Infantry, 
U. S. Volunteers, was assigned to the command of the Fourth district 
of the department, with headquarters at Catbalogan, to which point 
he proceeded with his headquarters and Companies E, G, H, K, and 
M of his regiment, and Light Battery F, Fourth U. S. Artillery, 


relieving trarrisons of the P\)rty-thir(l Infantry, U. S. Volunteers, at 
Catbalogan and Laguan, Samar, about June 27. The companies of 
the Forty-third Infantry proceeded to stations in the Department of 
the Visayas. 

April 20, the first squadron ((^arson's). Troops A, E, G, and L, Elev- 
enth Cavalry, V. S. \olunteers. left Naie, marching overland to Santa 
(-ruz and Pagsajan, Laguna, at which points the squadron has since 
been stationed. 

April 20 to 28, the })attalions of the Twenty -eighth and Forty -sixth 
regiments of infantiy V, S. Vohmteers, stationed, respectively, at 
Dasmarinas and IVman, changed stations, thus placing the entire Forty- 
sixth Infantry in the first district and the Twenty-eighth Infantry in 
the second district. 

April 22, the third stjuadron (Sime's), Troops B, D, H, and K, Elev- 
enth Cavalry, V, S. Volunteers, left Naic by tmnsport for Legaspi, 
Albay. The squadron is still engaged in ai^tive operations in the prov- 
inces of Albay and Sorsogon. 

May y, the city of Cavitc* was giirrisoned by headquarters and band. 
Fourth U. S. Infantry, from Bacoor, and Companies I and K of the 
same regiment from Noveleta. 

May 13, Troop I, Fourth V. S. Cavalry, was detached for duty with 
the provost guard of this city. 

May 24, the First Battalion (Mulford's), Thirty-ninth Infantry, U. S. 
Vohinteers, was transferred to Ca]aml)a and Los Bailos, being relieved 
from its former station, San Pablo, by the Second Battalion (Lang- 
horne's) of the same regiment, which had pr(»viously occupied Caiamba 
and Los Banos. 

May 25, Troops B and C, Fourth U. S. Cavalry, Maj. J. A. Au^ir 
commanding, relieved headquarters and the second squadron (Nolairs), 
Eleventh Cavalry, T. S. Volunteers, at Naic. The latter organizations 
were then embarked and conveyed by transport to Pasacao, Camarines, 
and are still stationed in the third district. 

June 22, Companies B and C ■, Fourth V. S. Infantry, wttc stationed at 
Exposition Barracks, Manila, and San Ptnlro Macati, respectively, the 
former company maintaining detachment at Santa Ana, a suburb of 
this city. 

In obedience to (leneral Orders, No. il>, lleadcjuarters Division of the 
Philippines, July IK 11K)0, Light Batterv F (Keilly\s), Fifth U. S. Ai-til- 
lerv, was detjich(»d from the •department for the purpose of ac^compa- 
nymg an expedition to China. 

Two battjilions of the Twenty-first V. S. Infantry were detac*hed, by 
orders from Headijuarters Division of the Philippines, July 10, from 
the Department of Southern Luzon and assigned to duty in Manila 
under the command of tlu^ ])rovost-marshal-general. 

The caumaign of the ex])editionarv brigades, composed of troops of 
the First Division, Eighth Army Corps, in the provinces of Cavite, 
Batangas, and Tava])as, in Jamiary and Feln-uary, 1JU)0, had di.spei*sed 
the last organized military forces in the island of Luzon; but the war- 
fare instead of being definitely ended assumed a new phase. 

The province of Cavit(» had not only been the birthplace and home 
of the rebellion, but it had been the hotbed of brigandage for centu- 
ries under Spanish rule. Th<» towns of Imus, Dasmarinas, Silan, 
and Indang, in Cavite, only a short distance from Manila, and many 
more |)laces in BatangJis and Tayabas, had l)een pestiferous nests of 


rebels, but the Spaniards, either from iin[)otence or indifference, had 
never cleared them out. The long-existin;, habits of brigandage and 
the hopelessness of the insurgents attemping operations in large organ- 
ized forces furnished the necessary elements of guerrilla warfare and 
changed the operations of the Filipinos from those of a regular cam- 

f)aign to the forays of partisan troops and the depredations of bands of 
adrones. Ceaseless vigilance and constant scouting were now ren- 
dered necessary on the part of our troops, who found themselves 
engaged in a warfare of minor operations, calling forth all the sol- 
dierly characteristics of courage, energy, and endurance, and involv- 
ing much labor, danger, and fatigue in a trying climate, without the 
stimulus of popular recognition that is bestowed upon campaigns of 
sufficient magnitude to render them conspicuous. 

The following brief narrative of operations will show the nature 
of the work which has fallen to the lot of our soldiers. Other scouting 
opei-atious, conducted with equal energy and skill, but producing less 
tangible results, are not mentioned. 

April 14, Captain Fitzgerald, Lieutenant Pack, and 28 men. Thirtieth 
Infantry, U. b. Volunteers, were sent out from Tayabas to Mount 
Binaliao, and early next morning captured Captain Prezino of the Bina- 
liao battalion, killed Mauro (chief of fanatics), his son, and 2 insurgent 
soldiers, took 3 prisoners, 3 rifles, and some ammunition. 

April 16, the insurgents attacked the town of Bacon, province of 
Sorsogon, and were driven off, leaving 14 killed, 2 wounded, and 2 
prisoners, as well as 1 Mauser rifle, 1 revolver, and some ammunition. 
At the same time a relief party from our garrison at Sorsogon killed 1 
insurgent and captured another. 

April 17, a detachment from Donsol engaged the enemy, killing 5, 
wounding 2, and taking 3 prisoners. 

April 19, Lieutenant Stedje, with a detachment of the Forty-seventh 
Infantry, U. S. Volunteers, scouting between Bulacao, San Nicolas, and 
Barcelona, Sorsogon, killed 5 insurgents and captured 14 prisoners and 
several valuable papers. 

April 20, Capt. R. B. Huston, with Company I, Forty seventh Infan- 
try, U. S. Volunteers, from Legaspi, surprised a force of 25 insurgents 
in a trench near Camalig, Albay, Killing 6, wounding 1, and capturing 
4 other insurgents, as well as 4 rifles and a quantity of ammunition. 
Our loss was 2 enlisted men wounded. 

A detachment, scouting from Sorsogon toward Sugot, captured 4 

April 21, a detachment from Donsol killed 1 insurgent and captured 
3 others. 

April 27, Major Nolan, with a detachment of the Eleventh Cavalry, 
U. S. Volunteers, near Tres Cruces, captured an insurgent captain and 
42 rifles, mostly Mausers. 

For the month of April, the commanding officer Ihirty-seventh 
Infantry, U. S. Volunteers, reported that his command, operating in 
the province of Laguna, released 22 Spanish prisoners, killed 2 insur- 
gents, and captured 1 insurgent captain, 1 lieutenant, and 25 soldiers, 2 
rifles, and a (]^uantity of ammunition. 

May 4, Major Wise, Forty -seventh Infantry, U. S. Volunteers, with 
a detachment from that regiment, captured near Donsol the insurgent 
Maj. Francisco Hernandez, seized the official papers, etc., of Lieut. 
Col. Vincente Hernandez, and destroyed insurgent stores valued at 


about 4,000 pesos. Major Wise aftei-wards entered Bauangfuran, 
killing 2 insurgents. Three enlisted men Company D, Forty -seventh 
Infantry, U. S. Volunteers, were wounded. The scout continued on 
the following day and 3 insurgents were killed, and 1 insurg'ent, 1 
revolver, and a quantity of ammunition, spears, and poisoned arrows 

iSIa}' 6. a detachment from Donsol killed an insurgent near that 

Ma}" 9, a detachment scouting from Gubat to Barcelona, Sorsogon, 
killed a captain and 9 other insurgents, besides taking 12 prisonei's. 

A detachment of 16 men. Thirty -eighth Infantry, U. S. Volunteers, 
from Lipa, First Sergeant Macrorie, (Company H, of that regiment, in 
charge, captured 28 insurgents. 

May 11, a detachment from Donsol captured 2 insurgents and 
wounded another at Gimaagan, Albay. 

May 15, seveiTil columns, sent scouting southward from Nueva 
Caceres by General Bell, killed three insurgents, 1 of whom was a cap- 
tain, besides destroying a large number of recently constructed bar- 
racks containing a great quantity of stores. 

May 16, a detachment of the Forty -seventh Infantry, U. S. Volun- 
teers, surprised the enemy near Ligao, Albay, inflicting unknown loss, 
reported by natives as 4 tilled and many wounded, destroyed barracks 
and storehouses filled with provisions, and captured a quantity of 
ammunition. Our casualties were 2 enlisted men wounded. 

A quantity of hemp held by the chief collector of taxes for the 
insurgents, at Ligao, was seized by Major Sime, Eleventh Cavalry, 
U. S. Volunteers. 

May 19, a detachment of the Eleventh Cavalry, V. S. Volunteers, 
returned from a five days' scout between Legaspi and Ligao, Albay, 
having killed 20 insurgents, capturcMl 4 rifles, burned 2 sets of insur- 
gents' barracks, and destroyed a large (juantity of ammunition. An 
insurgent hospital was discovered, containing 4 wounded. 

May 20, a detachment of the Eleventh Cavalry, U. S. Volunteers, 
returned from a two days' scout between Nueva Caceres and Manguirin, 
South Camarines, having killed 2 insurgents and destroyed a large 
storehouse containing insurgents'* supplies. 

May 21, the insurgents attacked Libmanan, South Camarines, from 
both the north and south, with the result that they had a loss of 6 
killed, and were pursued several miles from town. Our loss was 1 
enlisted man wounded. 

A detachment of the Thirty-ninth Infantry, U. S. Volunteers, sc*out- 
ing between Tanauan and Tiaon, Batiingas, killed 1 insurgent, captured 
44 others, and destroyed insurgent barracks and a large quantity of 

A detachment of the Forty-fifth Infantry, U. S. Volunteers, returned 
from a six days' scout between Pili and Santo Nino, Camarines, having 
marched 107 miles, destroyed some insurgent barracks, killed 1 reM 
captain, wounded another insurgent, and captured 1 captain and 1 
corporal of the hostile force. 

May 22, a detachment of the Thirty -eighth Infantry, U. S. Volun- 
teers, captured Capt. Emilio de Luz and 6 other insurgents, and killed 
another; Lieutenant Bury, Thirty-eighth Infantry, received a bole 
wound in the left arm. 

A detachment of the Fortv-fif th Inf antrv, U. S. Volunteers, returned 


from a seven days' scout between Pili and San Fernando, South Cama- 
rines, having killed an insurgent captain, captured another and two 
soldiers, one of whom was wounded, and destroyed a number of insur- 
gent barracks, storehouses, blacksmith shops, etc. 

May 24, Captain Steinhauser, Forty-fifth Infantry, U. S. Volunteers, 
left Daet, North Camarines, with a detachment of 41 men, and pro- 
ceeded to Talisay for the purpose of posting proclamations issued by 
(jenoral Bell. On May 26 he left for Lobo with 20 men and reached 
there shortly before 8 a. m., driving out some insurgents who were in 
the town in intrenchments commanding both banks of the river, after 
an engagement of about half an hour. After remaining in Lobo two 
days and posting proclamations, the detachment proceeded to return 
on May 28. When about one-half mile from town, at a point where 
the road on each side was bordered by dense hemp fields, the detach- 
ment was ambushed by a force of about 40 riflemen and more than 100 
bolomen; some of the former were posted in the thick tops of trees, 
from which they poured a concealed fire. The detachment promptly 
took positions in the most available cover and returned the fire, finally 
succeeding in beating the enemy off, and returned to Lobo with the 
wounded, but left a sergeant and a corporal dead on the field and a pri- 
vate missing. Captain Steinhauser and his detachment were besieged 
in the church at Lobo for three days, when they were relieved by a 
detiichment of 55 men under First Lieut. A. Gf. Blaker, Forty-fifth 
Infantry, U. S. Volunteers, who pushed forward from Daet to their 
rescue. Our loss in this unfortunate affair was 3 killed and 6 wounded, 
among the latter Captain Steinhauser, who was shot through both legs 
and in the left arm. On this occasion Artificer Joseph A. Nolan vol- 
unteered to leave the besieged church and go in search of reinforce- 
ments. Accompanied by a native guide he passed through the lines 
of the insurgents, being in constant and imminent peril, and proceeded 
some 4 miles, when he met the column under Lieutenant Blaker. His 
action, under the circumstances, was extremely gallant, and deserves 
substantial recognition. As soon as the news of this affair reached 
General Bell, Captain Worrick, with 60 men of Company M, Forty- 
fifth Infantry, U. S. Volunteers, was sent to reinforce the garrison at 
Daet. It scouted the countiy thoroughlv in the vicinity of Daet and 
Lobo, and burned insurgent barracks ana supplies, but the insurgents 
had vanished. 

May 26, the barrio of Pauin, near Pagsajan, Laguna, the reported 
location of the headquarters of the insurgent chief Cailles, was sur- 
rounded by three detachments sent out from San Antonio, Pagsajan, 
and Cavinti, Laguna, commanded, respectively, by Majors Brown, 
Forty -second Infantry, U. S. Volunteers, Orwig, Thirty -seventh Infan- 
try, U. S. Volunteers, and Carson, Eleventh Cavalry, U. S. Volun- 
teers. After marching all night the detachments arrived within fifteen 
minutes of each other on different sides of the barrio. Fifty armed 
insurgents in the hills around the barrio were dispersed, hiding them- 
selves in the thickets and cane fields. The enemy's known loss was 
1 killed, 1 wounded, and 4 soldiers, 4 rifles, and a quantity of ammu- 
nition captured. The barrio, being manifestly an insurgent strong- 
hold, was completely destroyed by hre. On returning to his station 
Major Orwig encountered a force of the enemy in the hills and dis- 
persed them to the southward. 

May 27, Major Langhorne, with a detachment of the Thirty-ninth 

21 fi rp:r()rt of lieut. general commanding the army. 

Infantiy, U. S. Voluntoers, at Camalang, near San Pablo, killed 3 
insurgents, mortally wounded another, and captured a number of pris- 
oners, 15 rifles, 1 blunderbuss, a quantity of ammunition, equipments, 
and other stores, and destroyed an arsenal and powder factory. 

May *2i>, Maj. Vj, M. Johnson, Twenty-ninth Infantry, U. S. Volun- 
teers, with Companies I and K of that regiment and 18 men of 
the Eighteenth L. S. Infantry, left Romblon on the transport VenfiJ< 
arriving at the island of Tablas the same day, and landing detachments 
at Calabrava on the north, Badajoz on the northeast, Cabacay on the 
east, and Looc on the southeast. Moving these detachments across the 
mountains hy tniils, the force concentrated at Odiongan. On the fol- 
lowing day the column under Major Johnson encounterexl a party of 
insurgents, numbering about 25, who rapidly retreated. Major John- 
son opened fire on them at long mnge, with the result of seriously 
wounding 1 and causing the surrender of the rest of the party, con- 
sisting of 1 captain, 1 second lieutenant, and 11 privates, witli 8,0(X) 
rounds of ammunition. More captures were made later, the aggregate 
being 4 officers and 37 privates, 24 rifles, about 10,000 rounds of 
ammunition, and about 20 tons of rice. The insurgent force having 
been entirely dispersed and its officers captured. Major Johnson lert 
a detachment of 20 men of the Twenty-ninth Infantry, U. S. Volun- 
teers, under Lieutenant Pendleton, and returned with the I'emaiuder 
of his commany to Roml)lon. 

Captain Newberry, with 15 men of the Thirtieth Infantry, U. S. Vol- 
unteers, captured Maj. Antonio Maximo, 8 rifles, and (considerable 
ammunition belonging to the regiment of the insurgent colonel, Malo- 
los, near Unisan, Tayabas. 

Mav 30, the band, Fortv-sixth Infantrv, U. S. Volunteers, return- 
ing from Indan^ to Silan with a small escort, was attacked by a party 
of ladrones, estimated at 50, armed with Mausers. Three member^ 
of the band were killed; the eneni} \s loss is unknown. Major John- 
son, with a detachment of the same regiment from Indang, imme- 
diately started in pursuit. 

A detachment of the Fortv-second Infantrv, U. S. Volunteers, 
engaged al)out 200 insurgents near Sinaloan, killing 8 and wounding 
4; our losses, 1 enlisted man killed. 

May 31, a detachment of the Thirty-eighth Infantry, U. S. Volun- 
teers, scouting east of Batangas, captured Maj. Crisantx) Borruel and 
19 other insurgents. 

For the month of May conmianding oflicers of regiments, etc., 
reported the results of the openitions of their respective commands as 

Thirtieth Infantry, U. S. Volunteers, released 79 Spanish prisoners 
held by insurgents, killed 3 insurgents, captured 55 others, also 13 
rifles, and destro^-ed 700 rounds of amnuuiition. 

Thirty -seventh Infantry, U. S. Volunteers, killed 7 insurgents, cap- 
tured 15 rifles and 2 revolvers. 

Forty-sixth Infantrv, U. S. Volunteers, captured 10 suspected 
ladrones, 32 rifles, 1 revolver, 47,000 rounds of Alauser ammunition, 
300,000 empty Mauser cartridges, 333 rounds of Nordenfelt and 886 
rounds of Hotchkiss ammunition, 400 pounds of prismatic, and 260 
j)Ounds of smokeless powder. 

Eleventh Cavalry, l\ S. Volunteers (Carson's squadron), in the prov- 
ince of Laguna, killed 3 insurgents and oiptured 15, also 7 rifles, 1 
pistol, and a quantity of amnuuiition. 


June 1, the detachment of the Twenty-ninth Infantry, U. S. Vohm- 
teers, at Milagros, Masbate, received the surrender of 12 insurgents, 
who turned over 12 Mauser rifles and 310 rounds of ammunition. 

Captain Latimer and Lieutenant McCabe returned from a six days' 
scout with 50 men of the Thirtieth Infantry, U. S. Volunteers, in the 
province of Tayabas, having marched 130 miles. They brought with 
them 2 captured insurgent officers and 20 rifles. 

June 3, Captain Comiskey, Forty-sixth Infantry, U. S. Volunteers, 
with 15 men of that regiment, while scouting from Silan, encountered 
a band of ladrones, killing a lieutenant and wounding 2 of the guer- 
rillas, and capturing 2 of the gang which had ambushed the regimental 
band a short time before. 

A detachment of the Thirty-seventh Infantry, U. S. Volunteers, 
returned from a two days' scout southeast and east of Santa Cruz, 
Laguna, having killed 2 insurgents and captured 5 prisoners and 1 

June 4, Colonel Bullard and a detachment of the Thirty-ninth Infan- 
try, U. S. Volunteers, returned from a seven days' scout between 
Santo Tomas and San Juan de Bocboc, Batangas, having killed 1 
insurgent captain, wounded another insurgent, and captured an insur- 
gent lieutenant and 12 soldiers, as well as 2 rifles, 1 musket, 75 rounds 
of ammunition, and a quantity of supplies. 

June 5, Sergeant Beals and a party of the Signal Corps, working 
between Santa Cruz and Majayja}^ were attacked by a band of 40 
insurgents, whom they succeeded in driving oflF without casualty to our 

flune 6, Lieutenant Baskette, with a detachment of the Thirty- 
seventh Infantry, U. S. Volunteers, struck a party of 30 insurgents 
in the mountains near Majayjay, and killed 2 insurgents and captured 
3 rifles; our loss, 1 man wounded. 

June 8, Major Parker, with a detachment Thirty-ninth Infantry, 
U. S. Volunteers, struck a party of 30 insurgents at Talisay, on Lake 
Taal, killing 5, without sufl'ering any loss to his command. 

Sergeant Liesman, Company M, Thirty-eighth Infantry, U. S. 
Volunteers, with a detachment of 15 men, captured Captain Gregorio 
de Castro and 2 other insurgents, 2 rifles, ana some ammunition, near 
Lipa, Batangas. 

June 11, Lieutenant Miller, Twenty-ninth Infantry, U. S. Volun- 
teers, with 27 men of Company B of his regiment, after a night march, 
sui-prised a band of 21 ladrones near Manoaon, west coast of Masbate, 
kilhng 13, wounding 3, and capturing 3, only 2 of the band escaping. 
Captain Jos6 Santiago, a notorious character who was commanding 
this band, was killed. 

June 11, Second Lieut. C. M. Pendleton, Twenty-ninth Infantry, 
U. S. Volunteers, commanding at Odiongan, island of Tablas, captured 
13 rifles, 1 revolver, and 1,000 rounds of ammunition. 

June 17, a detachment of the Twenty-eighth Infantry, U. S. Volun- 
teers, attacked a band of about 100 insurgents near Balayan, Batangas, 
killing 6, wounding 12, and dispersing the remainder, whom they suc- 
ceeding in discovering the following day, killing 1 and capturing a rifle 
and 400 rounds of ammunition. 

July 15, Lieutenant White, with a detachment of the Thirty-ninth 
Infantiy,U. S. Volunteers, killed 7 insurgents and wounded 3; among 


the latter Captain Maximo or Harry, a noted bandit and insurj^ent 

June 19, a nioiinlcd detachment under Lieutenant Lowenberg, a 
detachment of Company (t. Thirty -seventh Infantry, under Captain 
Lyleof that regiment, and Parks" Troop, Eleventh Cavalry, U. S. Vol- 
unteers, struck the enemv intrenched at Manguirin, Camarines, ainneil 
with about 80 rifles. Tlie insurgents were defeated with a loss of S 
killed and 4 wounded; our loss was 1 man wounded. 

June 19 and 20, Major Nolan, with Troops F and K, JSleventh Cav- 
alry, U. S. Volunteers, operating near Manguirin, Camarincs, attacked 
a position held by 200 insurgents, part of w^hom were armed with rifles. 
The enemy was dispersed and ])ursued by Major Nolan as far as Baix)- 
bod. No casualties on our side; insurgent casualties not known. 

June 23, Major Carson, Eleventh Cavalry, U. S. Volunteers, moved 
southward with three columns, one from Majayjav, one from Magda- 
lena, and one from Pagsajan, Laguna. The Majayjay column, two 
companies under Captains Myers, Thirty-seventh Infantry, and Koss, 
Eleventh Cavalry, l\ S. Volunt<>ers, engaged a force of about 2(X) 
armed insurgents 2 miles south of Luisiana. The insurgents were in 
a strong position, but were dispers<^d after a sharp engagement, leav- 
ing 4 killed l)ehind thom. Fleeing on parallel trails toward Liidian 
and Tayahas, the insurgents were pursued toward Lucban bj' Major 
Carson, who captured J) of the rebels and discovered and burnea 3 
])arracks. There were no casualties in (^arson\s conunand. 

June 20, detachments of the P^leventh Cavalry and Thirty -seventh 
Infantry, U. S. Volunteers, commanded by Captain Scott of the latter 
regiment, scouted south of San Antonio, Laguna, and struck a force 
of the enemy, killing 4, wounding 8, and capturing 2, as well as 2 
rifles and 20 bolos. 

June 80, 5 wagons under an escort of 10 men, en route from Naic to 
Indang, were amlnishod near Palangui by a force of ladrones nuinl>er- 
ing about 150, all armed with Mauser rifles. Civilian Teamster 
Charles Long and 8 mules wore killed, and 8 nmles were stolen by the 
bandits. Parties were at once started from Naic and Indang in pur- 
suit. One of these parties, imder Lieutenant Walker, Fourth Cavalry, 
from Naic, struck a portion of the robbc^r band and killed 2, captui-ed 
2 Mausei* rifles, a ([uantity of anmumition, and 2 ponies, one of which 
was loaded with stores stolen from the wagons. 

A detachment of 25 men. Thirty-eighth Infantry, U. S. Volunteers, 
from San Jos^, Batangas, under Sergeant Liesman, Company M, of 
that regiment, returning from a scout, was attacked by a force of 
insurgents increasing from IS at tirst to more than 50 at la,st. The 
enemy was driven ott' live times, sutt'ering a known loss of 8 killed and 
wounded, 1 rifle. 1 revolver, and 18 ponies. Our loss was 1 enlisted 
man killed and 1 slightly wounded. 

July 1, a party under Cai)tiiin Hand, Forty-fifth Infantry, U. S. 
Volunteers, sent out to punish the band which had attacked Bula, 
struck the enemy near the mountains south of Nueva Caceres, killing 
12. wounding 3, and capturing 2 natives with rifles. No casualties on 
our side. 

July 2, Corpl. Thomas M. Little, Company E, Thirty-eighth Infantry, 
U. S. Volunteers, with a party of 5 men, (in route to Calamba, was 
attacked 3 miles south of Tanauan by a laige party of insurgents, 
which was driven off without casualty on our side; enemy's losa 


July 3, First Sergeant Hamilton and 8 men, Company E, Thirtieth 
Infantry, U. S. Volunteers, en route from Tiaon to Candelaria, Taya- 
bas, were attacked at Damagao bridge by about 50 insurgents. The 
sergeant's party charged across the bridge, dispersing the enemy, who 
retreated toward San Juan de Bocboc. The sergeant and 2 men were 
slightly wounded. The enemy left 1 dead behind; his other casualties 
are not known. 

July 6, Major Parker, with a detachment of the Thirty-ninth Infantry, 
U. S. Volunteers, struck a party of about 80 insurgents, one-half of 
whom were mounted, at Binadero, killing 5 and dispersing the rest. 

Captain Newberry, with a detachment of 6 men of tne Thirtieth 
Infantry, U. S. Volunteers, accompanied by Major Maximo, an insur- 

fent prisoner, as guide, attacked a party of ladrones who had murdered 
laximo's wife and children. Newberry's party killed and buried 9 
of the gang of robbers, took 13 prisoners, and recovered a portion of the 
plunder that had been stolen from Maximo. 

The town of Taal was attacked in the early morning of Juljr 6, by the 
enemy, estimated at 500 strong, 400 with rifles. Our garrison lost 6 
wounded, but drove the enemy oflf, his loss unknown. Captain Allen, 
with 1 oflScer and 43 men. Thirty-eighth Infantry, U. S. Volunteers, 
from Bauan, encountered the enemy withdrawing from Taal and 
defeated him, 21 dead insurgents being left on the field; Captain Allen's 
loss was 1 man slightly wounded. 

Lieutenant Cheatham, Eleventh Cavalry, U. S. Volunteers, with 43 
men and 2 officers of Troop C, that regiment, engaged the enemy near 
Lagonoy . The enemy numbered 80 rifles and were strongly intrenched, 
but were driven out with a loss of 6 killed and 3 wounded; our loss was 
1 enlisted man killed and another wounded. 

July 7, a detachment of the Twenty-eighth Infantry, U. S. Volun- 
teers, scouting from Balayan, killed 1 insurgent and captured 2, near 
Payapa, in the vicinity of Taal. 

July 9, Colonel Birkhimer, with a detachment of the Twenty-eighth 
Infantry, U. S. Volunteers, raided San Luis, Batangas, killing 1 insur- 
gent and capturing 36 others, a captain and a lieutenant being among 
the prisoners. 

July 14, Major Langhorne, with a detachment of the Thirty-ninth 
Infantry, U. S. Volunteers, returned to San Pablo from a scout to Bay, 
Carinang, Pila, and Nagcarlang, Laguna, having captured 3 insurgents 
and wounded a lieutenant, who escaped. 

July 16, Colonel Birkhimer, with a detachment Twenty-eighth Infan- 
try, U. S. Volunteers, from Taal, captured a store of insurgent rice 
at Bancore, east of San Nicolas, on Lake Taal, killing 2 and capturing 
20 insurgents. 

July 17, Colonel Birkhimer, with a detachment of the Twenty-eighth 
Infantry, U. S. Volunteers, struck the enemy 2 miles from Taal, on 
the old Bauan road, and completely routed him. The enemy had 150 
to 200 rifles, with many bolomen, in trenches. Thirty-eight dead insur- 
gents, including 2 officers, were found on the field; 10 serviceable rifles 
and a quantity of hospital supplies were captured and brought in, and 
a large quantity of military stores destro}' ed. There were no casualties 
on our side. The gunboat ViUalobos^ Captain Simpson, U. S. Navy, 
commanding, rendered effective assistance, firing on the enemy's left. 

July 18, telegraphic communication north from Calamba being inter- 
rupted, a Signal Corps man with 1 private of the Thirty-ninth Infan- 


try, U. S. Volunteers, wjis sent out to as<*ertain the cause. Nenr 
Banlig the wire was found cut and about 30<) yards removed. While 
makinci^ repairs the men were tired on by about 50 natives. A mounted 
detachment and party of infantry, sent out as soon as possible to 
their relief, found the infantryman under cover unharmed, though his 
horse was killed. The signal coi-ps man, Sergt. A. H. Cockayne, had 
been litemllv shot to pieces. The surrounding country was thoroughlv 
scouted by (Jetachments from Calamba and Santo Tomds, but the trails 
of the bandits could not be found. The body of 1 dead insurgent was 
found near the road. 

A signal j^arty of 12 men was attacked bv insurgents near Magda- 
lena; the enemy was repulsed, leaving 1 dead on the field. Lieutenant 
Vaughan followed the enemy with a detachment of the Thirty-seventh 

Captains Sturgis and Glasgow, intercepted the retreating 
in front of Lieutenant Vaughan, killing 21 and capturing 13 prisoners 
and 21 rifles, bedsides wounding a large lunnber or insurgents. Lieu- 
tenant McKelvey, Eleventh Cavalry, V. S. Volunteers, in charge of 
the signal partv, had 1 man wounded and 3 horses killed. 

Lieutenant I^eithlv.with a detachment of theThirtv-seventhInfantn% 
U. S. Volunteers, scouted at night from Paete to Panguil, Laguna, 
where he captured 20 insurgents. 2 rifles. 1 revolver, and 20 l>oloa. 

Captain Isichols, with Company E, Thirty-eighth Infantry, U. S. 
Volunteers, scouting from Batangas, surprised and captured, about 5 
miles from that place, 1 major, 1 capbiin, and 20 other insurgents, and 
secured 3 rifles and a (juantity of annnunition. "" He was afterwards 
attiicked at the same place* by about (Joo insurgents, whom he success- 
fully r(\sistcd; our casualties. 1 man wounded; the enemy's loss not 

July 21, f> native police, who were allowH'd to go out from San Pablo 
at night in s(»arch of arms, reported on their return that they had 
encountered about -iO insurgents, of whom they had killed 1 and 
wounded another; 2 of the police were w^ounded in the head. 

In the afternoon of July 21, a wagon train, with an escort of 1 cor- 

?oral and 17 men, was attacked })etween Ijuta and Payapa, south of 
anauan, bv about 100 bandits. Our loss was 2 enlisted men killed 
and 2 wounded. A civilian photographer, Fred Schlotz, of Manila, 
was also killed; a native carromato driver and a Chinaman were 
wounded. One nmle, 1 horse, and 2 ponies were killed. Lieutenant- 
Colonel Crane, with a detachment, Thirty-eighth Infantry, U. S. Vol- 
unteers, went in pursuit, capturing 1 rifle and finding 2 dead natives. 

July 23, Captiiin Jordan, w4th Company D, Thirty-eighth Infantry, 
U. S. Volunteei's, from Batangas, had seveml engagements with the 
enemy, numbering about 200 and ecjuipped with Mausei^s and smoke- 
less powder. Th(» enemy is n^ported to have lost 5 killed. Our loss, 
1 man w^ounded. 

July 25, Captain New])erry, with a detachment of the Thirtieth 
Infantry, V, S. Volunt(»ers, rejoined atTayabas from a scout south of 
Candelaria, having captured 1 colonel, 1 major, and 13 other insurgents, 
and 2 guns. 

On the same date a detachment of the Thirtv-ninth Infantry, 17. S. 
Volunteers, scouting from Tanaun, encounten^d the enemy west of San 
Isidro, Laguna. killing 2 and wounding 3 insurgents and capturing 8 


rifles. No casualties on our side. The enemy was pursued toward 
Alaminos until dispersed in the woods. 

July 26, Sergeant Irvine and 8 men of Company F,Thirtieth Infantry, 
U. S. Volunteers, were attacked by insurgents 4 miles from Saria^'^a 
about noon. Our casualties were 2 men killed and 1 man wounded. 
Enemy's loss unknown. 

July 30, Lieutenants Bane and White, with 7 mounted men, Thirty- 
ninth Infantry, U. S. Volunteers, charged a party of more than 100 
insurgents near Imoc, in the vicinity of San Pablo, and after passing 
through the band, discharging their revolvers, dismounted, and, using 
their rifles, as the insurgents sought cover in the adjacent woods, killed 
and wounded a large number, natives reporting on the following day 
that 18 were found killed. 

July 31, the engineer camp on the old Dasmarinas road was attacked 
in the early morning and destroyed. The detachment suffered no 
casualties; 1 mule was killed and 1 wounded, and all the tools destroyed. 


[Reports from third and fourth districts for the month of July not received.] 


Insurgents killed, 12; wounded, 3; captured, 101; rifles captured, 
129; miscellaneous small arms captured, 8; small-arms ammunition 
captured, 47,806 rounds; Hotchkiss ammunition captured, 886 rounds; 
Nordenfelt ammunition captured, 333 rounds; Americans killed, 4 
enlisted men; Americans wounded, none. 


Insurgents killed, 279; wounded, 130; captured, 1,252; rifles cap- 
tured, 252; miscellaneous small arms captured, 18; small-arms ammu- 
nition captured, 4,918 rounds; Americans killed, 7 enlisted men; 
Americans wounded, 2 officers and 31 enlisted men. 


Insurgents killed, 295; wounded, 73; captured, 127; rifles captured, 
45; miscellaneous small arms captured, 3; small-arms amnmnition 
captured, 1,430 rounds; Americans killed, 1 officer (drowned) and 11 
enlisted men; Americans wounded, 2 officers and 44 enlisted men. 


Insurgents killed, 24; wounded, 8; captured and surrendered, 262; 
rifles captured or surrendered, 155; miscellaneous small arms captured, 
1; small-arms ammunition captured or surrendered, 15,333 rounds; 
Americans killed, 2 enlisted men (missing); Americans wounded, 2 
enlisted men. 


Insurgents killed, 610; wounded, 214; captured or surrendered, 
1,742; rifles captured or surrendered, 581; miscellaneous small arms 
captured, 30; small-arms ammunition captured or surrendered, 69,487 
rounds; besides the machine and mountain gun ammunition and large 
quantities of powder, lead, reloading tools, empty shells, and miscel- 
laneous stores destroyed or taken up on returns as required })y exist- 


in^ regulations, but not definiteljr reported to these headquarters. 
Except in the case of the fourth district, surrendered arms and indi- 
viduals are not included in the above. 

The total reported casualties sustained by the troops of this depart- 
ment during the period covered by this report were i officer drowned, 
4 officers wounded, 24 enlisted men killed (includes 2 missing), and 77 
enlisted men wounded. 

The above brief report of operations is not complete, as owing to 
the difficulty of communication with parts of the Camarines, Albay, 
Sorsogon, and the island of Samar, full reports of operations in these 
localities during July have not been receiv ed. 

It is evident that when reports are received from the regions men- 
tioned, fully covering the period in question, the number of insurgent 
losses as well as the number of captured rifles, small arms, and ammu- 
nition will be considerably increased. 


The troops of the department were all inspected during the period 
covered by this report, with the exception of one battalion, Twenty- 
ninth Infantry, U. h. Volunteers, on the island of Masbate, from which, 
owineto the difficulties of communication, no report of inspection has 
yet been received. The inspection of the divisional cavalry, divisional 
artillery, the engineers, ana one regiment of infantry was made by 
Maj. W. D. Beach, inspector-general, V. S. Volunteers, inspector- 

feneral of the department. The other commands were inspected under 
is supervision by line officers detailed in orders from department head- 
quarters, as follows: 


Lieut. Col. G. L. Bymm. Twenty-seventh Infantry, U. S. Volun- 
teers; afterwards relieved ])v]\Iaj. S. W. ]\Iill(M\ Forty-sixth Infantry, 
U. S. Volunteers. 


Capt. F. B. McKenna, Forty-sixth Infantry, U. S. Volunteers. 


Maj. D. A. Frederick. Forty-fifth Infantry, U. S. Volunteers. 


First Lieut. S. O. Fuqua, Twenty-ninth Infantry, U. S. Volunteers. 

The work of these officers was done with thoroughness, and their 
recommendations have received merit(Hl attt^ntion from these head- 
(luartei'S. These inspections were made to serve the double purpose 
of juscertaining and reporting t\u\ actual condition of the troops and 
their stations, and of giving instruction to inexperienced officers, 
especially in thi^ mattx^r of mon(\v accounts, vouchers, and administni- 
tive papers generally. 


In the period coverc^d by this report there were 2r>t) cases tried by 
geneml court-martial in this department, 5 officers Ixjing among the 
persons tried. 


Probably no feature of military administration causes more per- 
plexity in a time of active operations than the transaction of the 
business incidental to the course of military justice. Not infrequently 
the unfortunate choice is presented of convening a court whose mem- 
bers are urgently needed with their commands, or of extending to a 
serious offense a degree of clemency that is contrary to the interests 
of discipline. Moreover, a court in session is often compelled by the 
incidents of active service to suspend its sittings, owing to the lack of 
a quorum, and the trial of tlie accused is thus delayed to the detriment 
of justice. An attempt has been made to remedy these conditions in 
some degree b}^ appointing in a regiment a full court of 13 oflScers 
to meet at such stations and at such times as the regimental commander 
may designate, and authorizing such commander to send to the desig- 
nated place of sitting such members of the court as may be necessary, 
in addition to those stationed there, to forma quorum. This plan has 
been applied to two regiments, and the satisfactory results obtained, in 
the form of prompt trials and a minimum of inconvenience to the serv- 
ice, have been so marked that the method will be generally adopted 
in this department, 

There have been six trials of natives in this department by military 
commission. The military commissions have performed their duties 
faithfully and well, and have shown a just and merciful consideration 
for native criminals, even in cases of such atrocious violation of the 
laws of war as would naturally tend to arouse feelings of indignation 
and hostility. 

Maj. Jesse M. Lee, Ninth U. S. Infantry, was, at his own request, 
relieved from duty as judge-advocate of the departmept June 23, 1900, 
to enable him to join his regiment then under orders to proceed to 
China. I have already had occasion, more than once, to comment 
upon the high military qualities possessed by this efficient officer, who 
carries with him to his new field of action the best wishes of all who 
are acquainted with his soldierly merit and personal worth. 

Major Lee was succeeded as judge-advocate of the department by 
Lieut. Col. H. H. Sargent, Twenty-ninth Infantry, U. S. Volunteers. 

quartermaster's DEPARTMENT. 

The troops of the department occupy 74 different posts, some of 
which, being located in towns on the coast, can be supplied bv water, 
while others are dependent solely upon '"dirt" roads, which in the 
rainy season almost reach the condition of quagmires, and furnish, 
perhaps, the most execrable means of communication that ever tor- 
mented an armv. There is no railroad within the limits of the 

The department is supplied with the following -named vessels, which 
are in constant use in supplying the troops: 

Steamships: jFnmcisco lieyes/ Serrante^s, 

Steam launches: Atlnnta^ at Lucena; Minneapolis^ at Masbate and 
Romblon; a captured, at Taal; Chicago^ at Samar. 

The chief distributing points that are reached by water are Bacoor, 
Batangas, Santa Cruz de Laguna, Calamba, Lucena, Naic, and Pasacao. 
The transportation by water is only less difficult than transportation 
by land. At many of the ports where our troops are supplied the 
water is so shallow that all stores have to be landed, with much 


trouble and delay, hv means of small boats. In some places even the 
small boats can not reach the shore, and the supplies have to l)e 
unloaded by means of bull carts, which go through tne shallow water 
to the boats. Not infrequently supplies are packed from boat to shore 
on the backs of natives or coolic^s. 

The land transportiition of the department consists of 181 escort 
wagons, 15 spring wagons, 6 farm wagons, 23 ambulances, and 137 
pack mules. Foreseeing the difficulty of supplying the posts in the 
rain}' season, the inland posts were ])rovided with six montW supplies 
before the rains began, and the troops in the department have gen- 
erally been kept well supplied, even according to the bountiful stand- 
ard of the American Army of the present date. The supplying of 
these posts was a matter of great labor, and a number of mules died of 
disease and overwork. Some nuiles have been shot by the insurgents, 
and a few have b(»en captured, though nearly all the captured mules 
have since been retaken. 

For the pui'posc^ of providing necessary })arracks, stables, guard- 
houses, storehouses, bnkei'ies, and hospitals at the various posts in 
the department, expenditures from the Philippine funds have been 
made as follows: 

Mc.xican currency. 

Construction $11, 140. 27 

Repairs? 4,821.78 

Rents 11,397.38 

Total 27,359.43 

These (expenditures have all been limited to al)solute necessities^ and 
have been regulated with th(^ strictest economy. 


The dut}" devolving on the chief commissaiT of the department of 
supplying the troops with rations and sales stores has ])ecn perfonned 
in so far as the ni^cessary stores were available. Those posts su£El- 
ciently close to Manila to enable frozen meat in good condition to 
reach them have l)(»en kept w(»ll sup})lied with this article. The same 
is true of Australian milk for the use of hospitals. Some of the dis- 
tant posts have b(^en ai)le to secure a limited supply of native l>eef, and 
the remainder have depended entirely upon canned and salt meats. 
Timely calls have beiMi made upon the subsistence depot for the ship- 
ment of an adeijuate supply of f nvsh vegetnl)les to all the posts. Owing 
to failures, the reasons for which are unknown, in making shipments, 
some of the posts hav(i not })e(»n sufficiently supplied in this respect. 

Post commissary sergeants as far as available have been assigned to 
duty in garrisons in the department. 

The conmiissaries se(Mn to have been k(»pt sup])lied with sufficient 

Lender General Orders, No. IM), Ilead(iuartcrs Division of the Philip- 

Eines, flune 11, IIMK), a separate depot for the L)(»partment of Southern 
(Uzon has hvvu establislied, but it is not yet fully equipped and has 
not b(»en allotted sufficient storage room. Th(» duties or this depot 
can not be satisfactorily performed until sufficient equipment can be 
siH'unnl and sufficient storage room allowed. 

(apt. J. II. Duval, connuissary of sui)sistence, V, S. Arm^*, was 
reliev(*d from duty as chief commissary June 1>, llMX), and Capt. A. 


D. Niskern, commissary of subsistence, U. S. Army, was appointed 
in his stead. Captain Niskern reported for duty July 20, 1900, hav- 
ing come from the island of Mindanao. Between the dates mentioned 
the duties of chief commissary were performed by Maj. I. W. Littell, 
quartermaster, U. S. Volunteers, in addition to his duties as chief 



The duties of the medical department have been ably performed 
under many adverse circumstances. The various posts are all sup- 
plied with hospitals, and two large base hospitals have been established, 
one at Bacoor and the other at Calamba, to which serious cases are 
sent for such treatment as ma}^ not be available at the post hospitals. 
Careful and constant attention has been given to the hygienic condi- 
tions at the different posts, and especial care has been devoted to the 
matter of food and pure drinking water. Of the prevailing diseases 
the most serious are malarial fevers and dysentery. On the 31st day 
of July the sick report of the department, not including reports from 
the more isolated posts, showed a total of 1,863 men sick. Though this 
is about 18 per cent of the strength of the command from which reports 
have been received, it is to be remembered that the conditions of the 
climate and the nature of the duties performed by the troops are such 
that a small sick report can not reasonably be expected. 

A crying evil exists in the insufficient size of the medical corps of 
this department, there being 18 posts without medical officers, 8 of 
which stations are without hospital stewards or even privates of the 
Hospital Corps. There are in round numbers 2,000 men without 
adequate medical attendance, and of this number about 1,000 men are 
without medical attendance at all. This intolerable condition of affairs 
was duly reported by me July 16, 1900, and I understand that steps 
have been taken by higher authority to provide a remedy. 

It is but just that I should say that this condition of affairs is in 
nowise due to the chief surgeon of this department, who has brought 
the matter to my attention, and to the attention of the chief surgeon 
of the division, and who has labored zealously, intelligently, and unre- 
mittingly to obtain the best results with the limited personnel at his 
disposal. The matter can not be remedied until a sufficient number of 
medical officers is sent out from the States. 

Maj. Junius L. Powell, medical department, was relieved from dutv 
as chief surgeon of this department by Geneml Orders, No. 40, head- 
quarters Department of Southern Luzon, July 6, 1900. The work 
ably done by him has been continued by his successor, Maj. Edward 
B. Moseley, surgeon, U. S. Army. 


The payment of the troops in this department has been made as reg- 
ularly and promptly as the conditions of difficult communication have 
permitted, and no command has been left long unpaid. The duties of 
the paymasters have been perfoimed with gmtifying energ}'^ and effi- 
ciency. Maj. W. G. Gambrill was relieved from duty as chief pav- 
master of the department July 25, 1900, having been ordered to the 
States, and Maj. G. F. Downey was appointed in his stead. 

WAR 1900 — VOL 1, PT V 16 



The position of (*hief engineer of tlie department has been filled by 
First Lieut. J. C Oakes, Coi-ps of Engineers, U. S. Amiy, who has 
also been in command of Company B, Battalion of Engineers, U. S. 
Army, on duty in this department. He has had general supervision 
of the work on the roads and bridges in the department, some of the 
work assigned him before the boundaries of the department were 
changed being continued in the Department of Northern Luzon. The 
following is a brief description of the work done under his supervision 
in the period covered by this report: 


Roads repaired (15 in Department of Northern Luzon) 44 

Bridges built 12 

Bridges repaired (2 in Department of Northern Luzon) 15 

Culverts built (in Department of Northern Luzon) 7 

Culverts repairied 2 

Ferries built and installed 2 

Ferry for Bacoor, three-fourths completed. 

Parafiaque bridge and approaches, tnree-fotuths completed. 

Cainta bridge (Department of Northern Luzon) , two-thirds completed. 

Topographic reeonnoissances have been continually made from the 
various posts in the department, and the resulting maps and sketches 
have l)een forwarded to the chief engineer of the division, under 
whose supervision they arc incorporated in larger maps. In this 
manner maps of superior accuracy are being produced. 


The valuable work for which the Signal Corps is noted has been 
ably conducted in this department by Capt. Edgar Russel, Signal 
Corps, U. S. Volunteers. There are now in the Department of South- 
ern Luzon 374 miles of wire strung between the diflferent posts, and 
telegraphic communication has been extended to Nueva Caceres. 
There are also 160 miles of cable conmiunication in this department, 
namely, from Manila to Cavite, Naic to Corregidor, Taguig via Calamba 
to Santa Cruz de Laguna, and from Guinayangan to rasacao. There 
are 52 offices outside of Manila, with 47 operators on duty therein. 

The ener^" and celerity with which the military telegraph lines have 
been established and the promptness with which the breaks made by 
hostile wire cutters are repaired are deserving of the highest praise. 

The extent to which these lines are utilized is perhaps best shown 
by the fact that the official messages in this department alone aggregate 
about 70,000 per month (sent and received). 

Capt. A. L. Parmertor, Twenty -iii-st IT. S. lnfantr\% was detailed as 
supervisor, under the department commander, of internal revenue in 
this depaitment by General Orders, No. 12, headquarters Department 
of Southern Luzon, May 12, 11H)0, and has sini^e been appointed super- 
visor, under the department commander, of all matters relative to civil 
government pertaining to this department. 

Throughout the department civil government has been established 
as far as practicuble under existing conditions. In nearly every town 
occupied Dv the troops some simple fonn of government has been 
adopted. That institutt^d under General Orders, No. 43, series of 1899, 
heaa<iimrters Department of the Pa<*iiic and Eighth Army Corps, where 


in force has been continued, while in other places that order has been 
followed as far as practicable, except in the selection of town officials, 
who are appointed by the commanding officer instead of being elected, 
as prescribed in the order. By this means officials have been obtained 
who, at least in the opinion of the commanding officer, are friendly to 
the American Government. This has been done because it has gen- 
erally been found impossible to hold the necessarj'^ elections. But few 
towns have been able to or^nize under General Orders, No. 40, cur- 
rent series, office of the United States Military Governor, the require- 
ments necessary for qualification a.s electors under that order being 
such that a representative number of voters can not be obtained. 
This condition will improve as the country becomes pacified. A great 
obstacle in the way of the successful establishment of civil government 
is the difficulty of getting good men among the inhabitants to act in 
official positions, owing to their fear of b(Sily harm at the hands of 
those who are inimical to the United States. This condition will also 
improve as time passes and the country becomes more quiet. Work 
in this direction must necessarily be slow, and its results must be 
awaited with patience. 

The collection of the internal-revenue tax in the department has been 
placed in the hands of certain officers detailed for that duty. These 
officers are: A supervisor for the department, a collector for each mili- 
tary district in the department, and a sufficient number of local col- 
lectors to cover the territory. Since the 1st of July the work of 
extending the collection of this tax throughout the department has 
been commenced. Before that time the tax was cx)llected in a few of 
the larger towns, but no attempt has been made to make this collection 
general. Many difficulties have been met, owing to the few officers 
available for this duty and the disturbed condition of the country; 
but, taking everything into consideration, the work is progressing 

I regret that I can not reconmiend the reduction of the forces in this 
department by so much as a single soldier. The duty of occupation, 
in fact, renders necessary a larger number of troops than would be 
needed in conducting a campaign against organized forces, with the 
sole object of destroying the enemy's armies. A single battalion can 
to-day march from one end of this department to the other without 
encountering enough resistance from the enemy to impede seriously its 
progress, but small parties of troops can not leave the garrisoned 
poste without incurring a danger of atta<rk, which varies inversely in 
its degree of probability with the size and evident vigilance of the 
detachment. The insurrectos after making an attack disperse, assume 
civilian garb, and conceal themselves amon^ the p>eaceable inhabitants, 
often taKing^ up their residence and contmuing their conspiracv in 
towns occupied by our troops, where they terrorize the mass of inhab- 
itants by threatening condign punishment to those who display friend- 
ship toward Americans. When captured and again set free they have 
shown their lack of appreciation of the policy of magnanimity by again 
appearing in amis against us at the first opportunity. 

The necessity of ferreting out, running down, and punishing this 
hostile minority of the popmation whose members endeavor to conceal 
under a cloak of patriotism their real character of plunderers and crim- 
inals, and our moral obligation to protect our friends, render it neces- 
sary to have troo[>s stationed at all places where civil government is 


established; for the absence of troops means the presence of anarchy. 
It will doubtless be a long time before any diminution can be made m 
any of the garrisons of this department. 

I desire U) invite attention to the extreme inconvenience to which 
the various offices at the headquarters of this department are subjected 
by the lack of a suitably trained clerical force. In a department which 
sometimes contains a number of troops not far shoii; of the total strength 
of the Regular Army before the war with Spain, and now embraces a 
number of garrisoned stations equal to two-tnirds of the total number 
of posts in the United States, there only 11 civilian clerks in all of the 
administrative and supply offices. The rest of the clerical force is 
made up of enlisted men detailed from their commands, of whom the 
best that can be said is, that whether good, bad, or indifferent, thev 
are the best men available. The result of this clerical insufficiency is 
to throw upon officers of the department staff, in an insalubrious and 
enervating climate, an amount or responsibility and labor to which they 
are not subjected in the States. A comparison of the strength of the 
tiained clerical force in the smallest department in the States with that 
of any department in the Philippines, is calculated to make officers on 
duty m these islands feel that their services are held in less consideration 
than those of officers who remain at home. This condition may be 
unavoidable, but if a remedy be practicable it is certainly desirable. 

I respectfully recommend that when officers are relieved from duty 
in these islands and ordered to the States they be allowed (if not trav- 
elingwith troops) their choice of returning via the Suez Canal or via 
San Fmncisco, the amount of travel remunei'ation in the former case 
to be the same as in the latter, namely, actual expenses at transport 
I'ates ($1 a dav for thirty days) and mileage from San Francisco to 
New York. This would, it seems to me, be quite in accordance with 
the general rule of allowing an officer to travel by any reasonable route. 
but giving mileage ])y the shortcv^t line usually traveled. It would 
add nothing to the expenses of the Government, and would be highly 
esteemed by the officers, who would regard it in the light of a very 
considerable compensation for the less agreeable features of distant 
foreign service. If this scheme be impracticable without legislation, 
such legislation is respectfully reconmic^nded. 

In closing my report I wish to express my appreciation of the courage, 
energy, cheerfulness, and soldierly (lualities genemlly that have, almost 
without exception, chai'acterized the officers and men of my command 
under trying conditions of service and climate. The plan of filling the 
positions of field officers of the volunteer regiments with experienced 
and well-qualified officers has })een productive of the happiest results. 
These officers, complimented by their selection, are on their mettle, 
and, feeling that they have a reputation to maintain, try to reach the 
highest pitch of militory efficiency. The}^ are thus fitted to be instruct- 
ors and models to those under their command, whose courage and zeal 
need only to be strengthened by military knowledge and the stimulus 
of good example. 

My staff consists of Ijieut. Ool. Arthur L. Wagner, assistant adju- 
tant-general; Lieut. Col. 11. II. Sargent, Twentv-ninth Infantry, U. 
S. Volunteers, judge-advocate; Maj. Kdward B. Moseley, Medical De- 

?artment, chief surgeon; Maj. W. D. Beach, inspector-general, U. S. 
'olunteers, inspector-general; Maj. I. W. Littell, (luartermaster, U. S. 
Voluuteei-s, chief quartermaster; ilaj. George F. Downey, U. S, Vol- 


unteers, chief paymaster; Capt. A. D. Niskern, commissary of sub- 
sistence, IT. S. Army, chief commissary; Capt. A. L. Parmerter, 
Twenty-first U. S. Infantry, supervisor of internal revenue; Capt. S. E. 
Smiley, Fifteenth U. S. Infantry, aide-de-camp; Capt. Ed^r Russel, 
signal officer, U. S. Volunteers, chief signal officer; First Lieut. H. M. 
Reeve, Third U. S. Infantry, aide-de-camp; First Lieut. J. C. Oakes, 
Corps of Engineers, U. S. Army, chief engineer officer, and Second 
Lieut. W. B. Cowin, Third U. S. Cavalry, aide-de-camp and chief 
ordnance officer. 

I am greatly indebted to each of these gentlemen for faithful, zeal- 
ous, and efficient work. I feel that I am Fortunate in having the vari- 
ous positions filled by such able and accomplished officers. 
Very respectfully, 

John C. Bates, 
Major- (reneral^ U. S, K, Commcmdmg. 


Hdqrs. Department of the Visayas, 

rioilo^ p. /., August 16^ 1900. 

Diimion of the PMlijppines^ Manila^ P, L 

Sir : My previous report closed June 30, 1899. At that time we 
were designated and known under the name of Visayan Military Dis- 
trict and First Separate Brigade, Eighth Army Corps. The command 
at that date consisted of the following: 

Light Battery G, Sixth TT. S. Artillery. 
Sixth U. S. Infantry. 
Eighteenth U. S. Infantry. 
First Battalion Twenty-third U. S. Infantry. 
First Regiment California Volunteer Infantry. 
First Regiment Tennessee Volunteer Infantry. 
A detachment of Volunteer Signal Cor|)8. 
A detachment of Hospital Corjis. 

The returns showed at that dat(»: 

Total ('ommissione<l 206 

Total enlistetl 5,546 

Aggregate 5,752 

The Sixth Infantry had just arrived from the United States and was 
still on board the transport Sherman^ hut during the early part of 
July the headquarters and two battalions were landed in the island of 
Negros to relieve the First California Volunteer Infantry, which, when 
thus relieved, proceeded to Manila on the t^hennan^ en route to the 
United States. 

The First Battalion of the Sixtli Infantry wjis landed in Iloilo, Panay, 
where it was held as a reserve, subject to calls from the subdistriet 
commanders. The facilities for embarking, etc., were so much better 
in Iloilo than on the op(»n cojust of Negros that it was considered better 
policy to hold the reserve force here than on that island, where it was 
expected mainly to opemte. 

Contemponirilv with the substitution of the Sixth Infantry for the 
First California Volunteers, Major Cheatham was busy organizing a 
battalion of the U. S. Volunteer Infantry from volunteers of the First 
California and First Tennessee regiments, al)out to return to the 
United States, and from the men bein^ discharged from the regular 
organizations owing to the terms of their enlistments. 

At that time the wet season was at its height in Panay, and any field 
operations possible of execution would have been without appreciable 
effect on ultimate results. Our troops o(H*upied Iloilo and the suburbs 
of Jaro and Molo, with a line of out|x)sts running from the outskirts 



of Molo around Jaro to the Jaro River and down the right bank of 
that stream to the sea. The Eighteenth Infantry was located in Jaro 
and the First Tennessee Volunteer Infantr>" in Uoilo and Molo. The 
enemy was located, generally speaking, in the semicircle starting from 
Oton, on his right, and passing over San Miguel, Pavia, Balantang, 
with headquarters in Santa Barbara. His force was given as between 
3,500 and 4,000. The force here was too strong to lie idle waiting for 
dry weather, and as the conditions are such in Negros and Cebu that 
the wet season does not preclude military operations, it was determined 
to devote all the efforts of the command .to gaining full control of 
Negros and Cebu islands, and leave Panay until movement became 


Capt. B. A. Byrne opened the operations in Negros on the 19th of 
July, on which date he had quite a successful affair with Babaylones, 
near Bonbong. 

Capt. Charles Byrne, Sixth Infantry, left Dumaguete with a com- 
mand on July 20, and after a very trying march across the island on a 
native trail, succeeded in coming up with the ladrones on the Seapong 
and punished them severely. 

Capt. W. L. Simpson, Sixth Infantry, attacked the Tulisanes, near 
Valdez, on July 27, and punished them severely. 

On July 30, 4 men of the Sixth Infantry, scouting on the Malugo, 
were surprised and 2 of them killed. 

Lieuts. H. V. Evans and O. Ekiwards, Sixth Infantry, both had some 
work in Negros, the former at La Grange and the latter at Saiton. 

During the month two companies of the First Battalion, Sixth 
Infantry, were sent from Iloilo to Negros. 

Lieut. G. D. Moore, Twenty -third Infantry, surprised and dispersed, 
with loss, a band of robbers m the mountains of Cebu. 

The month's work, as given in official reports, foots up the loss of 
the enemy 144 killed and 16 captured. Our own losses, 4 killed and 
1 wounded. 

In the first weeks of August a command under Capt. B. A. Byrne, 
Sixth Infantry, attacked and destroyed the robbers' roosts of Bon- 
bong, Sebocao, and Tios, located in the mountains of Negros. His loss 
was one man drowned. 

On August 18, the enemy along the Jaro crossed the river and. 
attacked the First Tennessee, on our right. Colonel Childers drove 
them back without loss on our side. Report forwarded. 

On August 18, Lieut. E. T. Cole, Sixth Infantry, located a band of 
insurgente in a strong position in the north of Negros, near Tabaun. 
In reconnoitering 2 men were drowned. Dispositions were made for 
attacking the position on the 19th, which was led by Lieuts. J. V. 
Heidt and H. A. Hanigan, Sixth Infantry. Nineteen of the enemy 
were killed and 8 rifles captured. 

August23, Lieut. H. S. Rowland, Twenty-third Infantry, was slightly 
wounded scouting near El Pardo, Cebu. 

August 24, a scouting party ran into insurgent band near Cebu and 
drove them into the mountains, killing 6 of rtiem. 

August 25, 4 men were attacked between El Pardo and Cebu, and 3 
of them killed. 


August 31, Capt. B. A.. Byrne, Sixth Infantry, attacked the robber 
stronghold of Argogala. Enemy lost 21 kOled. 

August 7, Company A, Sixth Infantry, was ordered to Negros. 

August 12, Battalion of Philippine volunteers, recruited by Major 
Cheatnam from discharged men of this district, was organized and 
sent to Manila. 

August 26, Companies A and C, Sixth Infantry, were sent to Cebu. 

t^immary/or AugvM, 

Enemy's loss: 

Killed -• 40 captured 8 

Our lose: 

Drowned 3 

Killed 3 

Sliffhtly wounded 4 

Rincc captured 3 

The First Tennessee Volunteers were ordered to the United States 
. for muster out. Up to the hour of being relieved from duty the 
organization had not lost a man in action, but unfortunately Corpl. 
James BuUington, Company F, exposed himself just before being with- 
drawn from outpost ana was killea. The regiment was to assemble at 
Cebu, and while there it volunteered to assist in driving the insurgents 
out of the position they held in the mountains a few miles from that 
city. * In the operations which took place on the 22d and 23d the com- 
mand was made up of the First Tennessee Volunteer Infantry, the 
Third Battalion Nineteenth Infantry, and detachments of the First Bat- 
talion Sixth Infantry, and Third Battalion Twenty-third Infantr}^ 
The enemy were driven from their position, abandoning their cannon 
and much other material. Enemy's loss, 10 killed. Our loss, 1 man 
killed and 4 wounded. 

On September 17, Capt. G. B. Walker, Sixth Infantry, with a mixed 
detachment from the Sixth and Twenty -third Infantry, and First Ten- 
nessee Volunteer Infantry, attacked insurgents near Maulbaul, Cebu, 
in intrenched position, and found it necessary to withdraw, after hav- 
ing 2 men killed and 2 wounded. 

Summary for September. 

Enemy's loss: Kille<l 10 

Our loss: 

Killed 3 

Wounded 6 

The First and Third Battalions, Nineteenth Infantry, reported for 
duty in the district to replace the outgoing three battalions. First Ten- 
nessee Volunteer Infantry. The First Battalion and the colonel, with 
headquarters, took station in Cebu, while the Third Battalion was dis- 
embarked in Iloilo. 

October 1, Capt. B. A. Poore, adjutant Sixth Infantry, with a mixed 
detachment of his own regiment, consisting of 4 officers and 100 men, 
made a second attack on Tabaun, Negros, which had been reoccupied 
by the insurgents. The works were taken by assault. 

Enemy's loss: 

Killed 21 

Rifles captured 12 

Rounds of ammunition captured 6, 000 

Our loss: 

Killed (Lieut. H. Y. Gnibbs, Sixth Infantry) 1 

Men wounded 4 



On October 23, Lieut W. H. Simons, Sixth Infantry, attacked 
Tulisanes in number in eastern Nefafros. Three killed and 6 wounded. 

On October 27, Lieut. H. V. Evans, Sixth Infantry, attacked a band 
of robbers near Castellana, Negros. 

In an attack upon robbers at Bais and several night attacks, Lieut. 
Col. B. A. Byrne, Fortieth Infantry, U. S. Volunteers, reports 28 of 
tiie enemy killed, and 20 robbers and 1 rifle captured. 


Capt. W. P. Evans, Nineteenth Infantry, in making reconnoissance 
in the Cordellera Central, came in contact with the insurgents, killing 
7 of them, and had 2 of his command slightly wounded. 

Summary for October. 

Enemy's loee: 

Killed 59 

Men captured 26 

Rifles captured 13 

Our loss: 

Killed ( Lieutenant Grubbe) 1 

Men wounded 4 

On October 25, the Second Battalion, Nineteenth Infantry, reported 
at Hoilo for duty. 

On October 27, the Twenty-sixth Infantry, U. S. Volunteers, reported 
for duty. 

The enemy appeared to finally become aware of the fact that we were 
doing nothing on Panay but occupying Iloilo and suburbs and support- 
ing efforts in Negros and Cebu, while they sat around as idle specta- 
tors, and as the Panay force had been gradually reduced to four 
battalions, the enemy became somewhat aggressive in action and very 
much so in words. The following note from (Colonel Carpenter, 
Eighteenth Infantry, conunanding Jaro, will explain their attitude at 
this time: 

U. S. MiLFTARY Telegraph, Jaro^ 19. 

Captain Mann: Major Adams, witnessing a desultory but troublesome fire on the 
Santa Barbara road, ordered his battalion under arms. I dismissed it as unnecessary. 
The firing at times on all approaches has been saucy to-day, and bullets have struck 
houses and streets in the town. I have forbidden our posts to fire, unless they had 
a clear view and could deliver an effective one. I believe they only hope to provoke 
us into an advance against their lines. 

IleadquarterSy Eighteenth Infaninj. 

Jaro, P. I., October 15, 1899. 

Firft Separate Brigade^ Eighth Army Corps, Iloilo, P. I. 

Sir: I have the honor to report that the insurgents visited our outposts in some 
force last night. Desultory firing occurred from about 9 p. m., mostly opposite the 
bridge site, until 11.30, when quite heavy firing occurred in front of our hues on the 
Santa Barbara road. The field ofiicer of the day reported that a continuous skirmish 
line had appeared at one time within 200 yards of our posts. Our men gave them 
volley fire. A company was sent to their support, and another to the posts near the 
cemetery, and the whole command was hela under arms for an hour or so. The 
insurgents withdrew with disorderly firing kept up for some time, and at 1 o'clock 
were cheering vociferously near their old i)08te east of Jaro. 

Signaling to the enemy by lights wa** discovered in the town from the upper win- 
dow of a house, and two natives were arrested there and are now held. Four other 
natives were arrested in the town on suspicion. 

Very respectfully, G. S. Carpenter, 

Colonel Eighteenth Infantry, Commandinq^ 


Tho enemy was given all possible eneoui'agementin his little efforts, 
for it was very desirable that he should gain enough of confidence to 
make a stand. During October the preliminary steps were taken 
looking to taking the field as soon as tne drying tip of the roadn and 
rice fields woula justify us in so doing. Sufficient wagons and draft 
mules had been secured from the quartermaster's dependent to make 
a small supply train. This had been added to by modifying the native 
carts by removing the shafts and putting in poles, maKing ox yokes, 
and purchasing trotting bulls, and so makmg ox-wagon teams. A pack 
train fully equipped wjis gotten for us, but the animals were lost at 
sea and we got only the aparejos, etc. To add to our packing capacity* 
we had bejuco pack saddles made for our trotting bulls. 

In order to secure information, native ponies had been collected for 
Panay, Jolo, and Negros islands, and a detachment of 50 men of the 
Eighteenth Infantry had been nioiuited as scouts under command of 
Capt. W. H. Gordon and Lieut. A. L. Conger, Eighteenth Infantry. 

Four mountain Hotehkiss caliber 1.65 guns had been procured and 
formed a part of the crommand of Light Battery G, Sixth Artillery, and 
of which First Lieut. Louis Ostheim, Sixth Artillery, had the unme- 
diate command when in the field. 

The rains became light and less frequent the latter part of October, 
and during the first week of November Captain Gordon and Lieutenant 
Conger made a careful examination of the roads in the vicinity and 
found they had become sufficiently hard to carry loaded wagons, and 
orders were issued for moving against the enemy. 

The command in Iloilo and sulmrbs at this time was as follows: 

for duty. 

Light Battery G, Sixth U. S. Artiller>' "103 

Eighteenth U. 8. Infantry 1,176 

First and Second Battalions, Nineteenth U. S. Infantry 794 

Twenty-sixth Infantry, U. 8. Volunteers .' 1, 283 

Total 3, 306 

The enemy was reported to have aJ)out 4,000 men, and he had been 
digging intrenchments on all available locations from immediately 
in front of our lines as far back as the foot of the mountains. In organ- 
izing for the field, the underlyim^ idea was to have four battalions in 
two units, thus making each sufficiently strong to operate in two col- 
umns at any time when it was found necessary to make a flank move- 
ment on a well selected or artificially protected position. In accordance 
with this idea, four battalions were assigned to Colonel Cai'penter's con- 
trol, consisting of two battalions of his own regiment and two of the 
Twenty -sixth Infantr\% V, S. Volunt(»ers, under Lieut. C)ol. J. T. Dick- 
man, Twenty-sixth Infantry, U. S. Volunteers, to whom the si)ecial 
care of protecting Iloilo 

Colonel Caipenter was ^ ^ „ 

Battery G, Sixth Artillery. Colonel Rice's command cx)nsi8ted of the 
Third Battalion, Eighteenth Infantry, the First and Second Battalions, 
Nineteenth Infantry, Battalion Twenty-sixth Infantry, U. S. Volun- 
teers, and the detacliiment of Light Battery G, Sixth ArtiDery, which 
had the Hotehkiss mountain guns. 

The insurgents had turned up much of the surface of the island to 

Erotect themselves from bullets, and the roads and crossings of streams 
ad all ]yeen prepared to o]>stru<*t our movements and to give our 


troops a warm reception. The right rested, ai>proximately, at Otoii 
and extended over San Migiiel, Pa via, Balantaug, to the Loilo Strait, 
the headquarters being in Santa Barbara. 

It was proposed to try and swing around his right and push the 
crowd down into the manglares of the Dumangas district, ana let the 
Navy have a fair opportunity to assist in the good work. To carry 
this plan into execution it was arranged to send the First Battalion, 
Nineteenth Infantry, and Third Bat^lion, Eighteenth Infantry, under 
Mai. J. F. Huston, Nineteenth Infantry, bv water to Tigbauan in the 
early night of November 9, covered in landing by the Conwrd. 

The Second Battalion, Nineteenth Infantry, and the First Battalion, 
Twenty -sixth Infantry, U. 8. V., Lieutenant Ostheim's gun detach- 
ment and the supplies of both these commands, under uie personal 
direction of Colonel Rice, were to march to Oton via Molo and Arevola. 
The headquarters, consisting of Capt. William A. Mann, Seventeenth 
Infantry, acting adjutant-general. First Lieut. R. H. Van Deman, 
Twenty-first Infantry, aide-de-camp, engineer officer. First Lieut. W. 
H. Simons, Sixth Infantry, acting ordnance officer, and Gordon's scouts, 
accompanied this command. 

Colonel Carpenter, with the First and Second battalions. Eighteenth 
Infantry, and the batteiy of field guns, was to remain in Jaro ready to 
move, and Lieutenant-Oolonel Dickman, with the Second and Tfiird 
battalions. Twenty -sixth Infantry, U. S. Volunteers, was in readiness 
to assume the duties heretofore in charge of the Eighteenth Infantry, 
and to support that command if called on. Carefulcalculation of dis- 
tances ana time had l)een made, and it was calculated that by noon of 
the 10th, these 6 battalions and 8 guns could be in supporting distance 
on the general line, Alimodian, San Miguel, and San Jos^, connecting 
with the left of Colonel Dickman's command at Jibaoan. If this 
movement was successfully executed, it was our expectation by ni^ht 
of that day to occupy a position facing Santa Barbara, the left being 
about Calmtuan ana Carpenter^s right near Santa Teresa. After this 
movement was set in motion, and when too late to stop it, a typhoon 
of the most obstinate character visited the island, ana although the 
commands reached the points assigned them for the next morning, it 
was found during the night that the flood of water poured on us nad 
dissolved the hardened stratum of the roads, and tnat there was no 
bottom below that could be reached by man or beast. When this 
change in conditions became apparent a dispatch was sent by courier 
to Major Huston and Colonel Carpenter to stop their movement. The 
messenger sent to Major Huston overtook him near Cordova and he 
retumra with his command to Tigbauan. The messenger sent to con- 
nect with Colonel Carpenter, by telephone and telegraph from Molo, 
did not succeed in getting his message to him until he had moved out, 
but it overtook him near Manduriao. 

Company — , Twenty -sixth Infantry, U. S. Volunteers, was sent out 
by Colonel Dickman to drive in an outpost of the enemy stationed on 
tne right of the road leading from Manduriao to Jibaoan. When 
Colonel Carpenter reached that vicinity, his two battalions deploved 
and assisted in clearing the enemy out. His report is forwarded, 
which shows a loss of 1 man of the Twenty-sixth Infantry, U. S. Vol- 
unteers, seriously wounded. Enemy's loss, 2 killed, 2 wounded and 
3 captured and 1 rifle captured, together with 2,(X)0 rounds of ammu- 
nition taken. His wagons had not been able to get a mile from Jaro, 


and he returned with his command tf> that place to wait further ordorfl 
as directed in the belated dispatch. 

As it continued to rain in torrents for some days, the execution of the 
projected movement was obviousl}^ impossible and a different plan had 
to be worked out which would enable the commands to reach their 
objectives by roadways having better drainage and bottoms within rea- 
sonable reach of the surface. The main road leading from Jaro to 
Santa Barbara and Cabatuan was pretty well known, and while repre- 
sented to be in bad condition it was considered passable. The road 
leading from Tigbauan to Leon, Alimodian, and Maasin was said to be 
bad, but with a bottom. It was therefore determined to continue the 
march from Oton to Tigbauan with Colonel Rice's command, which was 
done. Major Huston's battalion. Nineteenth Infantry, and Gordon's 
scouts were sent to Leon with instructions to reconnoiter in the direc- 
tion of Alimodian, Bugo, Cagay, and Maasin. Maj. J. G. Leefe's bat- 
talion. Nineteenth Infantry, and Lieutenant Ostheim's battery of moun- 
tain ^uns were sent to Cordova, the other two battalions and the train 
remaining at Tigbauan until the storm ceased and the result of the 
reconnoissances was r(M*eived. Rations for re(*harging the train were 
sent by water to Tigbauan. By the 18th the storm snowed siffns of 
abating, and the reconnoissances having been thoroughly made and 
having established the fact that the Alimodian road was passable, with 
some road work and bridge building, it was determined to send the 
train to Loon half loaded under escort of the First Battalion, Twenty- 
sixth Infantry, U. S. Volunteers, and have it return for the balance 
next day. The orders were issued for a geneml movement of the com- 
mand on the morning of the 20th on Alimodian. The enemy had pre- 
pared to dispute the crossing of the Sugan. The bridge was gone, and 
it would i)e necessar J" to clear them out Ix^f ore a new one could be built. 
In order to accomplish this with as little loss as possible, it was ordered 
that the battalion of the Twenty-sixth Infantry, U. S. Volunteers, 
should move out on the road, followed ]\y the Second Battalion, Nine- 
teenth Infantry, coming up from Cordova, and that Major Huston^s 
battalion should (!ross the mountains and como in on the enemy's right 
rear, communications being kept up between the commands by means 
of visual signaling. 

The battalion of the Twenty -sixth Infantry, U. S. Volunteers, came 
in contact with the enemy at 1).80 on approaching the proposed place 
of crossing of the Sugan. The enemy's position was exceedingly well 
chosen for defense, and a frontal attack was not advisable under any 
point of view. The advance of the Twenty-sixth Infantry was directed 
to work cautiously into the timber near the stream and keep under 
cover, but to shoot when a fair target offered. Communication was 
opened with Major Huston. His command was progressing finely as 
proposed, and in due time would come in on the right rear of the 
enemy's position. In the meantime (xordon's scouts and Major Leefe's 
Battalion, Nineteenth Infantry, were directed to find a crossing on the 
right and get possession of the hills beyond. As the Twenty-sixth 
Battalion advanced, it cleared a commanding hill overlooking the ford 
opposite to and about 1,500 yards from the enemy's position. Lieu- 
tenant Ostheim suggested that he thought his pack mules could get his 
mountain guns up the slope, which he succeeded in doing. All these 

Sreparatory movements were made in good time, so that when Major 
[uston opened fire from the right rear the place was quickly abon- 


doned by the enemy, who retreated over the Alimodian road. I have 
no reports from the subordinate commanders, but my recollection is 
that our loss was 4 of the Twenty-sixth Infantry wounded, 1 of whom 
succumbed. I do not know what the loss of the enemy was, but their 
reported loss was 26 killed. The only capture was 1 wounaed Tagal, 
who afterwards died. 

As Colonel Carpenter was still in Jaro under instructions to wait for 
further orders, Lieut. A. T. Clifton, signal officer, opened communi- 
cation with him by heliograph. As the opposition met with by Colo- 
nel Rice's troops made it evident that a strong portion of the enemy 
was in his front, it was accepted as entirely prudent for Colonel Car- 
penter to attack the force at Pavia. Orders were signaled to him over 
the heads of the enemy to attack Pavia next morning. Colonel Rice's 
command was put to work to bridge the Sugan and the battalion, 
Eighteenth Infantry, brought forward the train. Owing to total lack 
of proper materials for bridge building, and the scarcity of anything 
that would answer the purpose at all, the bridge and approaches were 
not completed until the evening of the 21st, and even tnen the wagons 
had to be pulled up the bank by hand. But by 1.80 a. m. on the 22d 
all had been gotten across and the command moved to Alimodian that 
day. That town was abandoned by all the inhabitants and no insur- 
gents in sight. 

Meanwhile Colonel Carpenter had moved out at daylight of the 21st, 
following the direct road, taking with him two battalions of his regi- 
ment ana Capt. V. H. Bridgman's battery of field guns. The outpost 
of the enemy south of the Aganan was strongly posted, and had pro- 
tected itself by constructing strong intrenchments; but it was driven 
out, our loss being 2 killed and 13 wounded. The known loss of the 
enemy was 2 killed, 2 wounded, and 1 captured. The enemy aban- 
doned 2 small guns and considerable ammunition and powder. 

Continuing his work, he found the main body of the insurgents on 
his front, posted on the north bank of the Aganan River, and well pre- 
pared to resist his crossing. After preparing the attack by fire of 
shrapnel from Captain Bridgman's batterv, he advanced against the 
position and carried it with the loss of 1 killed (Second Lieut. Charles 
M. Smith, Eighteenth Infantry) and 7 wounded, the enemy's known 
loss being 2 officers and 17 men killed and several wounded. Seven 
pieces of artillery, 2 of which were breech-loading, were captured, 
with a supply of ammunition. 

The command rested that night in Pavia, and continued to Santa 
Barbara the 22d, which place wjis occupied without resistance. The 
enemy had abandoned 9 old cannon, Filipino flags, etc., and a gang of 
prisoners. Colonel Carpenter's report is forwarded. 

On the 23d Colonel Kice's command moved out of Alimodian on 
Maasin, from which place the enemy fled on his approach. The town 
was abandoned by tne entire population. After sending Gordon's 
scouts to reconnoiter the road to Layog, the command marched on 
Cabatuan, where it met Lieut. Col. W. M. Van Home, Eighteenth 
Infantry, who had been sent on reconnoissance from Santa Barbara. 

Early in the morning of the 21st Lieutenant-Colonel Dickman 
crossed the Jaro River with two battalions to entertain the enemy on 
the left. Maj. Guy V. Henry, jr., Twenty-sixth Infantry, U. S. V., 
crossed at Jaro with the First Battalion,^ and Capt. A. A. Barker, 
Twenty -sixth Infantry, U. S. V., at La Paz with the Third Battalion, 


Twenty-sixth Infantry, U. S. V., and Company L, Sixth Infantry, 
which had returned from Negros. The two battalions converged on 
the position occupied by the enemy near Bitoon, Major Henry enter- 
taining them on front, while Captain Barker's battalion turned the 
Sosition. The oj^eration was entirely successful. The enemy was 
riven out with a loss of 27 killed. The losses on our side were 2 
wounded in Conipan\^ L, Sixth Infantrv, and 4 wounded in the Twenty- 
sixth Infanti^y, U. S. V. Repoi'ts inclosed. 

After learning the full details at Cabatuan it was decided that Colonel 
Van Home, Eighteenth Infantry, should take the direct road from 
Santa Barbai'a via Lucina to Pototan and occupy that town; that Colo- 
nel Carpenter should return with one battalion to Doilo and embark on 
the EloaTio with supplies for the joint command, and sail to the north 
of the Tinorian ana establish a depot from which Colonel Rice's com- 
mand could draw future supplies. 

Colonel Rice's command moved out the next day (24th^ for Janiuay. 
The insurgents destroyed the bridges, which caused mucn delay to the 
command and much labor for the en^ncer officer. The most serious 
break was that of the bridge spanning th(> arroyo Tigbauan, but by 
hard work and good fortune everything was in Janiuay before night. 
The enemy had moved out and made room for the quartering of the 
command. The pursuit was continued, the 25th, to Lambunao. There 
were five bridges to be rebuilt in the 9 miles, and much work neces- 
sary in minor repairs. The scouts, the mountain battery, and three 
battalions had pushed through to Lambunao in the afternoon. In 
doing so the evidences were quite convincing that the enemy were 
pressed, as they were killing too many carabao to be accounted for in 
any other wav. Lambunao was deserted bv all inhabitants. The 
insurgents' arsenal had been dismantled and masses of papers, food 
stuffs, etc., had been abandoned. The time seemed ripe for making a 

Eush to force an action out of the fleeing enemy. The troops in Lam- 
unao would have no rations after l)reakfast next morning. A visit 
to the bridge builders and tmin found all going well, but a very trying 
finishing contract in building ti new bridge over the arroyo Abangay. 
Lieutenant Van Deman expected to have it finished by 2 o'clock next 
morning and so put the supplies in Lambunao by 3.30. But it so hap- 

Ejned that cutting bridge mat(»rials at night by the light of a candle 
ntern, by men greatly fatigued, was slower work than estimated, and 
the supplies did not come in until 7 o'clock in the morning. Notwith- 
standing the disappointment at not ])eing able to cover a inarch in the 
cool of the morning, it was decided to fill the haversacks of Gordon's 
scouts, Ostheim's battery, Huston's and Warwick's ])attalions, and 
make a try for a fight, leaving Colonel Rice with two battalions and 
train to follow as mpidly as roads would justify. Getting off at 8 a. m. , 
the command reached Calinog by noon, and was given a rest while the 
scouts took a look up Tapas pass to see if any new developments might 
be discovered. Calinog having been deserted by the people, informa- 
tion from that source was not obtainable. At 2 p. m., although Gor- 
don had not returned, it was detennined to push out for Passi. The 
advance guard consisted of the signal officer and the two aidas-de-canip, 
and later one of the scouts appeared from somewhere and put himself 
out as a point. Huston's battiilion was in the* lead, th<Mi Ostheim's Imt- 
t(»rv and Warwick's battalion. The point and the advance g'uard rode 
into the enemy at the crossing of the Liiinunung, near Passi. Huston 


developed his battalion to the front, right, and left of the road, while 
Lieutenant Ostheim located his battery on an elevation overlooking the 
crossing and the town. At this moment Gordon reported the arrival 
of his scouts, who were sent to the right and across tne Jalaur. War- 
wick developed two companies on the left and held two companies sub- 
ject to disposition. The attack was so sudden and so unexpected that 
before the insurgents could get into formation our troops were in their 
midst. Gordon had cut on one section on the Dingle road and War- 
wick had sent another over the Dumarao pass, while Huston had driven 
the center straight through for Abaca. The troops had time to get 
possession of the town when night came on, renaering any further 
efforts in this region of no roads and bottomless morasses utterly 
impossible. The chief of staff of the insurgents' commander has since 
informed me that they were holding a conference as to the dispositions 
to be made for resistance the next day when the firing began. The 
result was that their forces were utterly broken up, part taking the 
road leading to Dingle, part the pass over the mountains to Capiz, and 
part over the mountain trail to Concepci6n. Their loss has been 
reported as 19 killed; some guns, 15 rifles, and 14 horses were taken. 
We were so unfortunate as to lose 2 killed, one of whom was a bat- 
talion conunander. Captain Warwick, Eighteenth Infantry. His loss 
was greatly felt by the entire command. 

Colonel Kice reached Passi with the train on the evening of the 27th. 
The scattering of the enemy the day before had cleared the province 
of Iloilo of organized bodies of insurgents, and it was decidea to send 
Colonel Rice to Doilo to occupy the province with his regiment to pro- 
tect property and preserve order. The Second Battalion of the 
Twenty-sixth Infantry, U. S. V., was ordered to proceed on the morn- 
ing of the 28th to Jaro. The instructions given Colonel Rice were to 
occupy Leon, Cabatuan, Pototan, Sara, and such other points as might 
be found necessary for the preservation of order, and to select com- 
manders from the various commands of occupation who would bring 
a sound judgment to bear on the various troublesome questions likely 
to arise. 

Summary for November. 

Enemy's loss: 

Killed 95 

Wounded 6 

Captured 4 

Rines captured 21 

Guns captured 18 

Our loss: 

Killed 5 

Wounded 31 

It was decided to continue the campaign by crossing the mountains 
into Capiz province with the following troops: 

Gordon's scouts. 

Lieutenant Ostheim' s battery. 

Captain Shank's (late Captain Warwick's) battalion, Eighteenth Infantry. 

Major Leefe's and Major Huston's battalions, Nineteenth Infantry. 

The pass over the mountains is a very difficult one and no wheels 
could be taken. We had succeeded in getting enough apareios for our 
pack mules. The train discharged all subsistence supplies still on hand 
and wius sei^it to Pototan under escort of Captain Shank's battalion, 
Eighteenth Infantry, where it was to park tne wagons and load the 


animals with packs of further supplies and return to Passi. The other 
troops of this command were to remain at Passi and put the trail in 
condition for 4 or 6 miles out, look into the conditions at San Enrique, 
and drive the detachment of insurgents out of Abaca and destroy the 
remnants of the arsenal which the insurgents had dragged from Maasin, 
dropping parts from time to time by the way. 

Colonel Carpenter was directed to embark a battalion of his com- 
mand on the transport Elcarw and proceed to Banate, where a portion 
of it would be disembarked and take up the trail from Abaca to Le- 
mery at San Rafael, while the balance would be disembarked at Ajui 
and proceed to Sara, the time being calculated so that the two com- 
manos would meet at Sara. The projected plans worked out to a nicety. 
Colonel Rice took possession of the province promptly. Major Huston 
knocking the few insurgents out of Abaca in time for the Eighteenth 
Infantry to strike them near Sara, killing an officer and man and cap- 
turing some horses. 

The mountain command left Passi on the morning of December 5 
with ten days' rations and the reserve ammunition on pack animals, 
mules, bulls, and canibao. No opposition was offered until after cross- 
ing the divide, when incomplete defensive works were first met, and 
finally a detachment of insurgents opened fire on our advance from a 
fine position to the left and front and on the left or opposite bank of 
the Tagabon. The scouts and advance guard, aided by Captain Lewis's 
company. Eighteenth Infantry, put them to flight in a few moments, 
and the command and part of the pack train reached Dumarao that 
evening. Lieut. B. H. Wells, Eighteenth Infantry, field quailermas- 
ter and commissary, with his train, was struggling with the difficulties 
of the trail and did not get in until the next day. 

On the 6th the main command continued its march to Cuartero, 
leaving a guard in Dumarao to bring on the tmin to Dao next day. 
Cuartero was vacated by the inhabitants. The following day the com- 
mand reached Dao, which the inhabitants had not vacated. The train 
came in and all was in noniial condition. An effort was made to find 
passable trails by which battalions could be sent to the right and left, 
for Diocno was still in Capiz and it was hoped he would not be able to 
get out. Unfortunately the seasons of heav}' rains are not contempo- 
raneous on the two sides of the mountains, and Capiz province was still 
flooded with water and plenty more falling from day to day. The traits 
to Sapian and Maayon were found to be utterly impracticable, and it 
was necessary to follow the main road down the Panay the next day as 
far as Panitan, from which point it was possible for footmen in fine 
physical condition to make tneir way to ivisan on the left and Ponte- 
vedra on the right. The morning of the 8th, Major Huston crossed 
the Panav with the able-bodied men of his battalion and marched to 
Pontevedra, while Captain Shanks with the like men of his battalion 
took the trail to the left and marched to Ivisan; and the headquarters, 
scouts, battery, Leefe's battalion, the sick and weak of the detached 
battalions and the train, followed the main road to Loctugan. The 
following day the command concentrated at Capiz, to find that Diocno 
had sailed off and no one could be found who would tell whither he 
had gone. Romblon, Batangas, Calivo, and Ibajay were all given as 
his objective. Some said he went in one small vessel and others that 
he had seven. It was finally concluded that none of them were know- 
ingly telling the truth, except as to the date of his departure, which all 
agreed was on the evening of the 7th. 


During this time Colonel Carpenter had followed the coast of Con- 
cepci6n with the transport Elcano^ while a battalion of his command 
covered that territory and found no enemy after leaving Sai*a. He 
finally embarked his battalion at Estancia and arrived off Capiz on the 
morning of the 12th. 

In examining the documents captured in Capiz it was found that 
Romblon seemed to be a distributmg center for the insurgents, and 
having examined the situation on a previous occasion, it was determined 
to take the place and put a small garrison, and, incidentally, keep 
Diocno traveling, if it should so happen that he had gone there. I 
should have stated that Captain Ackley with his naval warship had 
come to the mouth of the Panay on the night of the 11th in order to 
be within hail '' to lend a hand" should opportunity offer. He offered 
to accompany the troops to Romblon and clear the way for their 
landing. Twacompanies of Major Paul's battalion. Eighteenth Infan- 
try, were ordered to remain on the transport, and Colonel Carpenter 
disembarked, taking with him the headquarters and two companies of 
the battalion. He was assigned to the command of the city of Capiz, 
and such military dependent stations as might be established in that 

Major Huston was directed to take command of the scouts, one 
platoon of the mountain battery, his own battalion and the train and 
return to Hollo by way of Tapas and Colinog pass, which he duly 
accomplished by much determination and hard work. 

One platoon of the mountain battery and Major Leefe's battalion. 
Nineteenth Infantry, were directed to hold themselves in readiness to 
embark for Cebu on notice, and the transport Elcano then sailed on 
the evening of December 15 for Romblon, carrying Companies C and D, 
Eighteenth Infantry, under command of Capt. M. McFarland and 
Lieut. H. B. Fiske, Eighteenth Infantry, with the Concord as guide. 
We arrived off Romblon harbor on the morning of the 16th, and after 
examining the situation a landing was effected under the protection of 
the guns of the Concord. The navy gunboat Pampanga towed one 
section of landing boats and the launch of the Concord the other. 
While approaching the place selected for the landing the enemy opened 
fire from various points and succeeded in killing one of our men and 
severely wounding one of the sailors of the Pampanga. The Concord 
meantime opened fire on the trenches in which the insurgents were 
concealed and the rapidity of the running caused thereby was quite 
remarkable. In thirty minutes from the firing of the first shot Lieu- 
tenant Fiske was seen hauling down the insurgent flag, which they did 
not stop to get. 

After landing supplies for this new garrison we returned to Capiz 
and picked up Major Leefe's battalion. Nineteenth Infantry, and one 
platoon of the mountain battery and transferred them to Cebu, and 
returned to Iloilo on December 21. 

On arriving at Iloilo, it was found that Negros had been greatly dis- 
turbed during December. 

Before severing communication with the office, the subdistrict com- 
mander had been notified that the plans of campaign might result in a 
few people seeking refuge on Negros. As an obstacle to such a cur- 
rent, a company was sent to Guimaras to prevent the use of that island 
as a stepping stone on the way across. The gunboats were notified of 

WAR 1900 — ^VOL 1, PT V 16 


the probabilities and were on the qui vive, but notwithstanding these 
precautions some 40 to 60 insurgents, with rifles and cartridges, man- 
aged to escape to Negros. 

In addition to the landing of the Tagal fugitives from Panay, dele- 
gates from the junta at Hongkong had reached Negros to preach a 
crusade against the provisional civil government which had been 
established on the island, and had succeeded in getting some follow- 
ing, and had in embryo a project for oveii:hrowing the authorities and 
expelling the troops. Their schemes were closely watched and the 
subdistnct commander was well advised of what was going on. 

Lieutenatnt Ledyard, Sixth Infantry, was sent out wim a detach- 
ment to occupy Maao as a point of observation. In scouting about he 
was fortunate enough to hnd the whole combined force of 63 rifles 
and 320 macheteros at Hacienda Palencia. Lieutenant Ledyard had 
15 soldiers and 10 natives with which he attacked at once and drove 
the revolutionists from their chosen position into a camarin in rear. 
He then prepared and engaged in an attack on the camarin, when he 
was killed by a rifle ball. One native police was also killed. The 
command having fallen to Coi*poral Purcell, he retired the command 
and reported to Lieut. Col. Byrne, at Carlota. It was subsequently 
ascertained that the revolutionists lost 16 killed in Lieutenant Led- 
yard's attack. 

On December 8 an attack was made on the detachment in Ginigaran 
(Sergeant Brown, Sixth Infantiy, and 11 men). The attacking force 
is reported as 60 rifles and 250 macheteros. The fight was kept up 
from 3 p. m. until daybreak the next morning, when the enemy van- 
ished, leaving 3 dead. 

The Babajdones seeing their neighbors fully entertained, concluded 
they would come down and glean. Sergeant Roeder, Sixth Infantry, 
with 20 men and 20 native police, happened to be unoccupied at the 
time and allowed these people to come within 200 yards of him when 
he opened fire and killed 28. 

Colonel Rice, in compliance with instructions, had spread his regi- 
ment over the province of Iloilo, and had invited the towns to organize 
their municipal governments and get their public schools in operation, 
and have the lines of communication put in passable condition. These 
things were strenuously objected to by the wandering insurgents, now 
known as ladrones. This metamorphosis was simple. The msurgents 
invited the mountain robbers of Negros and Panay to join their forces, 
which some of them did. When the organizations were broken up 
these Babaylones and Pulajans went back to their fonner occupation, 
plus a rifle and supply of ammunition. But some organized corps of 
insurgents still held together, and one of these made an effort against 
Capt. C. M. Brownell's Company, Twenty-sixth Infantry, United States 
Volunteers, at Sam. The troops were taken entirely by surprise, but 
promptly seized their arms and assumed the offensive, driving their 
assailants out with heavy loss. Captain Brownell's report is inclosed. 

On December 28, Capt. Fred McDonald, Twenty-sixth Infantry, 
U. S. Volunteers, reported a skirmish with ladrones near Guimbal m 
which the enemy suffered a loss of 14 killed. During these worries 
the local commanders were not in communication with the district 
commander and not being satisfied with the action of his representative, 
called on corps headquarters for additional troops, so that on his return 
to Iloilo he found a battalion of the Forty -fourth Infantry, U. S. Vol- 


unteers, going to Ne^os and the balance of the reffiment about to 
arrive. The destination of the regiment was as follows: First Bat- 
talion, Subdistrict of Negros; Second Battalion, Panay; headquarters, 
band and Third Battalion went to Subdistrict of Cebu. The aggregate 
strength of the brigade was now just 8,000. 

Summary for December. 

Enemy's Iohs, kille<l 88 

Our loss: 

Killed 1 

Wounded 3 

When the additional battalion was taken to Ccbu in December, the 
conmianding officer of that subdistrict was instructed to clear the 
insurgents out of the Sudlon Mountains. He asked for another bat- 
talion of troops, which he was promptly told he could not have, and 
measures were taken to put two commands in the field to accomplish 
the job. One, consisting of three companies Forty-fourth Infantry, 
U. S. Volunteers, Maj. H. B. McCoy, Forty-fourth Infantry, U. S. 
Volunteers, conmianding, and three companies of Nineteenth Infantry 
and one of the Twenty -third Infantry, Maj. T. C. Woodbury, Nine- 
teenth Infantry, commanding, was under the personal direction of 
Col. E. J. McUlernand, Forty-fourth U. S. Volunteers. The second, 
or turning column, consisted of a battalion of the xSineteenth Infantry, 
under Maj. J. G. Leefe. The operation was given to Colonel McCler- 
nand. The insurgents did not wait to contest possession of the moun- 
tain tops but cut and ran on the approach of the troops. Our losses as 
reported appear to have been 2 men of the Nineteenth infantry wounded, 
and the loss of the enemy 10 killed. (All reports of subordinate com- 
manders inclosed.) 

Major McCoy pursued the fugitives down the west side of the 
mountains, and finally reached Balamban on the coast. He took 8 of 
the enemy prisoners. 

This operation completed the occupation of all the provinces in the 
district of the Visayas with the exception of Antique, in Panay. 
On the 2d of January the companies or the Sixth Infantry in Cebu 
were returned to Panay, and it was decided to make up a mixed com- 
mand at Uoilo and cross the mountains into Antique by the mountain 
passes, which might result in getting an engagement out of the enemy, 
and so contribute to their education. The project was as follows: 
Gordon's scouts, 2 mountain guns of Battery 0, Sixth Artillery, under 
Lieut. R. H. McMaster, Sixth Artillery; two and a half companies of 
the Sixth Infantry, under Capt. G. B. Walker, Sixth Infantry, were 
sent down the coast road with a pack ti-ain. On the day they reached 
San Joaquin, Major Huston's battalion, Nineteenth Infantry, was put 
on board the JElcano at Uoilo and landed at San Joaquin with supplies 
for his battalion and Captain Walker's. 

The same day Lieut. Col. W. S. Scott, Forty-fourth Infantry, U. S. 
Volunteers, with three companies of his regiment, was to go by land 
transportation to Igbaras, where he would abandon his wagons and 

Eroceed by the trailleading over the mountains to Bogo, the intention 
eing to have his command meet the enemy which Major Huston's 
command was expected to run out of San Jos6 de Buena Vista and 
Sibalon. Major Huston's command succeeded in crossing the range 
and reaching La Granja on the 17th. Colonel Scott was struggling 


that night with the difficulty of the trail on the upper Tangian. Early 
on the morning of the 18th the enemy was located in a well chosen and 
fully prepared position on the Antique Kiver, the passage of which 
they seemed inclined to dispute. 

During the night the gunboats Concord and Pa/mpanaa had arrived 
off, and when the ball opened our enemies found that the cooperating 
forces could, under favorable circumstances, make it hot in the old 
town. They had built heavy rifle pits on the thither bank of the river 
and had prepared positions for infantry and artillery on a rough moun- 
tain side shooting out on the hither side at right angles. Major Huston 
allowed the people along the river to be entertained by the gunboats 
while he attacked the mountain flank with all his force. He brushed 
this away in half an hour, capturing 2 guns, one being a Nordenfeldt 
machine gun, also some prisoners. Having driven out their left, he 
was able to cross the river without opposition and so envelop the right 
of the enemy, if they stayed, which they did not do. 

Huston pushed for Sibalon via Engana, and, although the whole 
country was dug up in making artificial protection for defense, not a 
shot was fired. The entire population of Sibalon had fled, and the evi- 
dences were that the military contingent had gone very hurriedly. 
Gordon's scouts pushed them well up toward Remigio, and it was 
hoped that Colonel Scott would have an opportunity to hit them an 
effective blow, but they learned at San Remigio of Colonel Scott's 
approach from Bogo and buried their ammunition, permitting their 
Spanish prisoners to escape, and scattered in the mountains right and 
left. Major Huston's battalion was left at San Jose, with instructions 
to clear the country of insurgents and to keep order in the province, 
and have municipal governments organized and public schools put in 
operation. Lieutenant-Colonel Scott arrived in ban Jos6 with a good 
many men greatly exhausted. He was instructed to put 200 of his 
men, physically nt, on board the transport Elcano and run up the 
coast and disembark at Colasi and let his command rest until the arrival 
of the scouts, mountain guns, and Captain Walker's battalion, who 
were on the march up the shore. These commands assembled at Colasi, 
Captain Walker's battalion having left the main road but once, at 
Tibiao. Information was given that the insurgents had a force and an 
arsenal up the Tibiao River in the vicinity of arroyo Cuinabon, and a 
reconnoissance was sent out under Captain Gordon, but nothing more 
than a subsistence supply of rice was found. At Colasi native carriers 
were employed, and Lieutenant-Colonel Scott's command was directed 
to take the trail by Paningayon Mountain to the vicinity of Libacao 
and Madalag, on the Aclan, and follow the valley to Calivo. Captain 
Walker was sent with two companies of his battalion on the transport 
Elcano to Pandan with instructions to push out at once to Santa Ana, 
at which place it was reported the fugitives were assembling. After 
accomplishing his mission he was to return to Pandan. The scouts, 
mountain guns, and train, under Captain Gordon, followed the 
coast road to Pandan. Captain Walker found nothing but sub- 
sistence supplies at Santa Ana, and having returned to Pandan, 
marched with the combined command through Santa Cruz pass to Navas, 
Ibajay, Macata, and Calivo. The marches of Captain Walker's and 
Colonel Scott's command were calculated carefully and it was hoped 
they would arrive at Calivo about the same time. On the approach of 
Gordon's scouts the insurgents fled up the Aclan Valley, but Colonel 


Scott had met with greater obstacles than had been allowed for, and 
had thus lost a day, and the fugitives scattered in the mountains. 
Colonel Scott met no opposition except at the fording of the river near 
Madalag, when he was opened on by a small band of possibly 20 rifles, 
which had selected a position on the mountain side and had obtainea 
the range, and before the command could be gotten under cover and 
open fire 1 man was wounded. A few volleys scattered the enemy, 
and Colonel Scott joined with his command at Calivo the following 
day. After scouting the country and securing certain infoimation as 
to the possibility of landing supplies for a command at Lagatic, by way 
of Puerto de Batan, Major Walker was directed to remain in Calivo 
and given command of two companies of the Sixth Infantry with 
which to keep the vicinity clear of insurgents. Lieutenant-Colonel 
Scott's command was greatly exhausted by the exceptional hardships 
it had to overcome on the mountain trail, and was embarked on the 
transport Elcano for Iloilo. Captain Gordon was directed to return 
overland with his scouts, the mountain guns, and the train, with 
which Lieut. C. N. Purdy, Sixth Infantry, and a half company of the 
Sixth Infantry was assigned as escort. Captain Gordon's instructions 
were that on arriving at Novas the scouts should continue around the 
coast of the cape shooting out on the northwestern point of the island 
and ascertain the condition of the towns, harbors, etc., and meet the 
train at Pandan. The escort of the train was fired upon in coming 
through the pass and had 1 man killed. Captain Gordon assembled 
the command at Pandan and continued his march down the coast. On 
my arrival at Iloilo a report was received from Major Huston that the 
enemy had shown too much strength about Bugason and Valderrama 
for his means, and instructions were sent Captain Gordon to report 
to him with his command on arrival at San Jos6 de Buena Vista. 
Major Huston moved out to Cangaranon, sending Lieut. G. I. Feeter, 
Nineteenth Infantry, with a detachment to hold the pass between Bogo 
and Valderrama. The enemy was found on the opposite side of the 
Cangaranon River. After some skinnishing. Major Huston concluded 
that nis three companies, the mountain scouts, and the mounted guns 
were not strong enough to meet the situation, and returned with his 
command to San Jos6 de Buena Vista and recalled Lieutenant Feeter's 
detachment. In these operations Major Huston had 1 man killed and 
3 wounded. Lieutenant Feeter had 2 men wounded. Captain Gordon 
then continued his march to Iloilo, arriving in due time without incident. 

In Concepcion Lieut. Col. W. M. Van Home, Eighteenth Infantry, 
sent out commands from time to time, the most successful of which was 
one made to Pili, Colac>i, etc., by Capt. C. M. Brownell, Twenty-sixth 
Infantry, U. S. V., and Lieut. O. E. Hunt, Eighteenth Infantry, in 
which the reports show 10 insurgents killed and still more captured. 

Colonel Carpenter having been promoted, Maj. C. R. Paul, Eighteenth 
Infantry, as commanding officer at Capiz, sent out commands from time 
to time on such information as he could obtain, but no marked advan- 
tage was obtained. 

In the subdistrict of Nogros, Lieutenant-Colonel Byrne, Fortieth 
Infantry, U. S. V. (Captain, Sixth Infantry), commanding in the Car- 
lota district, succeededin surprising a band of revolutionists in hiding 
in the mountains, and his report accounts for 22 of the enemy killed 
and 28 rifles captured. 


Stnnmary for Janimry. 

Enemy's loss: 

Killed 42 

Captured 10 

Our loss: 

KUled 2 

Wounded 7 

By the 1st of February the enemy seemed to be so broken up that a 
platoon could go almost anywhere in the district except in the Antique 
province, where they held to their or^nization, which was peculiar, 
but excellently adapted to the peculiarities of the terrain. They had 
but ten companies to protect this entire shoestring of a province, which 
extends along 120 miles of seacoast and has an almost impenetrable 
range of mountains as a backing along almost the entire length, lower- 
ing only in the north and south extremities. The spurs from the main 
range give excellent points for observation and far-reaching signals, 
and a lorce that is spread along the province in sections can be con- 
centrated in an almost incredible short space of time. 

Lieut. O. E. Hunt, Eighteenth Infantry, made a successful raid on 
Carlos, province of Concepcion, on the night of February 2, and cap- 
tured the insurgent governor, with his guard, some rifles, etc. This 
seems to have been the closing act with tne insurgents in that coman- 
dancia, as all the disturbances there since appear to have been caused 
by robbers. 

On the night of the 11th, Maj. E. D. Anderson, Twenty-sixth 
Infantry, U. S. V., with a small command, surprised the quarters of 
Martin Delgado, but only succeeded in capturing his morganatic wife. 

On February 19, Capt. M. C. Raysor, Forty-fourth Infantry, 
U. S. v., made a night attack on Quintin Sallas and Joaquin de la 
Pena, in which some execution was done. 

On the 20th, Lieutenant-Colonel Dickman, Twenty -sixth Infantry, 
U. S. v., made a dash on the insurgents in the mountains east of 

On the 22d, Lieut. F. C. Bolles, Sixth Infantry, with 75 men, was 
attacked on the march, near Tangolan, by 150 Tagals, who had chosen 
a position where he could not reach them. Lieutenant Bolles and 3 men 
were wounded. 

Sergeant Wysor, Nineteenth Infantry, had a skirmish with insur- 
gents near Danao, Cebu, on the 25th, in which he lost 2 wounded and 
3 missing. 

Early m March, Maj. H. C. Hale, Forty-fourth Infantry, U. S. V., 
with two companies. Forty-fourth Infantry, were withdrawn from 
the subdistrict of Ne^ros for the occupation of Bohol, but before send- 
ing the command to its ultimate destination it was determined that it 
should go to aid Major Huston in Antique to make a clearing up of 
the situation about Valderrama where he was lacing annoyed. Major 
Huston moved from San Jose de Buenavista, on the 8th, on Valder- 
rama via Sibalon, Cuyapiao and Ignoy, while Major Hale's battalion 
was landed at Bugason and moved on Valderrama by the direct line. 
The commands met at the objective, finding that the enemy had fled. 
Major Huston met some opposition and had 1 man mortally wounded. 
On the 6th, Lieutenant-Colonel Scott, with three companies of the 
Forty-fourth, projected a movement against an organized body of 
insurgents who had taken refuge in the Dumangas manglares. Gapt. 


M. C Kaysor's company succeeded in stumbling upon their hiding 
place on the 6th, and also in driving them out and burning their quar- 
ters, barracks, and supplies. Only 3 were known to have been killed. 
On March 22, Lieut. A. S. Brookes, Eighteenth Infantry, with Com- 
pany L, had an affair with some Tagalogs nuar Cabug Cabug, in Capiz 
province, in which 18 of the enemy were killed and 4 wounded and 
captured. Following up the discomfited enemy with 50 of his com- 

Pmy he succeeded in bringing them to a second action on the 23d, near 
ilar, in which 8 more of the enemy were killed. Company L lost 
1 corporal killed, 1 sergeant moitally wounded, and 1 private slightly 
wounded. Taking the two days' work as a whole. Company L seems 
to have first place in the district up to date. 

The subdistrict of Negros has been undisturbed. 

In the subdistrict of Cebu, Major McCoy, Forty-fourth Infantry, 
U. S. v., found a band of insurgents intrenched near Guinon on the 
11th and scattered them, with a loss of 5 in their strength. 

On the 31st the same officer found the force of General Verdeflor 
and succeeded in killing him and 5 of his followers. On the 22d Lieut. 
G. S. Goodale, Twenty-third Infantry, stumbled upon a band of insur- 
gents, in the night, near Guadalupe Church, and inflicted some loss 
on it. In these affairs 8 rifles were captured. 

On the 17th Major Hale, Forty-fourth Infantrjr, U. S. V., landed 
in the island of Bohol and took possession of Tagbilaran without anj^ 
resistance beyond that of a written protest read by the insular presi- 
dente. Major Hale's instructions were to disseminate the command 
over the island as the development of conditions would justify. 

Summari/ for March. 

Enemy^e loss: 

Killed 29 

Wounded and captured 5 

Our loss: 

Killed 2 

Wounded 1 

On the 29th of March, by General Orders, No. 38, Adjutant-Gen- 
eral's Office, the Visa^^an Militarj^ District and First Separate Brigade, 
Eighth Army Corps, was discontmued and a department of the Visayas 
created. The unaersigned was designated as commander of the new 
department, and assumed the command on the 19th of April. The new 
department consisted of the former district of the Visayas, plus the 
islands of Samar and Leyte. The department was divided into four 
districts, as follows: 

First district. — Islands of Samar and Leyte; Col. Arthur Murray, Forty-third In- 
fantry, U. S. v., commanding. 

Second district. — Islands of Cebu and Bohol; Col. K. J. McClemand, Forty-fourth 
Infantry, U. S. V., commanding. 

Third district. — Islands of Negros and Siquijor; Brig. Gen. James F. Smith, U. S. V., 

Fourth district. — Islands of Panay and Guimaras; Col. E. Rice, Twenty-sixth Infan- 
try, U. S. v., commanding. 

The day the order assuming command was issued, a four days' strug- 
gle of directed skill against a leaderless mob was fortunately ended at 
Uatubig, a nipa village in the island of Samar, located on the banks of 
the river Catubig, which flows north and empties into the Straits of 
San Bernardino at Lagnan. A detachment of 31 men had been placed 


at Catubig and left without an officer. Being inexperienced and new 
to the service, and finding themselves surrounded by great odds, they 
assumed a strictly defensive attitude in their barracks, which permit- 
ted the enemy to approach under cover and set their barracks on fire 
and so expel them. They then crossed the plaza and attempted, appar- 
ently, to embark in native boats, whether to cross the river or sail 
down it is not known. In this effort about half the detachment, includ- 
ing the 2 sergeants with it, were killed, and Corporal Carson, Com- 
pany H, Forty- third Infantry, U. S. V., found himself in charge. He 
chose a defensive position where he could keep his men under cover, 
and with the few remaining men gallantly stood the enemy off for two 
days and nights, until Lieutenant Sweeney with a dozen men finally 
reached them and brought them away. Our loss in this disastrous 
affair was 19 killed and 3 wounded. The loss suffered by the enemy 
is not known. 

After assuming command, a visit to Saraar and Leyte developed the 
fact that the Forty-third Infantry, U. S. Volunteers, which constituted 
the entire force of the district, had undertaken more than they could 
accomplish. The situation demanded more troops than could be 
extracted from the other districts, but it seemed practicable to secure 
enough for the overrunning of one of these islands at a time. With 
this policy in view, one company was withdrawn from Samar, which 
was not required there while in a purely defensive status; two com- 
panies of the Twenty-third U. S. Infantry were drawn from the sec- 
ond district, and two of the Forty-fourth Infantry, U. S. Volunteers, 
from the third district and sent to Leyte. These troops having arrived, 
the enemy under Moxica was attacked April 26, at La Paz, by Maj. 
L. C. Andrews, Forty -third Infantry, U. S. Volunteers, with a mixed 
command composed of companies of the Twenty -third Infantry, Forty- 
third and Forty -fourth Infantry, U. S. Volunteers. Moxica's people 
were routed, abandoning their guns and much other material. (Jur 
loss, 2 killed and 11 wounded; enemy's loss, not known. 

In the second district. Major McCoy, Forty-fourth Infantry, U. S, 
Volunteers, found a detachment of the enemy at Alegria on April 22, 
and reports having killed 12 of them. 

The third district reports all quiet. 

In the fourth district, Major Anderson, Twenty-sixth Infantry, U. S. 
Volunteers, stirred up an organized Tagalo outfit in northwest Iloilo 
on April 17. They had fixed themselves in an almost unapproachable 
position, but by destroying their source of supplies he worked them 
out with the loss in his command of 4 wounded. 

Summarij for . ipril. 

Enemy's loss: 

Killed 19 

Wounded 6 

Our loss: 

Killed 21 

Wounded 9 

In the first district. Major Andrews, Forty-third Infantry, U. S. 
Volunteers, attacked Hilongos, Leyte, on May 6, with a mixed com- 
mand of the Twenty-third Infantry and Forty-third Infantry, U. S. 
Volunteers, and took the town by assault. He captured quite a num- 
ber of guns and 14 rifles. Enemy's loss, 84 killed and 21 wounded; 
our loss, 4 wounded. 


May 24, Captain Prescott, Forty-third Infantry, U. S. Volun- 
teers, attacked enemy at Pasigoy. Enemy's loss, 3 killed; our loss, 2 

May 25, Lieut. C. C. Estes, Forty-third Infantry, U. S. Volunteers, 
attacked the enemy at Alangalang. fineniy's loss, 12 killed ; our loss, nil. 

May 26, enemy attacked Catbalogan. Enemy's loss, 10; our loss, nil. 

May 26, Capt. J. S. Fair, Forty-third Infantry, U. S. Volunteers, 
attacked town near Jibatang. Enemy's loss, 8 killed; our loss, nil. 

May 29, Lieut. J. N. Truden, Forty-third Infantry, U. S. Volunteers, 
was attacked in Palo. Enemy's loss, 12 killed; our own loss, 1 wounded. 

Second district, Lieut. F. G. Stritzinger, Twenty-third Infantry, 
made an active scout in southern Cebu and found an enemy. Suc- 
ceeded in bringing him to a fight and reports killing 5. He had 1 man 

Third district, all quiet. 

Fourth district, Lieut. A. S. Brookes, Eighteenth U. S. Infantry, 
made an expedition through Capiz province, via Jagnaya, Jamindon, 
and Madalag. In the Aclan Valley he was joined by a force from 
Calivo, under Capt. C. G. Morton, Sixth U. b. Infantry, and the two 
commands cooperated against what was reported as 300 rifles to the 
west of Molinao and Macato, but were unable to bring the enemy to 
bay. Some long-range firing and the destruction of snelter and sup- 
plies was the best that could be effected. 

Lieutenant-Colonel Scott, Forty-fourth Infantry, U. S. Volunteers, 
was sent to Antique with the second battalion of his regiment to take 
charge of that province and strengthen the force there. He found 
Fullon endeavoring to disturb the garrisons about San Jose, and at once 
took the field. In some skirmishing that occurred near Patnongan our 
troops had 2 noncommissioned officers killed and a private wounded. 
The loss of the enemy, not known. (Report inclosed.) 

Ibajay and Pandan were occupied. Found the enemy on the 10th 
instant and ran him out. (Report inclosed.) Captain Gordon, with 
the scouts dismounted, and Company H, Eighteenth Infantry, was sent 
over the mountains from Miagao mto Antique to disturb the enemy 
from the rear. (His report inclosed^ 

Colonel Salazar, chief of staff of General Fullon, and Major Adri- 
atico, of the staff of Diocno, came to visit me to ascertain what could 
be done toward coming to a peaceable settlement of our quarrel. They 
remained some days and were told they would find no fault in the lib- 
erality of the terms after they surrendered their arms, but we did not 
make terms with armed enemies. As usual, they did not hav^e any 
clear idea of what they wanted beyond ^'independence." The prelim- 
inary step on our part as prescribed for establishing municipal govern- 
ments was shown them; also the plan for organizing the judicial sys- 
tem. They expressed themselves as fully content, personally, with 
the policy of our Government, but that they needed something more 
to enable them to carry their followers with them. As we had noth- 
ing more to offer except powder and lead, they were sent to their 
respective commanders and their reports made. The finale was a per- 
sonal letter from Colonel Salazar, saying that General Orders No. 40 
was good enough so far as it went, but it was only a military order, 
whicli could be revoked at any time. 


Summary for May, 

Enemy's loss: 

Killed 134 

Wounded 21 

Our loss: 

Killed 2 

Wounded 8 

On the night of June 2 the opening of a new effort which had been 
in preparation for some months was initiated bj an attack on the gar- 
rison of Barotac Nuevo, which consisted of a platoon of the Twenty- 
sixth Infantry, U. S. Volunteers, Lieut. H. M. Fales, Twenty-sixth 
Infantry, U. S. Volunteers, commanding. The attack was a surprise, 
and 3 men were wounded before the men could turn out and equip, 
but Lieutenant Fales took the offensive at once, in his pajamas, and 
after he had gotten his rifles going he had no more men hurt in his 
command and the assailants were driven off promptly. This was fol- 
lowed the following night by an attack on tne detachment in Pavia, 
which was protected by a section in charge of a sergeant of the Twenty- 
sixth Infantry, U. S. Volunteers. The presidente of the town had 
been wounded before the sergeant was made aware of what was going 
on, but he made short work of the assailants when notified, killing 4 
of them. Then followed an attack on Dumangas. On the 6th it had 
become apparent that the insurgents were assembling in the vicinity 
of Dumangas, and Capt. F. H. Peck, Twenty-sixth Infantry, .U. S. 
Volunteers, was sent with 60 men to reenforce the platoon already 
there under Lieut. R. L. Fernald, Twenty-sixth Infantry, U. S. Vol- 
unteers. Captain Peck met some opposition on his march between 
Barotac Nuevo and Dumangas, and on arrival announced his intentions 
of burning the town. At the hour designated he started the fire on 
the lee side of the church and convent which was used as his barrack. 
At this the enemy opened on him with rifle and torch, but they lighted 
their fires to the windward of the church and convent and succeeded 
in burning both. This drove Captain Peck's command into the plaza, 
where he remained until the next day, and then, after destroying all 

Eroperty that he could not take with him, he marched his command to 
larotac Nuevo. He had 1 man killed and 1 had an arm broken. On 
the 9th an attack was made on Maasin, where Capt. E. L. Butts, Eight- 
eenth Infantry, took the offensive with vigor, and reports killing 14 
and capturing 13 without loss on his side. 

On June 15, Capt. S. Burkhardt, Nineteenth Infantry, found the 
enemy near Nalupa Nuevo, Antique, and brought him to action, in- 
flicting some loss, but just the extent of it he does not state except as 

On m}' return from Leyte, directions were given Lieut. A. L. Conger. 
Eighteenth Infantry, then in command of Gordon's scouts, to proceed 
at once to the vicinity of Dumangas and locate the enemy. He finally 
found them, or they found him, on the line of the old bed of the Jalaur. 
The enemy had at least twenty to one of Conger's force present, but 
fortunately not one half of the number had rifles. Their line was so 
long that Lieutenant Conger could not attack it all, so he broke through 
the center and scattered the line, but in so doing he had a man mor- 
tally wounded, and he could not take care of his wounded man and con- 
tinue the action, so he drew off with 1 insurgent captain as an evidence 


of where he had been, leaving 6 of the enemy dead on the field as an 
evidence to them that he had been there. 

Having found where the enemy were hibernating, a command was 
made up of the scouts and provost guard under command of Capt. 
John Hickey, Twenty-sixth Infantry, U. S. Volunteers, to clear them 
out, and the district commander was directed to send a company to 
reoccupy Dumangas, which was done. 

Captain Hickey had to fight his way up the river, but had but 1 
nian wounded. He reports having killed 7 of the enemy. 

Lieut. Col. W. S. Scott, Foi-ty-fourth Infantry, U. S. Volunteers, 
did some excellent work in Antique and northwestern Capiz during 
the month, but his reports have been forwarded without the data being 

In the third district all had been quiet. 

In the second district Lieut. W. W. Fiscus, Nineteenth Infantry, 
found an enemy and had a few shots, killing 6 of them without loss 
to himself. 

In the first district, on the night of June 8, the enemy attacked 
Catbalogan. Result: Enemy's loss, 2 killed, 1 prisoner; our loss, nil. 

June 10 the enemy attacked Tanatan with 18 riflemen and 400 bolo- 
men. Driven off with loss of 72 killed; our loss, nil. 

On June 12 Major Gilmore, Forty -third Infantry, U. S. Volun- 
teers, had a skirmish near Calbayog in which the enemy lost 2 killed; 
our loss, nil. 

June 13 Capt. W. L. Goldsborough, Forty-third Infantry, U. S. 
Volunteers, was attacked at Dagami. Enemy driven off. Enemy's 
loss, 3 killed, 1 wounded, 30 prisoners; our loss, nil. 

June 14 Lieut. C. C. Estes, Forty -third Infantry, U. S. Volunteers, 
attacked the enemy 8 miles west of Jaroand scattered them. Enemy's 
loss, 8 killed; our loss, nil. 

June 14 Lieut. J. N. Truden's command attacked enemy near Male- 
nong and scattered them. Enemy's loss, 7 killed and 10 prisoners; 
our loss, nil. 

Summary for June. 

Enemy's loss: 

Killed 141 

Wounded 1 

Prisoners 54 

Our loss: 

Killed 1 

Wounded 9 

Summary for the year. 

Enemy's loss: 

Killed 801 

Wounded 38 

Captured 100 

Our loss: 

Killed 40 

Drowned 3 

Wounded 72 

Early in the summer of 1899 it became evident that something would 
have to be done to relieve the anxieties of the people of Negros. The 
provisional government had fonnulated and submitted for approval 
a constitution under which they thought their happiness might be 
furthered. It was forwarded to the United States, out no action had 


been taken and could not be taken for some time. The military gov- 
ernor foimulated a plan for a representative provisional government 
which was published in General Orders, No. 30, series 1899, and 
directed to be put in operation. In this order it was provided that a 
civil government and council should be chosen by the people. General 
Smith was chosen by the then military governor of the archipelago — 
General Otis — to carry out the provisions of the order. The choice 

E roved to be an exceptionally happy one, and General Smith's work 
as given very general satisfaction. After receiving the order he had 
a careful registration made of those entitled to the right of the fran- 
chise under the conditions specified. This registration showed that 
there were between five and six thoasand voters. 

The poll lists were made out and an election was duly held on the 
2d day of October for a civil governor and an advisory council. The 
election went off quietly, and although the count developed the fact 
that the popular vote had given them a surprise, still there was no 
trouble wnatever, and on the 6th of November the governor and coun- 
cil were inducted into their oflBces. In December the agents of the 
insurrectionary party in the archipelago undertook the organization 
and development of a revolution m Negros. The ruthless handling 
they received in a few collisions with the Sixth Infantry satisfied them 
that somebody had blundered and they gave up the effort. Since that 
time Negros has been at peace and all the island industries have been 
pursued with confidence in their present safety and future prosperity. 

In Panay all the important towns on the coast are occupied by our 
troops, and the two great rice-producing valleys, Iloilo and Panay, 
are fairlyprotected. The 30 companies on the island occupy as many 
towns. Tiiere are about 1,200 rifles still in the hands of organizations 
operating against us. A small per cent of them are organized bands 
of robbers, T)ut there are possibly 1,000 rifles still in the possession of 
organized insurgents. In Antique, Fullon has eSOO, which he has kept 
fairly well in hand. In Capiz there are two commands, one directly 
under Diocno, which has been held in the mountainous district to the 
west of Capiz, and another in the mountains southwest, under Estebon 
Cuartero. The two together claim to be able to unite 500 rifles. In 
Iloilo, Delgado, Quintin Sallas, and Joaquin de la Pena hold com- 
mands. It is estimated that in the attack on Dumangas they united 
between four and five hundred rifles. Under such conditions our 
Panay garrisons have to be kept strong enough to stand off any one 
of these commands as a unit until assistance can reach them. Some 
additional rifles found their way into the island in June through the 
north coast. The}" are reported to have been brought from Luzon by 
one Solis, who came down to reconcile differences between Diocno and 

These commands live in small barrios in detachments, and go about 
in the usual Sinimay dress, and as the people of the island are a unit 
against us, no case of betrayal has 3^et occurred. On the question at 
issue no Judas has been found in the million of people. 

In Cebu the island seems to be fairly covered by our troops, but 
there are a few wandering insurgents in the hills, with possibly 100 
rifles. They go about in small detachments and disturb the peace 
very greatly. The troops find much difficulty in meeting with them, 
but the number of these malechores is being gradually diminished. 


Maj. H. C. Hale, Forty-fourth Infantry, U. S. Volunteers, com- 
manding Bohol, reports his people tranquil and following their daily 

In Leyte there are but few rifles in the hands of the insurgents and 
those who have them do not know how to use them. They have 
always carried the bolo and if they succeed in getting insiae of a 
soldier's guard they are apt to do some execution. Fortunately they 
have seldom succeeded in accomplishing much, and are becoming con- 
scious of their inability to cope with our weapons, and a better state 
of things is gradually growing. Colonel Murray, Forty-third Infan- 
try, U. S. Volunteers, nas the island girdled with troops, occupying 
the larger towns, and is connecting the two coasts by trails, and au 
seems to point to a speedy subduing of the recalcitrant people on that 

The internal disturbances have greatly demoralized the industries 
of these islands. Under normal conditions, Panay and Cebu should 
grow enough to carry their population through the year. Panay is a 
great rice-growing island and crops are regular and the yield excel- 
lent. In Oebu a great deal of corn is grown, for which the country is 
adapted. Negros is a sugar-growing island and, owing to the greater 

Erofit in that article, the growth of food-stuffs for home consumption 
as been greatly neglected. No deficiency is reported from Bohol. 
Their deficiency in corn has usually been supplied from Cebu, but as 
very little planting has been done in Cebu, it may ultimately appear 
that Bohol is short. Leyte is a hemp-producing island, and food- 
stuffs have always been supplied to help out the short supply of rice 
of home production. 

Complaints of want have come in from Leyte, Cebu, and Negros. 
Efforts have been and are being made to supply work on public works, 
highways, etc. , to enable the poor to supply their necessities by pur- 
chase of rice being imported from China, but whether these efforts 
will be sufficient to meet the case is still uncertain. The great trouble 
lies in the fact that the suffering falls on the innocent. The insurrecto, 
bandit, or fanatic goes about with a rifle and levies on the poor villager 
for what he wishes, and it has to be given. The time has about come 
when the floating population of these islands should be given occupa- 
tion. They are, as a whole, weary of their disturbed condition, but 
some measures should be taken toprovide occupation for the men who 
have been idle for a long time. Each island has its own needs, and it 
is only a question of what should be taken up. In Negros, Bohol, 
Cebu, and Leyte, roads and port facilities are greatly needed. In 
Panay a lightly equipped railway running from the vicinity of Iloilo 
to Capiz would be oi great value to the rice and tobacco growers. 
There would be no difficulty in overcoming the obstacles in the pass of 
the mountains, and there would not necessarily be any exceptional 
gradients. The volume and fall of the waters of the Jalaur and Panay 
would supply all the motive power such a road would require. 

Some enterprising man might find employment for many men by 
bringing water into Iloilo and its suburbs of Jaro and Molo. I think 
an abundant supply could be gotten from the river Aganan, where it 
leaves the mountains near Alimodian. I had the volume of this stream 
measured by an expert during the height of the dry season, and it was 
then running off between one and two millions of gallons per day. The 
level was run from mean low water on the stmt to Alimodian, and the 


difference in elevation was reported as 164 feet, which would be ample 
for conduction by gravity. An effort was made to consolidate Ilouo, 
Jaro, Molo, and ]V&nduriao into one municipality, which it was sup- 
posed would enable them to manage a water supply and an electric 
tight system of themselves, but it was found that there would be dissat- 
isfaction with such a measure in one of the suburbs, and the matter 
went no further. 

The great majority of the towns have their schools in working order, 
but books are difficult to get, and good teachers are a rarity. By 
patience and persistence the little people will be qualified for the fran- 
chise by the tune they have acquired the necessary age. 

Thus far we have been able to open but two civil courts, one in Cebu 
and one for Uoilo, province of Fanay. We hope to be able to find 
competent judges for the other districts of the department in the near 
future, but the trouble has been in finding competent lawyers who 
were willing to accept the position. 

Respectfully submitted. 

R. P. Hughes, 
Brigadier- General^ Co^mncmding, 

t » 


Hdqrs. Department of Mindanao and Jolo, 

Zamhoanga^ P. /., September 10^ 1900, 

Division of the Philippines^ Manila^ P, L 

Sir: I have the honor to submit the following report of military 
operations in the department of Mindanao and Jolo for the period 
ending July 31, 1900: 

The Department of Mindanao and Jolo, excluding a number of 
unimportant islands, consists of the island of Mindanao, the Jolo 
Archipelago, and the island of Paragua, the last of which has never 
been occupied by United States troops. 

The Jolo Archipelago was occupied in May, 1899, by the Twenty- 
third Infantry, and these were the first troops to take station in any 
part of what is now the department. 

About the same time the port of Zamboanga in southern Mindanao 
was blockaded, and on November 16, 1899, the place was occupied by 
a naval force under Commander Samuel V. Very, U. S. N., on invita- 
tion of a party hostile to the insurrection, ana this led to the per- 
manent occupation, three companies of the Twenty-third Infantry 
from Jolo being sent for to hold the place temporarily and to establish 

On October 30, 1899, the islands now constituting the department 
were announced as the military district of Mindanao and Jolo, under 
command of Brig. Gen. John C. Bates, U. S. V. 

In November and December, 1899, the Thirty-first Infantry, U. S. 
Volunteers, was ordered to Mindanao and occupied places on the 
southern and eastern coast (relieving the companies of the Twenty- 
third Infantry at Zamboanga), as follows: 


Zamboanga ... 








Headquarters, field staff and band, and Companies A, B, C, 
and D, Thirty-first Infantry, U. S. V. 

Headquarters, Second Battalion, and Companies F, G, and H, 
Thirty-first Infantry. U.S. V. 

Headquarters, Third Battalion, Company I, Thirty-first In- 
fantry, U.S.V. 

Company E, Thirty-first Infantry, U. S. V 

Company L, Thirty-first Infantry, U. S. V 

Company E, Thirty-first Infantry, U.S. V 

Company M, Thirty-first Infantry, U. S. V 












All of these places were occupied without resistance, and as a rule 

the troops met with friendly reception from Moros and Filipinos 





General Bates's time had been much occupied with negotiating the 
treaty with the Sultan of Jolo, and later by the demand for his pres- 
ence in field operations elsewhere, but in March, 1900, he proceeded 
with the Fortieth Infantry, U. S. Volunteers, from southern Luzon, 
and occupied, also without opposition, the places on northern coast of 
Mindanao, as follows: 





Company B, Fortieth Infantry, U. S. V 

Heauquartcrs. field staff and band, and Companies I, K, L, 

and M. Fortieth Infantry, U. S. V. 
Headquarters. Second Battalion, and Companies £, F, Q, and 

H. Fortieth Infantry, U.S.V. 
Headquarters, First Battalion, and Companies C and D, Foi^ 

tieth Infantry, U.S.V. 
Company A, Fortieth Infantry, U.S.V 

Mar. 27.1900 


Mar. 29.1900 

x^sa^u J •*" ............... 


Mar. 81,1900 



Apr. 1, 1900 

The organization and occupation of the district, with headquarters 
at Zamboanga, was hereby completed. 

On March 20, 1900, General Bates was relieved from further duty 
in the district, and the undersigned, by the same order, while still 
engaged in establishing the ports that had been opened in the hemp 
districts of the archipelago, was assigned to this command. 

On April 7, 1900, tne district was made the Department of Mindanao 
and Jolo, the order taking eflfect April 24, 1900, and the undersigned, 
having arrived at Zamboanga on April 14, 1900, assumed command. 

The department is divided into four districts, the tirst and second 
including the whole of Mindanao, the third the Jolo Archipelago, and 
the fourth the unoccupied island of Paragua. Subdistricts for Min- 
danao have since been established which will receive mention here- 
after, and in the Jolo Archipelago the commanding officers at Siassi 
and Bongao are exofficio surxlistrict commanders for the Siassi and 
Tawi Tawi groups of islands, respectively. 

The military operations in the department may be sharply differen- 
tiated as follows: 

First. Operations under the Bates treaty in the Jolo Archipelago, 

Second. Operations on the north coast of Mindanao against hostile 

Third. Operations on the south and east coast of Mindanao to rees- 
tablish good order and government, to regulate the intercourse between 
Filipinos and Moros, and to secure and maintain the confidence of the 
alien races inhabiting this section. 


?. Jolo Archipelago is dominated by the treaty or 
rig. Gen., now Maj. Gen.. John C. Bates, U. S. V,, 

The situation in the 
agreement made by Br. ^. >.va..,,.w„ ^..«j. ^v.».j 

with the Sultan of Jolo, August, 1899. This treaty was no doubt 
imposed by international obligations, has received the approval of the 
highest authority, and is therefore beyond discussion in a military 
report. Its effects, however, appear to be far-reaching. 

The salient article of the treaty is article 3, which states that " the 
rights and dignities of his highness, the sultan and his datos, shall be 
fully respected," but his rights are not defined and are not limited. 


It is known that sultan and datos inflict arbitrary fines and punish- 
ments, enrich themselves by these means, and support by them large 
numbers of idle retainers. It is believed that this destroys all incentive 
to work and keeps the common Moro and the islands poor. The sultan 
claims also inherited rights in the p>earl fisheries over vast and unde- 
fined areas of waters, the right to let and sublet these privileges, and 
to punish, sometimes cruefly, what he considers encroachments on 

Under Article IX, which provides for the punishment of offenses 
and crimes, very unequal punishments may be and frequently are 
awarded for the same offense, as, e. ^., if a Chinaman and Moro com- 
mit an offense jointly. In a case like this the Chinaman mi^ht be 
fined and imprisoned for a short period after due trial by the military 
provost court, while the Moro, banded over to the custody of the sul- 
tan, would be subjected to any one of a number of excessive penalties, 
often including death. 

Under Article VIII the sultan and his datos agree to cooperate with 
the United States authorities to suppress piracy. This cooperation 
can not be controlled, and is believed to be perfunctory and valueless, 
because piracy has existed in one form or another for many years and 
is considered by the average Moro a perfectly fair game. 

Information was received that about May 15 last 6 Moros from the 
island of Amaral, within the jurisdiction ot the United States, butch- 
ered, near the island of Kulan, off the eaist coast of Dutch Borneo, 5 
Borneo Moros and 1 Borneo Chinaman, took from them $6,000 in 
money and merchandise valued at $20,000 and sunk their vessel; also 
that tne perpetrators of these outrages were in hiding at a village on 
the island of Jolo. with the connivance of the people. After usual 
oriental delays ana explanations — this being a case of Moro against 
Moro — ^the sultan was induced to cooperate with an American force in 
surrounding the village, with the result, however, that 5 of the alleged 
pirates escaped into the jungle^ while only 1 was delivered up. In the 
opinion of tne commanding officer of the troops, the men escaped with 
the connivance and aid of the sultan's posse, while the prisoner sur- 
rendered is believed to be a mere scapegoat. 

This and many other complications arising under the treaty are 
receiving investigation, infinitely delayed by lack of means of com- 


A number of expeditions were sent out from Jolo, both by water 
and overland to other parts of the island, sometimes under the guise 
of practice marches, and reaching a strength of 5 companies of infan- 
try and 2 machine guns. Their oDJect, as a rule, was to bring pressure 
to bear to bring about compliancies with treaty stipulations or to pre- 
vent internecine war on the part of the Moros. These objects were 
always attained without bloodshed. 

In May it was reported to Capt. S. A. Cloman, Twenty-third Infan- 
iry, commanding the Tawi Tawi group at Bongao, that a pirate chief 
and his followers were in hiding on Seminole Island, after capturing 
and selling into slavery a boy from Maibun, and after murdering 
his attendants. A demand sent to Seminole Island for the surrender 

WAR 1900— VOJ, 1, PT V 17 


of the culprits was met by evasive replies, amounting to a ref asal. 
Captain Cloman promptly sent boats to adjacent islands to summon a 
posse of friendly datos and their followers, and proceeded with these 
and as many as he could find boats for, to Seminole Island, where he 
arrested the pirate and followers in the face of what threatened to be 
a determined^ resistance, and ultimately recovered the boy, although 
the latter had been sold as a slave in Borneo. 

A party of 5 soldiers from Bongao hunting and map making at a dis- 
tance from the post, after friendly mtcrcourse with a number of natives, 
had 2 of their number treacherously murdered and 2 others very badly 
wounded, all with krises, borongs, or other native weapons. Cap- 
tain Cloman went to the scene of the murder, 22 mues distant, 
with 45 men, took possession of their village and killed the murderers 
endeavoring to escape. 


A map of this island, which is appended, shows in colors the distri- 
bution of races, and that, roughly speaking, the great interior is inhab- 
ited by pagan tribes, while the coast is occupied more or less closely 
by Moros and Filipino- Visayans. Ignoring the large and influential 
Filipino population at or near Zamboanga and their unimportant set- 
tlements m the vicinity of Cottabato and Davao, the Filipmos may be 
said to occupy the northern and eastern coa^sts of the island, while the 
southern and western coast^; arc occupied })v Moros. There is, in addi- 
tion, a large Moro population inhabiting the interior in the region of 
the great lakes, said to number anywhere from 250,000 to 350,000. 
The visayans do not differ materially from those in the northern 
islands; if anvthing, are superior to them, and are a law-abiding, well- 
conducted, Cnristian people. All of the Moros are Mohammedans, 
but those living on the coast have natumlly reached a higher stage of 
so-called civilization, because of contact with Europeans. The lake 
Moros, also Mohammedans, are stiid to be impatient of restraint and 
to wage w^ar for purposes of plunder a^inst each other and against 
the pagan tribes. Oi these latter very little is known, as each tribe 
occupies its ow n section of country and few individuals ever leave, 
though the Subanos, on the western peninsula, frequent the coast, and 
sometimes settle there in considera])le numbers, while at Davao, Bago- 
bas, and on the (nistorn coa^t. Mandovans may f rexjuently be met with 
in the towns. Some of the trib<\^ nuin])er but a few hundred, others 
from 20,000 to 80,(X>0, the formci* continually decreasing in strength, 
as they appear to be considered legitimate prey by the latter. Une 
tribe, the Tirurays, is visibly approaching extinction by starvation, 
and its wretched survivors infest the neighborhood of Cottabato, where 
they are being fed by the militiiry authorities in return for nominal 
work on roads, i^tc. Beyond these, however, the pagans ai'e physically, 
as a rule, a tine and handsome race, and in the case of the oubanos, at 
least, are admitted by Moros and Mohammedans alike to be industri- 
ous, peaceable, and honest. 

With diversity of race, religion, and habitat in the department it 
was necessary to adopt a military and civil policy' varying with the 
locality, but based on sincere convictions that the people are, on the 
whole, as outlined in the foregoing sketch, and constitute a large and 
promising f I'at^tion of a ''much maligned race." Concisely stated^ this 
lK)licy h}i8 consisted and will consist in maintaining a comparatively 

! t 
' f 


., •* -v^. V 


large force at Davao to establish friendly relations with the pagan 
tribes in the vicinity of Mount Apo, and, through them, with those to 
the northward; and a still larger force at Cottabato, Malabang, 
Tucuran, Iligan and Misamis, to invite the confidence of the interior 
lake Moros tnrough those of their number who frequent these places 
to barter and trade. Beyond this, the Filipino settlements on the east 
coast have needed some protection against tne neighboring Mandayans, 
who steal cattle and sometimes run off children as slaves. Near 
Cagayan on the north coast, a considerable force of insurrectos has 
gathered, consisting largely of Tagalos, apparently well organized and 
led, perhaps from &0 to 600 strong, and with some 200 effective rifles. 
This force pretends to operate under orders from the so-called insur- 
gent government, to observe the rules of civilized warfare, and is 
usually strongly entrenched in inaccessible places. It has, therefore, 
been necessary to retain a large force at Cagayan, part of which, 
however, is always held in readiness and is often used for duty in 
emergencies at other places. A band of ladrones infests the region 
between Oroquieta and Misamis, and this has made it necessary to 
occupy the former place with one company, to which will soon be 
added another. 

To aid in carrying out these measures, subdistricts have been estab- 
lished at Davao, Cottabato, and Misamis, commanded, respectively, 
by Mai. Hunter Liggett, Thirty -first Infantry, U. S. V.; Mai. John E. 
McMahon, Thirty-First Infantry, U. S. V., and Maj. M. M. McNamee, 
Fortieth Infantry, U. S. V. It is the good fortune of the department 
conmiander that these officers, together with Col. E. A. Godwin, For- 
tieth Infantrv, U. S. V., Col. James S. Pettit, Thirty -first Infantry, 
U. S. v., and Maj. Owen J. Sweet, Twenty-third Infantry, command- 
ing the First, Second, and Third districts, respectively, have given 
him most loyal and efficient aid under conditions of service that are 
very trying. 

At Davao it seemed necessary first of all to construct roads, and 40 
or 50 miles are already in use with good results. The number of tribes- 
men coming in on market days is increasing rapidly. These roads will 
be extended as fast as funds become available, and should eventually 
reach the navigable waters of the Butuan River to the north, and those 
of the Rio Grande to the west, facilitating and inviting intertribal 
intercourse and trade and stimulating industry and production and the 
export of surplus products from the coast. As long as the officers now 
in charge remain, confidence in them and in the American troops will 
far outstrip road building, and the tribesmen themselves, as has already 
happened, will aid in their construction. 

At Cotta-bato, the focus of the Moro population on the seacoast, the 
problem is different. Here there are many rival datos, and some of 
them have acquired considerable wealth in money, weapons, household 
utensils, landed property, and cattle, especially during the interreg- 
num and before that when opportunity offered during the period of 
Spanish occupation and aggression. There is no doubt that much of 
this property is booty, and lell naturally to the share of the most power- 
ful. Much of the work of the department still consists in the receiving 
and hearing of complaints and requests for the return of the property 
which can rarely be adjudicated. The government of each dato is 

Eaternal and, while arbitrary, is by no means oppressive, and the result 
as been that certain datos are becoming more powerful and rich at 


the expense of poorer rivals, because the followers and retainers of 
the latter leave tnem and seek the distinction, protection* and comforts 
which the former offer. 

The wealthy and powerful datos are naturallv anxious for stable 
government, and in every case have welcomed and aided the American 
occupation. While this was dictated at first by self-interest, it is to 
the credit of our officers and men that by good example and honorable 
dealing they have converted these aliens into staunch and even enthusi- 
astic sulherents. At Zamboanga a Moro community has grown up, 
almost over night, which is a thriving, industrious, clean, and well- 
governed conamunity, in charge of Kajah Muda Mandi. Dato Pian^, 
near Cottabato and elsewhere in that section, has established and is 
establishing others in all of which Americans are most welcome guests, 
and where the American flag is everywhere in evidence. 

It is the intention to establish, in the immediate future, a considera- 
ble garrison at Malabang, placing there troops of the permanent 
establishment, so that the policy to be inaugurated shall be continuous 
and cooperating with troops from the same regiment at Iligan. The 
officers in command at both places have been selected, and thev are 
thoroughly imbued with the importance of securing and maintaining 
the confidence of the lake Moros and providing them with protection ana 
with markets on the coast. The garrison at Malabang will be further 
instructed to endeavor to build up a Moro community of families, now 
scattered in that vicinity and the lower river counfiT, provide them 
with a suitable location for a village, and encourage ttem to cultivate 
the ground. All, or nearly all, of these families nave at one time or 
another suffered from the dc^predations or exactions of the more 
powerful datos, and many of them are living from hand to mouth. 
With the power and prosperity that follows community of interest, 
and under the protection of American troops, these people should do 
well and the scars of a troubled period grad\ially disappear. 

The detachment of troops at Tucuran will be placed there mainly to 
establish communication by wire with the north coast, but will be 
instructed to cooperate with the garrison at Misamis in every way. 

When a native police can be armed in the towns on the east coast, 
the two companies there can be withdrawn and troops will be available 
for the unoccupied region ]>etween Tucuran and the Zamboanga pen- 


During April, Lieut. M. B. Wilhoit, Thirty-first Infantry, U. S. 
v., went from Cottabato up the Rio Grande for over 2(K) miles, accom- 
panied only by Moro guides and boatmen. The policy of going amon^ 
the people and allowing oflicers to go among them alone and unarmed 
brought forth most remarkable results in establishing friendly relations 
with the Moros, who arc the principal inhabitants of the Rio Grande 
de Mindanao Valley. This policy was so much in contrast with the 
policy of the Spaniards, who never permitted their oflScers to leave the 
town except under a strong guard of armed soldiers, that it never failed 
to take the Moros bv surprise, and it proved that not only was our con- 
fidence not mispla<*ed, but that the Moro is not all bad, as some Spanish 
historians would lead us to believe. 

Some weeks later a Mr. Whitmarsh, starting from Davao, made the 
ascent of Mount Apo, accompanied by an officer of the Thirty-first 


Infantry, U. S. V., and native guides. Mr. Whitmarsh, who is an 
experienced traveler, appears to be only the third or fourth European 
to accomplish the ascent, and the natives regard the mountain with 
too much superstitious awe ever to attempt it. 

On both of these expeditions conmiunication was held with indi- 
viduals of interior tribes, and their importance lies mainly in the fact 
that they indicate that, with ordinary prudence and tact, parties 
properly equipped, organized, and instructed may penetrate the inte- 
rior of Mindanao without danger and without arousing distrust. 

From some of the eastern posts the tree dwellings of the Mandoyans, 
some of them 60 feet or more from the ground, can be seen here and 
there on the mountain sides and some of them have been visited by 
oflScers and men from the station. 

On April 24, the pueblo of Callalanuan, 5 or 6 miles from Parang 
Parang, was raided by Moros from Malabang under Dato Udasan, 
taking considerable property, and, it is said, carrying away slaves. 
The raiding party came m vmtas and the outrage occurred essentially 
within the region occupied by our troops. The conunanding oflScer 
at Cottabato, therefore, very properly went to Malabang with a force 
of 26 men to investigate the affair and if possible arrest Udasan. 
Unfortunately he also took with him a posse of armed Moros, the 
follower of a rival dato, and when during the conference a shot was 
fired, apparently from a Moro stockade, firing for a few minutes 
between the Moros became general and resulted m the killing of Dato 
Amirul and one other of the Malabang party. To avoid further com- 
plications, the commanding officer at Cottabato, after stopping the fir- 
ing, withdrew, without accomplishing his mission. 

The original raid on Malabang was the result of a long-standing 
feud antedating American occupation, and the matter has since 
received very careful attention from the department commander 
through personal visit and conference precedea by an investigation 
made on the spot by the acting inspector-general. The post of 
Cottabato was reenf orced by two companies from Zamboanga (one since 
recalled) and two Maxim-Nordenfeldt guns. 

Early in the morning on April 7, Cagayan was attacked by several 
hundred insurgents, armed with bolos and rifles. The attack was veiy 
determined, but ill-considered, and was repelled in half an hour. Our 
loss was 2 men killed and 11, including Captain Watson, wounded, 
2 of them mortally. The insurgents lost 52 killed, 9 wounded, and 10 

On May 14, Capt. Walter B. Elliott, Fortieth Infantry, U. S. V., 
with 80 men, proceeded to Agusan, about 10 miles from Cagayan, to 
dislodge about 500 insurgents who were intrenched there with 200 
rifles and shotguns. The attack was successful, with the loss of 2 
killed and 3 wounded on our side. The insurgents left 38 dead and 4 
wounded in the intrenchments, and 35 Remington rifles were captured. 

On June 14 Capt. Thomas Millar, Fortieth Infantry, U. S. v., dur- 
ing the absence of the permanent commanding officer, with 100 men 
proceeded directly back into an almost impassable country to again 
attack the insurgent forces, with the result tnat the latter were found 
intrenched or in inaccessible positions and forming an ambush, into 
which our troops marched. Practically surrounded bv an enemy they 
could not reach, we lost in a short time 9 or 10 men killed and 2 officers 
and 7 men wounded, nearly all belonging to the advance guard. The 


command then retreated, leaving their dead and most of the rifles of 
those killed. An attempt to advance against a part of the hostile posi- 
tion was frustrated by encountering innumerable arrow traps and 
trouo-de-loups, to which one of the officers and a number of the men 
owe their wounds. 

The palpable mismanagement in this affair consists in not having 
reconnoitered the enemy's position, but there appears to be no means 
of reaching a force intrenched, as was this one, in a carefully selected 
x)sition, which must be approached in single file through a pathless 
; ungle, nor any reason why it should be attacked at all, because, under 
;he circumstances, it does not threaten our troops nor any natives 
under their protection, and it is sufficient to keep it under observation. 

On July 14 Cagayan was reenf orced by 170 men of the Twenty-third 
Infantry and 2 Maxim-Nordenfeldt guns. 

On May 5, 1900, Captain Lambdin, Fortieth Infantry, U. S. V., 
with 40 men, took temporary station at Loculan, 4 miles east of Misamis, 
by order of the commanding officer of the latter place. They were 
well received, but on the morning of the 14th the guard was attacked 
by a sudden rash of natives in civilian dress, who drew concealed dag- 
gers and killed 7 and wounded 4. This onslaught was immediately 
followed by reenf orcements surging in from all directions, but the 
command was ready and beat them off without difficulty. They left 
52 dead lying in the streets, who were buried by our men, and 5 more 
were found af tei-wards; also about 20 wounded. This attack and that 
at Cagayan were made undoubtedly by natives inexperienced in fight- 
ing American soldiers, and who had been told by their leaders that they 
had nothing to fear. The lesson taught them on both occasions has 
not been lost. 


About 12 miles north of Zamboanga, on the western coast, lies the 
extensive domain of San Bamon, commonly known as the Government 
farm. It is bounded on one side by the sea, and the direction of the 
two boundary lines perpendicular to the coast is clearly marked. How 
far it extends back into the interior is not known and is not important, 
as in that direction all of the land probably belongs to the Government. 
The Spanish had here a penal colony, with numerous buildings, saw- 
mill, sugar mill, blacksmith and repair shops, and employed many 
convicts in cultivating upward of 1,000 acres of land with cocoanuts, 
sugar cane, abaci., and some coffee and cocoa. When this department 
was established many of the buildings had been destroyed and all of 
them were much dilapidated, excepting that containing the valuable 
machinery of sawmill and sugar plant. Many parts of the machinery 
had been carried away, and all or it was in bad condition. 

This valuable property has received the attention that it should 
have from the department commander. An officer has been placed in 
charge, buildings susceptible of repair are being placed in order, and 
the necessary parts of the sawmill machinery having been received, it 
will be in worKing order in September unaer a competent engineer 
and with expert labor. Requisitions to restore the sugar plant are 
being prepared. About 60 natives are employed in clearing the land, 
which was overgrown with a mass of tropical undergrowth. As many 
of these as are necessary are engaged in getting out and stripping abac& 


and in preparing copra from the nuts gathered in the extensive grove 
of cocoa trees, to pay the wages of all. These products find a ready 
sale in Manila, the "hemp" being of a specially fine quality. When 
the sawmill is in operation it should furnish abundant lumber for use 
in the demrtment, and eventually for use elsewhere. It is understood 
that the division commander is not averse to establishing there a gen- 
eral i)rison for the Philippines, and the plan is entirely feasible. With 
suflScient convict labor the farm should not only pay all expenses, 
including those of the sawmill, but should proviclo a large surplus in 


Owing to its remoteness, and because it was frequently necessary to 
divert supply ships coming from Manila for other uses, and for other 
reasons tnat do not require mention, the supply of this department, 
especially in subsistence stores, has been unsatisfactory. The condi- 
tions are improving. None of the troops have suffered, excepting 
perhaps from lack of variety and sometimes from the quality of the 
stores received. Many of these had been in Tampa or Cuba, were unfit 
for issue, and the loss by condemnation has been very large. By July, 
or, by the latest, August, the chartered steamers on auty m this depart- 
ment will make trips to Manila as nearly as possible on schedule time, 
and it will then be easy to accumulate supplies at posts for several 
months in advance. 


The large fort at Zamboanga, in which the walls of the burned bar- 
rack buildings are still standing, is being converted into a general 
depot for stores pertaining to all the departments. In addition, one 
front will contain offices for depot officers and clerks and another 
quarters for civilian clerks, interpreters, noncommissioned staff offi- 
cers, and civilian employees generally, wno are now hard put to it to 
find any accommodations whatever. When completed many build- 
ings for which the Government is now paying rent can be vacated. 

All the posts in this department are on the seacoast, and it seems 
therefore evident that a large depot of subsistence stores should not 
be established, because vessels carrying supplies with little additional 
cost and labor can deliver them where they are required. This is not 
true of the quartermaster stores, medical supplies, and ordnance, 
S)ecause the demand for these varies and can not be predicted in 
:;advance. A reasonable supply of subsistence stores, however, should 
.l)e ;kept on hand, especially of nonperishable sales stores, for which the 
tdemand under service conditions here is altogether abnormal. 

The supply of this department direct from San Francisco, which 
rcould be accomplished by a steamer of about 4,000 tons gross tonnage, 
making about three round trips per annum, has no doubt received 
consideration by higher authority. 


There are about 240 civilian employees in the department, and a 
considerable number of them are not efficient. It is improbable that 
these were appointed with any assurance that they comd render an 


equivalent in service for pay. The creation by law of an army -serv- 
ice corps would increase tne discipline and efficiency of teamsters and 
others in similar employ to whom the provisions of the sixty-third 
article of war can not be conveniently applied, excepting in case of 
grave misdemeanors. 


The health of the troops at all posts in the department, with the 
exception of Jolo, has been good; the medical officers are efficient and 
the medical and hospital supplies ample. Attention is invited tx) 
appended report of the chief surgeon and, among other recommenda- 
tions, to those relating to ice plants and cold storage. 


The only government in the Jolo Archipelago is that under the treaty 
by which the Sultan and the military commander exercise separate or 
ioint control. For obvious reasons the provisions of General Orders, 
No. 40, have not been applicable to conditions in Mindanao, nor were 
they intended to be. Nevertheless, at all places occupied by our troops, 
and at a number of others under their protection or within their influ- 
ence, that are inhabited wholly or in part by Filipinos, good municipal 
governments have been established. In their nature they do not diner 
materially from those established elsewhere under the provisions of 
General Orders, No. 43, of 1899, but in most cases it had oeen possible 
to extend these provisions, particularly to all that relates to municipal 
taxation, by supplementing them with regulations taken bodily or 
modified from General Orders, No. 40. The consensus of reports on 
this subject is altogether favorable and encouraging. From repeated 
personal visits and from assurances made to him by natives of every 
class, the department commander is confident that these towns have 
never before enjoyed the prosperity, security, good order, cleanliness, 
and health that they now enjoy. 

At Zamboanga, l!)avao, on the east coast, in the region near Dapitan, 
and, to a lesser degree, at Surigao, the towns are ripe for an extension 
of whatever civil government may be finally adopted and for consoli- 
dation into provinces. 


The subject of taxation is one to which officers of the army have 
given little or no attention, and which everywhere is relegated to 
experts and specialists. Without attempting to discuss it here in its 
relation to this department, it is certain that the system in use is not 
well adapted to the purpose, and works unevenly and unjustly. It 
falls too neavily on some and too lightly on others. Genemlly speak- 
ing, an industrial tax is believed to be objectionable, especially in the 
case of a people recovering from the effects of misgovernment and war, 
and cheerfully paying municipal assessments to rehabilitate their towns 
and restore order. The urbana tax has been levied intermittently, but 
titles to property must long remain unsettled, as they are now, and 
there appears to be no standard by which rental values can be estab- 
lished at present. Progress has been made at Zamboanga and else- 
where in searching, establishing, and recording titles, and much has 


been done by compromise and collateral inducements in returning prop- 
erty to persons who could show an equitable, if not legal, claun, and 
depriving others of it whose claim was simply that of possession or as 
having received it as a gift from persons temporarily m authority. 

The novel and sometimes distasteful duties pertaining to the collec- 
tion of customs and internal revenue have been well performed by 
officers detailed for the purpose. These offices are now in smooth 
operation, are supervised by the department, district, subdistrict, and 
post commanders, according to their location, and are inspected by the 
mspector-general of the department. 


In considering this subject, it will be convenient to eliminate the 
Jolo Arcbipelago, for there the schools will be confined for the present 
to tho^ at Jolo, with an attendance compjosed of a motley but well- 
dressed and well-behaved bevy of 200 pupils, of almost every Eastern 
race. This does not include Moros, but aprominent dato, who recently 
visited the schools, expressed his surprise and gratification that the 
teaching was not confined exclusively to religious subjects, and he 
announced his intention of sending his own children there. At Siassi 
and Bongao, to quote the report of Capt. S. A. Cloman, Twenty-third 
Infantry, '^several blackboards and an exorbitant amount of chalk are 
about everything at present necessary." It may be added here that 
blackboards and plenty of chalk, including colored cmyons, should be 
furnished everywhere in the department, and that the whole system 
of education should begin with something like kindergarten methods, 
notwithstanding an ambitious demand for text-books on advanced 

In the first district 8 schools are established, and 4 others contem- 
plated, with an attendance of 1,125 pupils. Buildings are available at 
all places, excepting Misamis. In the second district 25 schools are 
open, to be increas^ by 10 this year, and with an attendance of from 
2,000 to 2,500 pupils. About 28 buildings are available, and the others 
most be built. 

Referring to the whole department, the buildings occupied for school 

Eurposes are either vacant structures used for the purpose, or which 
ave been built more or less recently as schoolhouses. In many cases 
buildings have been provided by the provisional municipal authorities 
or built at the expense of the municipality, and teachers paid from the 
municipal fund. In other cases buildings have been erected and 
teachers paid at the expense of the civil fund. While this is confessedly 
irregular, it was an ungrateful task to resist a demand for schools accom- 
panied by a credible plea of poverty, and the necessary amount was 
usually granted. 

In all of the schools there is a strong desire to learn English, and the 
children learn it readily. There are, properly speaking, no English 
teachers, but soldiers have been detailed for the purpose, who perionn 
their duty well and take pride in their classes. Tne cnildren like to 
attend, are very punctual, and they or their parents, or both, insist that 
tliey are immaculately clean i n dress or person. If an officer in authority 
enters the schoolroom the children rise together and shout in chorus 
''Good morning," and again ''Good-by " wnen he leaves. 

The instruction is largely oral, but good text-books have been received 
or are under way for distribution. 



Very complete and very interesting reports are on file at department 
headquai'ters from all posts, and are available there. They cover the 
civil and military histoiy of American occupation, and, as far as possi- 
ble, the history of the country under Spanish rule; also the results of 
painstaking investigation and observation of the habits, customs, and 
character of native peoples. Printed, they would fill several volumes, 
and it is not practicable to append them. A few extracts from these 
reports are selected to be given here, in order to present a picture of 
American occupation of a very remote region : 

[Capt. S. A. Cloman, Twenty-third Infantry,] 

Every poaeible opportunity is given the men to indulge in hunting, swimming, fish- 
ing, and Doating, and from one to three squads are usually out camping on this or 
adjoining island. Two small sailboats and a number of Moro boats are in use daily. 
There is a small library where all send their books and papers, and a post exchange 
that is maintained with the usual good results. 

In spite of this Bongao remains a desolate, silent post, with but small opportunity 
for work other than fatigue, and for pleasure other than departing from it. There 
is not eyen a native \allage on the islands, a few scattered huts of ex-slayes being its 
nearest approach. Steamers are sometimes a month apart, and it is not surprising 
that a company gradually deteriorates as in the days of a one-com|)auy post, the 
hunting, etc. , decreasing, and the moping increasing, as the weeks go by, with a 
gradual but sure increase in the sick list, mat the surgeon pronoimces to fee mostly 
due to mental anoemia, produced by the isolation. The officers with their more 
active mental life stand it better than the men. 

The inhabitants of this group (Tawi Tawi) are the Boian. They are all either 
pirates, ex-pirates, or descendants of pirates, but now rarely exercise their craft and 
then only on each other. All the boats go armed, and, in fact, the carrying of 
weapons is universal. 

• [Capt. Samuel Seay, jr., Twenty-third Infantry.] 

Has doubled in population since our occupation. Its trade is increasing, being 
largely with natives of neighboring islands who bring their products in boats. £ach 
boat is compelled to bring two coral rocks each trip, the stones thus obtained being 
used in municipal improvements. No other tax is exacted of them. The customs, 
etc., of the natives are never interfered with, except when necessary, which is sel- 
dom. We deal with them through the datos and uphold the authority of the latter 
in their respective districts, and these begin to regard themselves as representing the 
United States. When it is necessary to arrest a criminal in any outlying locality, a 
written order sent to the dato by a policeman has never failed to result in nis appear- 
ance in a few days, with a fleet of ooata flying our flag and bringing the prisoner. 

Every effort has been made to encourage legitimate pursuits of peace. There are 
a chief of police, 5 roimdsmen, and a force of scaven^rs. Natives eagerly seek these 
positions and are zealous and efficient. The town is policed and the streets swept 
twice daily. Each inhabitant is required to keep a trash box at his door, which is 
emptied by the scavengers. The mortality of the town is less than 1 a month. The 
natives conform readily to municipal regulations and to our laws in general, and show 
a law abiding spirit which is highly creditable. Laws for their government should 
be simple, carefully explained to tnem, and scrupulously enforcea. There will then 
be few violations. They are amenable to reason and can be readily led by those in 
whom they have confidence, but they mistrust all stranjjers. Like all Asiatics, they 
have an all-prevailing respect for power and are best satisfied imder a strong hand, 
provided it is not us«i to oppress them. An important feature of their character is 
that they do not become sullen under pimishment, when they know why they are 
being punished and knew, when committing an offense, that it was contrary to 
American laws. They submit with an acquiescence that makes one dispoeea to 
remit the punishment. 

The islands in this group are very fertile and supported at one time a large popu- 
lation, as shown by cleared forests, numerous graves, overgrown ])aths, and remains 


of houses. If law and order are maintained under a strong government, the natives 
will partake themselves more to small farming, instead of huddling in villages near 
the water for protection or to seek safety in fli^t when alarmed. They will endeavor 
to accumulate property, having confidence that it will not \)e taken from them. 
After patient efforts some have been induced to farm rice. 

The making in January of a duty port of Siassi has interfered with commercial 
progress. The more recent granting of free trade to Moros, under certain conditions, 
has only partially remedied the evfl, for hardly any possess enough capital or com- 
mercial knowledge to be able to import or export goods. To do this under the exist- 
ing conditions requires an agent or partner at the free ports, especially Singapore, 
with which all the trade is maintained. The business, therefore, remains in the 
hands of Chinese merchants, who have such partners, and who are enabled to main- 
tain uniform prices, which are frequently not in accord with those at the free ports. 
To regulate this requires more commercial knowledge than a soldier possesses. For- 
merly vessels came with merchants with stocks of merchandise on board, which they 
ooula dispose of at any port where they could find a market. A native or small mer- 
chant at Biassi could go aboard, inspect samples, and buy in quantities proportionate 
to his immediate needs, an excellent arrangement for one doing business with small 
capital, the ^oods being immediately delivered. These vessels came from different 
ports, rendering competition necesHary. 

Under present conditions no merchandise can 1x3 landed unless manifested for this 
place at port of shipping. The duties, monstrously excessive on necessaries, are 
working on an impoverished people, advanced scarcely a step in civilization, a hard- 
ship which they can not bear. Formerly their money was taken from them in arbi- 
trary fines imposed by the Sultan*s oflScials. That has been stopped; but now the 
customs duties operate to the same end. For example, the duty on kerosene oil is 
12.15 per case, the cost of which was $3.50 when this was a free ix)rt. A common 
sight here is a Moro coming into town with a bottle and a few centavos to buy kero- 
sene. He still comes in with his bottle and pays the same amoimt of money as 
before, but now takes away his bottle only haH full. Of the $11,000 customs collec- 
tions made here since February 1, no less than two-thirds have been indiretly paid 
by Moro consumers. The effects of this can already be noticed in the decr^sed 
amount of currency in circulation and the increased amount of debts held against 
them by Chinese merchants. As is always the case, excessive duties are causing 
smuggling to be practiced. 

[Maj. Owen J. Sweet.] 

Since last report the situation remains practically unchanged, everything smooth 
and complacent on the surface, but no desire or intention on the part of the author- 
ities of working in harmony with the United States in improving the condition of 
the people, or of stopping robberies and piracies, unless there is some pecuniary benefit 
to be derived. The Sultan will put two or three hundred armed men in the field to 
collect a fine he has imposed, but he will not bother himself, or plead inability, when 
asked to arrest pirates or thieves wanted by the United States authorities, and are in 
his territory. The more I see the workings of the agreement, the more I am con- 
vinced of the impossibility of the improvement of our relations with the Moros, or of 
a change in their conditions. 

Datos Joakanain and Calvi are the only two on the salary list of Jolo who seem to 
realize that the receiving of a salary requires a certain service in the service of the 
United States on their part. Dato Puyo and especially Amilhussen of the Siassi 
sroup meet every demand made on them willingly. They are separated from the 
Sultan and look to the commanding oflBcer of Siassi as their real head. In the agree- 
ment made with datos Tautone and Sakilan, at Bongao, it is stipulated that their 
salary lasts only during good conduct. The commanding officer at Bongao can stop 
it. These two men have rendered good and valuable service whenever called on. 
They know exactly where they stand and will raise troops to fight the Sultan if 
called on to do so. 

[Maj. Hunter Liggett.] 

During the months of April and early May, 18 miles of good wagon road were con- 
structed, 9 miles up the Davao River to the village of Balen and 9 miles toward the 
foothillB to the head of the bay. The cost of this road was about 40 pesos per mile, 
and while it is not a boulevard it is a good, practicable road over which loaded 4-mule 



escort wagons have been taken easily. There are necessary bridges and ramps, and 
throughout, with one exception, easy grades. 

Dunn^ last quarter we have had closer contact with Moro and other tribes than 
was possible before, and expect to learn much more of all these people as our roads 
penetrate the country and open it up. An estimate, revised, which I think will show 
very closely the actual number of Moros and pagans in the province of Davao, gives 
3,000 Moros and 29,500 pagans, members oi 9 tribes. Of these the Atas are the 
Ishmaelites of this coimtry. All the other tribes have been represented here and all 
profess friendship and promise anything required of them. I have treated all alike, 
warning them a^nst making war on their neighbors or against each other, forbid- 
ding the acauisition of slaves, encouraging them to plant rice, etc., and to tdways 
look ahead tnat there may be no famine among them; telling them that all criminals 
are to be brought here for trial, that all disputes must be an)itrated here, and that, 
as long as they behave themselves and molest nobody, they will have good treatment 
and perfect liberty of reli^on and action. The question of polygamy can not as yet 
be touched. The one thm^ of all others that Doth Moros and Bogabos resent is 
interference with their religion. Most of the other tribes have a religion similar to 
that of the North American Indians. There is a good spirit and a bad spirit, and 
they expend all their zeal in propitiating the bad one, knowing the good one will 
not injure them. 

[Maj. William E. Craighill.] 

In the application of this order (General Order No. 40), a diflSculty has been met 
in the qualification for voters which requires the ability to read, speak, and w^rite 
English or Spanish. I recommend that for Spanish be substituted Visayan, which is 
the native aialect. The language spoken and used in correspondence among the 
natives under my charge is Visayan; very few speak more than a little Spanish, and 
almost none read or write it. In my opinion it is besides exceedingly desirable to 
cultivate the idea in their minds that they are Visayans, and cause them to lose all 
their ideas derived of Spaniards or their language or from the Tagalos. 

Many Moros from the lake country have visited me and occasionally came into the 
market at Iligan on Saturday. I have encouraged all of them to come to trade, to 
plant their crops, and raise cattle. As far as I can learn they are doing this gen- 
erally and have been at peace among themselves since American occupation. At 
first, Moro children and young women were brought in for sale. This traflic was 
promptly prohibited and has practically ceased. There are a number of Moros in 
the town who have been acquired in this way, almost without exception employed 
as household servants. No attempt has been made to interfere with them, except to 
prevent them from being sent away without their own consent. They appear to be 
satisfied with their lot, as they do not embrace the opportunity which is freely o[)en 
to them to escape to their own people. 

[Capt. John A. Wagrner.] 

A house-to-house inspection of the town revealed a pitiable condition of affairs. 
Families stored their huts with pigs, dogs, and chickens. Few roofs offered protec- 
tion from the rain, and the loose bamboo floors allowed foul odors of rotting vegeta- 
tion and hog wallows to enter from below. EacJi house contributed its part to the 
general condition of ignorance, indolence, wretehedness, and filth. There have been 
nine deaths among the natives since January due to want of medicine and medical 

Since our arrival all the houses and streets have been cleaned, pig pens built, and 
ground below and around houses put in first-class condition. A gocS road has been 
built to the landing, and by means of our new wharf small boats can be easily loaded 
and unloaded at high and low tide. The dense thicket in the northwestern part of 
the town has been cleaned up, and the swamp is almost dry. 

The foregoing extracts have been selected and could be added to 
indefinitely, to illustrate the varied duties of officers in this depart- 
ment and the manner in which they are performed. 



The reports of the adjutant-general, chief surgeon, chief quarter- 
master, chief commissary, and chief paymastsr of the department are 
appended, to which attention is invited. 

The report of the adiutant-general exhibits frequent changes of sta- 
tion of troops, which have teen necessary. The routine office work 
does not increase or decrease in direct proportion to the number of 
troops in the department, and his office snould be provided with addi- 
tional clerical assistance. 

The report of the chief quartermaster, which is very complete, con- 
tains a general statement of expenditure from Philippine funds for 
erection of buildings, for repairs of the same, and for rent, and shows 
the necessity for these eiqpenditures; also a report of the means of 
transportation on hand. The recommendations which he makes have 
received due attention from the department commander. 


There is a wide difference between the Moros of the Jolo Archipelago 
and those of Mindanao, and this extends to their language. The Moros 
in the archipelago inhabit a number of small islands, where they can 
be controlled and oppressed at will by their datos and chiefs. That 
the Sultan has been able to retain much of his hereditary power and 
authority is undoubtedly due to reasons which are geographical, and 
this is the more evident m that his authority is merely nominal outside 
of the largest and most important island of the group. They speak a 
language which the Moros of Mindanao do not understand, and with- 
out the freedom and independence of the latter are distinctly inferior 
to them in moral and physical characteristics. The presence of an 
armed force alone prevents frequent interisland wars, but these are 
rather predatory emeditions growing out of feuds which in their origin 
and course do not differ materially from those that are not uncommon 
to-day among more civilized peoples. 

The Moros of Mindanao are very like the best North American 
Indians — as the Nez Perc€ and Northern Cheyenne — in features and 
manners, in their love of independence, and in personal dignity and 

Eride. The individual Moro is apt to be courteous, hospitable, light- 
earted, and improvident; but he has a strong sense of numor, and is 
usually intelligent. They are very amenable to argument and reason, 
and in the most solemn conferences with them, if the proceedings are 
threatened with a deadlock, the situation may be instantly relieved by 
a story or joke. Where they have come in contact with the pagan 
tribes they have intermarried to some extent with these without essen- 
tially altering the type, and this is especially true in the case of the 
Subanos on the western peninsula. It is believed that a homogeneous 
race may eventually result throughout Mindanao. 

They are in no wise prejudiced against the religion of others, but 
may be converted into bitter enemies by the slightest interference with 
their own. 


Slavery, as the term is usually understood, does not exist among 
them. They undoubtedly hold what, for want of a better term, may 
be called slaves, but it is difficult or impossible to distinguish these 


from their dress, manner of living, or association, from other Moros. 
This is less true of the Jolo Archipelago than of Mindanao, but in both 
places male slaves may be said to oe the retainers or followers of him 
who claims to own them, who render him service in war, and, with this 

¥ossible exception, receive greater benefits from him than he from them, 
he partial disappearance of intertribal and interisland warfare 
appeal's to have already loosened the tie which binds master and 
slave, and cases are not infrequent of slaves changing their allegiance 

In a few cases slaves have sought the protection of our troops and 
have been claimed by their owners; but if the slave preferred to remain 
he has always been allowed to do so, and in each case the master appeared 
indifferent to the decision. 

A radical distinction between slavery here and as it is generally 
understood may be found in the fact that, apparently or really, social 
equality exists between the slaves and the tree retainers, and often 
with the master himself. The Moro is not bigoted on the subject of 
slavery, and discusses with indifference plans for altering or abolish- 
ing the institution. 


The most prominent characteristic of the Moro, especially of Min- 
danao, is personal pride and dignity which resents undue familiarity 
and is flattered by consideration. To this quality are undoubtedly due 
the excellent relations existing between him and American officers and 
soldiers, because these, unlike the Spanairds, have treated him as an 
equal with an intuition born of their own free institutions and with a 
manhood gra teful to a race which has long been unwillingly subject to 
another. >Vherever Moros live our men go freely unarmed, a practice 
absolutely unknown among the Spaniards. They are not lazy, in spite 
of assertions to the contrary, but have something of the warrior's 
contempt for labor. In numerous conferences they have been told 
that to be a prosperous and happy nation and to prevent the Chinese 
traders from graaually accumulating all they possess, it will be neces- 
sary for them not only to work to subsist themselves and followers, 
but also to create a surplus and to trade. Their principal men have 
invariably acquiesced in this and have made efforts, awkward it is true, 
to establish commercial relations independent of the Chinese. 

They are universally addicted to gambling and chew betel, ])ut as a 
race are neither liars nor thieves. 

What has been said here of them and what follows reflates princi- 
pally to the Moros of Mindanao, but in a lesser degree also to those of 
the Jolo Archipelago. 

Quarrels ana fights between individual Moros, men, women, or chil- 
dren, are exceedingly rare. It is not in evidence if women are ever 
abused or even scolded, or that children are struck in punishment, 
much less beaten. They play in swarms of all ages in the village 
streets with never a sign of disagreement. They are exceedingly fond 
of their parents and the parents of them, and are admitted on all occa- 
casions of ceremony or festivity. 

All Moros are notably abstemious in eating and they drink nothing 
that contains alcohol. 

It appears that on this sound foundation of good qualities the Moro 


may be peimitted to develop his own civilization in contact with what 
is best in ours, excluding those elements which have, even in recent 
tiines, degraded and exterminated other rac^es. 

In communities where there is no demand for alcoholic drinks, and 
where the use of them is abhorrent to nearly everyone, their intro- 
daction, sale, and manufacture may well be prohibited in the funda- 
mental law. The opponents of prohibition in other countries claim, 
Erobably with truth, that its laws can not be enforced by reason of 
ostile public opinion and of difficulties which are insurmountable. In 
the islands of tnis deoartment there is no hostile public opinion to be 
encountered and no oifficulties to be overcome — if they are not first 

William A. Kobbe, 
Brigadier' OeneraZ^ U. S. V.^ OormrumdMig. 

... • «t**>,-.. * ■• . if'-^my 

-. 1 









JTJVE 10 TO 22, 1899 — ^Expedition to the province of Gavite, Luzon, P. I. 



Report of Maj. Gen. H. W. Lawton, U. S. V., commanding expedition 274 

Appendix 1. Report of Maj. C. G. Starr, inspector-general, U. S. V 308 

2. Report of Brig. Gen. Ix)yd Wheaton, U. S. V 331 

3. Report of Lieut. E. D. Scott, Sixth Artillery 334 

4. Report of Capt. F. M. Linscott, First Nevada Volunteer Cavalry . 335 

5. Reports of Capt. John A. Baldwin, Ninth Infantry 335 

6. Reports of Maj. W. H. Boyle, Twenty-first Infantry 339 

7. Report of Capt. H. L. Bailey, Twenty-first Infantry 341 

8. Report of Lieut. Edgar T. Conley, Twenty-first Infantry 341 

9. Report of Lieut. J. J. 0*Connell, Twenty -first Infantry 342 

10. Report of Lieut. A. H. Huguet, Twenty-first Infantry 342 

11. Report of Capt. F. E. Eltonhead, Twenty-first Infantry 343 

12. Report of Lieut. William M. Morrow, Twenty-first Infantry 344 

13. Report of Lieut. Peter Murray, Twenty-first Infantry 345 

14. Report of Capt. A. L. Parmerter, Twenty-first Infantry 346 

15. Report of Lieut. William H. Mullay, Twenty-first Inmntry 346 

16. Report of Lieut. William H. Mullay, Twenty-first Infantry 847 

17. Report of Lieut. H. C. Clement, jr. , Twenty-first Infantry 348 

18. Report of Col. Henry B. McCoy, First Colorado Volunteer In- 

fantry 348 

19. Report of Capt. Edgar Russel, Volunteer Signal Jorps 350 

20. Report of Lieut. W. L. Kenly, First Artillery 351 

21. Report of Lieut. Col. J. M. J. Sanno, Fourth Infantry 352 

22. Report of Maj. John W. Bubb, Fourth Infantry 354 

23. Report of Maj. John W. Bubb, Fourth Infantry 355 

24. Report of Capt. H. M. Andrews, First Artillery 356 

25. Report of Lieut. W. L. Kenly, First Artillery 357 

26. Report of Lieut. E. D. Scott, Sixth Artillery 359 

27. Report of Maj. George H. Penrose, brigade surgeon 360 

28. Re^rt of Capt. W. H. Sage, Twenty-third Infantry, Acting As- 

sistant Adjutant-General (for Brig. Gen. Samuel Ovensnine, 

U.S.V.) 362 

29. Report of Lieut. W. L. Kenly, Fu«t Artillery 365 

30. Report of Capt. C. H. Barth, Twelfth Infantry 366 

31 . Report of Lieut. James P. Harbeson, Twelfth Infantry 368 

32. Report of Capt. Robert L. Hirst, Twelfth Infantry 369 

33. Report of Capt. J. H. H. Peshine, Thirteenth Infantry 369 

34. Report of Lieut. P. M. Shaffer, Thirteenth Infantry 370 

35. Report of Lieut. E. B. Gase, Thirteenth Infantry 371 

36. Report of Lieut. H. L. Threlkeld, Thirteenth Infantrv 371 

37. Report of Lieut. W. R. Sample, Thirteenth Infantry .* 371 

38. Report of Lieut. K. T. Ferguson, Thirteenth Infantry 372 

39. Report of Capt. Henry D. Styer, Thirteenth Infantry 372 

40. Report of Lieut. Paul B. Malone, Thirteenth Infantry 372 

41. Report of Lieut. Wm. T. Patten, Thirteenth Infantry 373 

42. Report of Lieut. P. G. Clark, Thirteenth Infantry 373 

W4R 1900-VOL 1, PT V 18 273 



Appendix 43. Report of Lieut. Charles H. Paine, Thirteenth Infantry 373 

44. Report of Lieut. P. E. Pierce, Thirteenth Infantry 374 

45. Report of Capt. W. Geary, Thirteenth Infantry 374 

46. Report of Capt. S. L. Faison, Thirteenth Infantry 375 

47. RejMjrt of Lieut. D. E. Nolan, Thirteenth Infantry 376 

48. Re)X)rt of Maj. L. A. Matile, Fourteenth Infantry 376 

49. Report of Lieut. Franklin M. Kemp, assistant surgeon 378 

50. Report of Capt. W. W. McCammon, Fourteenth Infantry 378 

51. ReiK>rt of Capt. Frank Taylor, Fourteenth Infantry 379 

52. Report of Capt. G. H. Patten, Fourteenth Infantry 380 

53. Report of Lieut. Samuel Seay, jr. , Fourteenth Inmntry 381 

54. Report of Maj. Greorge H. Penrose, brigade surgeon 384 

55. Report of Maj. Clarence R. Edwards, assistant adjutant-general, 

tJ.S.V 385 

Hqrs. First Division, Eighth Army Corps, 

Ma7iila, P. L, October 9, 1899. 
The Ai>jutant-General51J. S. A., 

WO'Shington^ J). C, 

Sir: I have the honor to submit the following complete report of an 
expedition to the province of Cavite during the month of June, 1899: 

As contemplated by division orders, which required the command 
to be held in a constant state of preparedness, six Chinese coolies were 
allowed each battery, convpany, and troop for this expedition, no pack 
mules being available ana wheel transportation being impracticable. 

In obedience to verbal orders from the division commander, under 
verbal instructions from the department commander, the following- 
named organizations were concentrated at San Pedro Macati during 
the evening of June 9 and organized into two provisional brigades as 

first provisional, brigade. 

Jfinth U. S. Infantry (Companies B, C, D, E, I, K, L, and M), Capt. 
. J. A. Baldwin, commanding. 

Twenty-first U. S. Infantry (Companies B, C, D, F, H, I, K, and L), 
Maj. W. H. Bovle, commanding. 

First Colorado Volunteer Infantry (Companies B, D, E, F, 1, and 
M), Col. H. B. McCoy, commanding. 

Nevada Volunteer Cavalry, Troop A, dismounted, Capt. F. M. 
Linscott, conMnanding. 

Artillery: Two mountain Hotchkiss 1.65-inch euns^ Light Battery 
E, First U. S. ArtUlery; two field guns, 3.2-incn, Light Battery D, 
Sixth U. S. Artillery, and two mountain Hotchkiss 3-inch guns, 
Separate Mountain &ttery; Second Lieut. E. D. Scott, Sixth U. S. 
Artillery, commanding. 

Strength of brigade, about 2,000 men. 


Twelfth U. S. Infantry (Companies L and M), Capt. C. H. Barth, 

Fourteenth U. S. Infantry (Companies A, D, E, F, G, I, K, L, 
and M), Maj. L. A. Matile, conmianding. 

Artillery: Two mountain Hotchkiss 1.65-inch guns. Light Battery 
E, First tJ. S. Artillery; two field 3.2-inch guns, Light Battery D, 


Sixth U. S. Artillery, and two mountain Hotchkiss 3-inch euns, 
Separate Mountain Battery; First Lieut. W. L. Kenly, Firat Artil- 
lery, commanding. 

Brig. Gen. Lojrd Wheaton, U. S. V., who had reported for duty 
with the expedition, commanded the First Provisional Brigade, 
and Brig. Gen. Samuel Ovenshine. U. S. V., commanding Second 
Brigade of this division, commandea the Second Provisional Brigade. 

llie plan and order of march as given to l)rigade commanders on 
the nignt of June 9 (see accompanying route sketch) were as follows: 

General Wheaton's brigade was to march at 4.30 a. m., take the 
Muntinlupa trail and move nearly due south. General Ovenshine's 
brigade was to immediately follow and, if the trail or country was 
practicable, move up abreast and on the right flank of Wheaton. 
This double column if not checked was to advance southward and jpene- 
trate the enemy's lines until about opposite Las Pinas, when Oven- 
shine was to move to his right and to the rear of Las Pinas, taking 
the enemy and his intrencnments in reverse. At the same time 
Wheaton was to move to the left, marching southeastward, turning 
the enemy in toward the lake, inflicting all possible damage, then to 
continue on south to Muntinlupa. 

Orders had been sent to Morong to Second Lieut. Thomas Franklin, 
Twenty -third Infantiy, commanding U. S. A. gunboat Napindan^ to 
proceed on the morning of June 10 to the west shore of the lake 
(Laguna de Bay) opposite Paranaque, keeping a lookout for the enemy 
retiring or escaping along that line, and to destroy as many as possible. 

The Fourteenth Infantry scouts, under the conmiana of Second 
Lieut. W. C. Geiger, of that regiment, Maj. C. G. Starr of the divi- 
sion staflf accompanying, were ordered to precede the troops. 

About 4.30 a. m. June 10 the division commander, accompanied by 
most of his staflf, left San Pedro Macati for our outpost on Guadalupe 
Ridge, 2 miles south, where a battalion of the Twelfth U. S. Infantry 
was stationed (see route sketch). After reconnoitering the front 
beyond this outpost, the Fourteenth Infantry scouts were deployed 
and advanced a little east of south to gain touch with the enemy. 
Shortly afterwards Wheaton's brigade arrived with the Colorados 
deployed in the lead. It was noticed that Ovenshine's brigade was 
benind Wheaton's and in column of fours. 

The character of the country, ti-ails, and resistance met, together 
with the fact, uncontemplated, that Ovenshine became subsequently 
engaged with the enemy on his right, prevented the parallel-column 
advance intended. 

Wheaton continued his movement southward as planned. When 
about 2 miles out the enemy was encountered in trencnes and not onlv 
routed but dispersed by a skillfully conducted attack, in which artil- 
lery participated. This wa,s repeated about 2 miles farther south, 
after which, changing direction to the right, still another fortified 
position was taken from the enemy, who, in retreating toward Para- 
naque, was subjected to our fire until beyond range. The operations 
of this brigade had been thus far under the personal observation of 
the division commander. General Wheaton's gallantry, eflFective and 
skillful control of his command, and brilliant conduct of these move- 
ments are worthy of the most substantial recognition. 

A short halt was now (about 10.30 a. m.) authorized for this brigade, 
and the division commander, hearing firing on the right, went with 


Troop I, Fourth Cavalry, mounted, as escort, about a mile to the right 
and rear, where he found the scouts and two companies of the Four- 
teenth Infantry, under Capt. Frank Taylor of that regiment, on a ledge 
engaging the enemy, who was concealed in bamboos in the direction 
of the Imy. No other troops of Ovenshine's brigade could be seen. 
The troop was ioMnediately dismounted and formed in skirmish line. 
The fire from the enemy was sharp and well directed, two horses of the 
staflf being shot. Instructions were sent Ovenshine, by both aid and 
orderly, to move to the left. At the same time instructions were sent 
Wheaton to move two regiments directly on the Pamnaque church. 
The artillery was ordered to assemble on the height, the position of 
which is approximately indicated on accompanying routo sketch, with 
orders to sweeo the enemy's position. Shortly afterwards, about 11 
a. m.. General Ovenshine reported. He stated that he had '"scarcely 
any brigade left," pointing to the left, where about 150 men had been 
halted; he stated, ^'That is all that is left." 

It appears that the Second Brigade after passing the Guadalupe 
outpost had inclined to the right, intending to then turn to the left 
ana march parallel to Wheaton's brigade. Two battalions of the Four- 
teenth Infantry were deployed; these deployed troops met a fire from 
the insurgents on the right, which extended to the rear, developing 
from that portion of the enemy which had so long confronted our San 
Pedro Macati-Pasay line. The Fourteenth Infantiy, deployed, kept 
turning to the right to meet this fire, and the Thirteenth Infantry, 
which was to move in column, next deployed, and finally the rear 
guard, two companies Twelfth Infantry, also deployed and gained 
ground so fast to the right and even to the rear of the original direc- 
tion of march that the right of the brigade was moving toward the 
bay directly west of our Guadalupe outpost. Word was twice sent to 
the brigade commander that he was gaining too much ground to the 
right and that he should close to the left to join Wheaton's right. 
He immediately gave orders to move by the left flank and finally took 
the trail approximately indicated on the route sketeh. Orders were 
immediately given to re-form this brigade, manv stragglers having 
joined in the meantime, and to advance in extended order with long 
intervals to the right of the artillery, which was now firing from its 

?3sition on the hill; then to advance, incline to the left, and move on 
aranaque from the north and east, joining with Wheaton's right. 

The First Brigade reached a point just east of Paittnaque (indicated 
on the route sketeh) a little after 12 o clock noon; the Second Brigade, 
somewhat later. Here a halt was ordered, as there was a little fresh 
water, the first that had been found during the djiy. The heat was 
terrific. A hasty report made by organizations showed the following 

Wheaton's brigade: None killed, 23 wounded, 526 missing. Many 
of the missing joined during this halt. 

Ovenshine's brigade: Two killed, 5 wounded, 372 missing. 

Although much of the ground fought over was not visited by our 
troops, 47 of the enemy's dead fell into our hands. 

The light artillery platoon of 3.2-inch guns belonging to Oven- 
shine's bri^uie failed to arrive, and Second Lieut. C. 1 . Boyd, with a 
platoon of Troop I, Fourth Cavalrj^ was sent in search. He finally 
found the platoon, in charge of a sergeant, at San Pedro Macati. The 
pieces had been left without infantry support when the brigade moved 


to the left, and, in the absence of definite orders and subjected to fire 
from scattering bands of the enemy, had returned first to Guadalupe 
Bidge and then to San Pedro Macati. 

This platoon was brought up next day at Las Pinas. 

Information was received that Lieutenant Franklin with the Ndpin- 
dan had driven the enemy from his intrenchments below Taguig dur- 
ing an engagement lasting for several hours, a mounted officer being 
among the casualties of the enemv. About 8 miles south the Napin- 
dan again engaged the enemy, aestrojing a train of carabao carts. 
Lieutenant FranKlin is entitled to credit and commendation. 

Maj. G. H. Penrose, brigade surgeon, U. S. V., deserves special 
recognition for the way he handled the critical situation in which he 
was placed in the morning's advance, when his hospital flag was fired 
upon and his horse wounded. 

While the commands were resting, a telegram was received from the 
adjutant-general, Department of the Pacific, stating "The Paranaque 
insurgents will retire by the Bay road, cross the Zapote River near its 
mouth, and take position along and west of that stream, which is 
strongly intrenched. They expect to be able to hold their position. " 

About 2 p. m. the division commander, with his staflf and the remain- 
ing platoon of Troop 1, resumed the march, moving toward Las Pinas, 
accompanied by a Spanish and a native guide (see route sketch). 
Wheaton's bri^ide, with the Colorados in the lead, resumed the march 
about 2.30 p. m. Ovenshine's brigade, having reached the resting 
place after the first troops arrived, was given additional rest, as the 
men were much exhausted. 

Shortly after 3 p. m., as division headquarters and staflF forded a 
small stream and came into the open, the enemy attacked from the ri^ht 
front, delivering a heavy fire by volleys. The escort instantly dis- 
mounted, under the able control of First Lieut. Cecil Stewart, advanced 
on the enemy, whose fire they returned as they moved forward. The 
Colorados, gallantly led by Colonel McCoy, were rushed forward, 
formed into skirmish line on the left of the cavalry, and, charging from 
the left against the enemy's right, guickly flanked and routed the enemy. 
Just as the Colorados were advancing, a number of natives were noticed 
approaching our left front from the huts which had borne white flags. 
In an instant the flags disappeared, and the approaching natives were 
seen to be an armed body of the enemy in skirmish line. Just at this 
time a company of the !Ninth Infantry, Captain Ramsey commanding, 
crossed the stream, followed by the rest of the battalion, under com- 
mand of Capt. G. P. Ahern and Captain Baldwin, commanding the 
Ninth Infantry. They were ordered to open fire on the enemy, and an 
immediate exchange of volleys followed. The troops and horses at the 
ford were thus subjected to a fire from both flanks simultaneously. 
This battalion advanced by rushes under the fire discipline familiar to 
the drill ground. The enemy was quickly dispersed from both flanks. 
The artillery, under the daring and efficient command of Lieutenant 
Scott, rendered active service. 

The balance of the Ninth Infantry and the Twenty -first participated 
in clearing the countiy on the rignt and left of the ford along the 
opposite or north side of the stream. Captain Baldwin, while speak- 
ing to the division commander after emerging from the ford, had his 
horse, which he was leading, killed. His conduct of his command was 
able and gallant. General Wheaton joined the division commander 


when the Colorados came up. A part of this regiment crossed the 
estero to the right front ana put tne enemy to flight in the direction 
of Las Pinas. Our casualties at the ford were 3 enlisted men Ninth 
Infantry, 2 Fourth Cavaliy, and 1 Colomdos, wounded. My two 
aids, Captain Sewell and Lieutenant King, carried orders mounted to 
diflFerent points of the line during this engagement in the very hottest 
of the lire; their gallantry was conspicuous. 

The march was again resumed; several esteros and streams neces- 
sitated detours, so that darkness demanded a bivouac at 8 p. ni. about 
a mile to the soutbeavSt of Las Pinas. 

The day's march had been made over rough trails, through thick, 
high gi^ass, with but very little drinking water, and the lighting had 
been pi'actically continuous, making it especially trving on the entire 
conmiand. The hard and effective work of Majors fid wards and Starr 
of the division staff, constantly with the firing line, together with 
personal aids mentioned above, is worthy of special recognition. 

Orders were sentOvenshine's brigade to camp where they then were, 
on the ground of what is called the "I^s Pinas fight," about li miles 
bac*.k, and to follow on in the early morning. (See sketch.) 

The night passed without incident other than a stampede of the 
Chinese coolies with Ovenshine's brigade, who, running over the sleep- 
ing soldiers crying '^Insurgents" and ^'Bolos," threatened a general 
stampede; this was ciuickly checked by the oflicers, only one shot being 

At daylight on the 11th instant the march was resumed toward Las 
Pinas, division headquarters, with Troop I, Fourth Cavalry, entering 
the town without opposition, followed hy Wheaton's and afterward 
Ovenshine's brigade. Major Edwards, with escort from the mounted 
troop, was immediately sent to Pamnaque to examine and repair the 
bridge that rations and supplies might be brought up. The town was 
found deserted by the enemy. Much labor was required to repair the 
bridge and its approaches, barricaded by intrenchments 15 feet thick, 
which had to be dug down to permit the passage of wagons. The 
natives willingly set to work to do this. An outpost was established 
on the Bacoor road, southeast of Las Pinas, Ovenshine's brigade fur- 
nishing the detail. A detachment of 1 officer and 5 enlisted men was 
sent on into Manila. 

Capt. Edgar Russel, U. S. V. Signal Corps, and his elficient signal 
party worked indefatigably to keep their line up with the front, car- 
rying the wire tied to the saddles of their riding horses, the Chinese 
earners having failed them. The wire gave out about 3 miles from 
Las Pinas, near Ovenshine's bivouac, and a companv of the Twelfth 
Infantry wjis left to guard the temporary station there established. 
This line was subsequently t^iken up and a new line run from Pasay 
through Paranaque to Las Pinas. 

The division commander proceeded, about 10 a. m., by launch to 
Manila to confer with the department commander, and upon his return 
in the afternoon the Thirteenth U. 8. Infantry and the First Coloi-ados 
were relieved and sent to Manila, in obedience to instructions from 
department headquarters. 

The Nevada cavalry troop was sent to Paranaque late in the after- 
noon to guard the bridge at that point, relieving the mounted troop, 
which returned to Las Pinas. Th(». ])ickets from the outposts on the 
Bacoor road were within a mile of the Zapote River and in contact with 


the pickets of the enemy. While establishing our pickets in the after- 
noon the enemy opened fire with smaU arms and one field gun, wound- 
ing an enlisted man of the Fourteenth Infantry. 

On the morning of June 12 the command was reported as fast recu- 
perating; in fact, ready to resume the advance. The enemy was evi- 
dently in force on the Zapote River. Twenty-six additional of the 
enemy's dead were found where the fighting of June 10 had occurred. 

During the severe march of the 10th most of the command threw 
away their rations and many of their equipments, a few rifles even 
were found along the trail. General Ovenshine reported that some of 
the Thirteenth Infantry threw awav everything except their belts and 
rifles. Capt. C. C. Walcutt, jr., chief quartermaster of the division, 
had been ordered to secure wagons and drive over the trail taken and 
pick up all abandoned property. Two wagon loads of clothing and 
miscellaneous equipments were the result of this search, which was 
continued as far as Las Pinas. Orders were also given June 12 for 
each organization to send out a suitable detachment to recover the 

firoperty abandoned on the 10th. The two companies of the Twelfth 
nfantry had, by order of their battalion commander, piled their 
shelter rolls and left them under guard. In this way these organiza- 
tions avoided much loss. The fact that Company M, Twelfth Infantry, 
Capt. R. L. Hirst, commanding, arrived in Las Pinas after the fearful 
march from San Pedro Macati without a man missing is worthy of 
The strength of the troops of this expedition June 12 was as follows: 

Light Battery E, First Artillery, Las Pinas 

Light Battery D, Sixth Artillery, Las Pinas ... 

Troop I, Fourth U. S. Cavalry, Las Pinas 

Nevada volunteer cavalry troop^ Paranaoue 

Ninth U. S. Infantry (8 companies), Las Pinas 

Twenty-first U. S. Infantry (8 companies). Las Pinas 

Fourteenth U. S. Infantry (d companies) Las Pinas 

Medical department and hospital corps 

Total I 76 





















In the afternoon of June 12 the division commander proceeded on 
the Hdena^ through the courtesy of her commanding officer, along the 
coast south to observe the enemy's position and his disposition as far 
as possible. Very few insurgents were seen, but the Navy expressing 
their anxiety to render aid, it was agreed that a signal nag would be 
placed if possible on the beach to indicate the position of our flank or 
advance, beyond which the Navy could shell tne brush and bamboo- 
covered shore. 

That evening the division commander visited the outpost on the 
Bacoor road and with a small detachment went forward to the bend of 
the river to reconnoiter and to try to determine the location of the 
enemy's left with a view to placing the signal flag. The brush was so 
thick that little of the country could be seen. Moreover, progress to 
the front and right was checked by esteros, marshes, and the river. 
During this reconnoissance several Mauser volleys as well as shrapnel 
were fired by the enemy a short way back from across the river Our 
outpost of one company of the Twelfth Infantry was then strength- 
ened by a platoon of 3.2-inch guns, with Patten's battalion of the Four- 
teenth U. S. Infantry in support. 



The next day (June 13) took place the battle of the Zapote River. 
Before reporting this battle attention is invited to the accompanying 
map of the locality, made by Lieut. G. H. B. Smith, Fourth Infantry. 
The location of each organization, path followed, and approximate 
hour, were placed by officers of the organizations concerned, who vis- 
ited the battlefield during the survey. Any company can be followed 
throughout; the movements and the details of this battle are apparent 
after a study of this map. 

Early on the morning of June 13 Companies F and I, Twenty -fii'st 
U. S. Infantry, under command of Lieut. J. L. Donovan, reported to 
the division commander, whose intention it was to in person make a 
reconnoissance toward the enemy's left along the beach, and inciden- 
tally to place the signal flag as promised the Na>'y the day before. 
Accordingly the division commander, accompanied by Major Starr of 
the division staflF, Capt. W. H. Sage, Twenty-third LI. S. Infantry, 
of General Ovenshine's staflf, and me battalion started about 8 a. m. 
When but a short way out a telegram from the adjutant-general of the 
depailment overlook the division commander, asking him whether he 
could not get possession of and hold bridges over the Zapote River 
without too much loss, suggesting that the intrenchment« of the enemy 
might be thus taken in reverse. This reconnoissance moved down the 
Bacoor road, crossed to the beach (see map), and moved along for about 
half a mile, when a native, Tomas Toitcs, intimated by signs that he 
knew a path along the beach and salt marshes that would permit us to 
et past the flank and to the rear of the enemy. One company, with 

ajor Starr, was left as support, and to prevent the advance from 
being cut off. A position was finallv reached as indicated on the map. 
The flag was planted a few hundred yards farther over. The enemy 
now opened a determined fire, first with Remingtons and then with 
Mausers. This total force was estimated at a thousand men. The 
fighting soon became severe, the enemy closing in trying to envelop 
our left flank. Lieutenant Donov^an n?ll with a severe wound in the 
left thigh while brav^ely and gallantly directing the tire. Here First 
Lieut, r, A. Connolly jumped upon a rice dike fully exposed to the 
hottest fire from a distance a little over a hundred yards, and in a few 
cool determined words got thorough control of the tire of his men and 
effectively returned the insurgent tire. His conduct was conspicu- 
ously pliant. 

Tne importance of this sti^ategic position beyond the left and in the 
rear of the enemy, menacing his line of comnumication, was at once 
appreciated, and the division commander started to return to direct 
the general advance. Before leaving Captain Sage agreed with him 
in his belief that the place could be, and promised that it would be, 
held. After going a short distance east up the beuch, this company 
was noticed falling Imck. It appears that Lieutenant ConnoU}' had 
been wounded, the ammunition having grown low, and mistaking an 
order, the left of the company gave way. With much apprehension 
for the safety of Lieutenant Donovan and for Captain Sage, who could 
not be found, the division commander returned with these men. Lieu- 
tenant Donovan, whose wounded leg was broken trying to walk, had 
been sent off in a banca. Captain Sage's voice was heard well off 
to the right. True to his promise he, witri 9 men, had remained closely 
pressed oy the enemy, who came within 40 yards of him. With a riflte 
taken from a wounded man he himself had nit 5 insurgents. HLs per- 


feet confidence, dogged determination, distinguished and exceptional 
bravery during this engagement merit substontial recognition. He 
will be recommended for a medal of honor. 

Our casualties during this engpt^ement were: 1 enlisted man each 
Company F and I, killed; wounded, 2 officers and 5 men. Company F, 
and 6 enlisted men. Company I. The guide, Tomas Torres, was also 

These two companies were now placed near the beach behind a natu- 
ral bank, which assured protection. Major Starr and Captain Sage 
were left with them. 

The division commander then returned to the Bacoor road and 
directed Major Edwards to proceed with a battalion of the Ninth 
Infantry to the beach and, after relieving the two companies of 
the Twentjr-first Infantry, to take position and extend to the left 
until junction might be made with troops making a frontal attack. 

General Ovenshine was directed to place his artillery on the road, 
with the infantry deployed each side (see map), move on the enemy. 
The fire soon opened furiously. Captain Patten pushed his command 
over the first river, where his right was joined by the fourth com- 
pany (Lieutenant Welborn's) of the Ninth Infantry battalion that had 
fone up the beach and was opportunely put in there by Major Edwards, 
'his force soon crossed the second estero or river ana gained an 
eflfective flank fire on the enemy's intrenchments. The other battalion 
of the Fourteenth Infantry, two conapanies of the Twelfth Infantry, 
and the artillery under Lieutenant K^nly were moved forward, with- 
out cover, under a terrific fire. These troops moved riffht up to the 
bank of the river in the face of this fire, took what little cover there 
was, and held the bank for over an hour. By their coolness they 
picked off the enemy just across the river whenever a head appeared 
above the fortifications until the enemy fled. Most of the dead found 
in the trenches had wounds through the head. 

The river at this point was not f ordable, and a span had been removed 
and the wooden substitute burned out. Lieutenant Kenly, with Cap- 
tain Seay's company of the Fourteenth Infantry as support, moved 
right up to this bridge. The 3.2-inch gun had to be withdrawn, as the 
muzzles could not be depressed enough to command the insurgent 
trenches. On our right Captain Ramsey's company of the Ninth Infan- 
try had been put in to fill the gap between the troops .sent Major Starr 
on the beach and Welborn's company on the leit. The whole line 
was thus complete from the extreme right to the center at the bend of 
the river near bridge, to Ovenshine's left, already described; the enemy 
was rushed, driven out, and routed. General Wheaton, with the six 
companies of the Twenty-first Infantry not yet engaged, and the bal- 
ance — two and one- half companies of the battalion of the Ninth Infantry 
that was trying to cross and reenf orce the First Battalion on the beach-r- 
then hurried down the Bac*oor road, crossed the bridge which had been 
temporarily repaired, and deployed as indicated on map. Here the 
enemy made another stand, but the troops were soon deployed, and at 
once by a dashing attack the enemy were routed, and within twenty 
minutes fled in confusion toward Imus. 

The bearing of officers and men throughout this battle was magnifi- 
cent. The conduct of officers whose names are mentioned in report of 
this battle should be entitled and characterized '"Distinguished gal- 
lantry in the presence of the enemy at the battle of the Zapote River." 


As General Ovenshine says, speaking of Lieutenant Kenly and his 
battery. "This is probably the first time in history that a battery has 
been advanced and fought without cover within 30 yards of strongly 
manned trenches." 
The battery at this bridge lost 1 killed arid 7 wounded; the two com- 

rnies of the Twelfth Infantry, 13 wounded; the Fourteenth Infantry, 
killed and 26 wounded; a total of this brigade of 8 killed and, 
including Lieutenant Kerth, Twenty -third Infantry, aide-de-camp, 47 

The force of the enemy was between 4,000 and 5,000 well-armed 
men. They had defeated the Spaniards at this point and were confi- 
dent of their abilit}^ and had taken an oath to hold this strongly 
intrenched and well-fortified position (see map). Our force which car- 
ried these "impregnable" works was less than 1,200 strong; really less 
than 1,000 men were actually engaged in driving them out. 

During the absence of the division commander, Major Starr, who 
had been left in charge of the two companies of the Twenty-fii*st Infan- 
try on the beach, felt that the men were tired out and that the ammu- 
nition was running dangerously short. He signaled the Helena and 
Monadnock and asked if they could send support, telling them that his 
ammunition was running short. This request met a ready response; 
2 officers and 38 enlisted men, with one Colt's gun from the Helena^ 
came ashore under command of Lieut. Edward Moale, jr., U. S. N., at 

1 o'clock p. m., and were followed an hour later by some 40 men and 

2 officers from the Monadnock, Shortly before the arrival of Lieu- 
tenant Moale the tiring ceased and that position was not again actively 
engaged. When the hnal order was received, about 4.40 p. m. , to pusn 
and rush this line, the sailors and marines responded with alacrity. 
The enemy though had fled and fortunately this command escaped 
without casualty. The cooperation of the Navy in shelling the shore 
in front of our troops and this voluntary act of landing supports was 
acknowledged by signal to the Navy that night, and subsequently, when 
the division commander and his troops received the cabled thanks of 
the President, a copy of this cable was tmnsmitted to the admiral by 
letter as due the men engaged on the shore. This letter was acknowl- 
edged by a most courteous reply from the admiral. Major Starr's 
conduct of this extreme right flank, where he was left under tire from 
9 o'clock in the morning until evening, was gallant and efficient. 

The casualties in Wheaton's brigade during this day's engagement 
were as follows: 

Ninth Infantry, officers, wounded none; enlisted, killed 1, wounded 
4. Twenty-tirst Infantry, officers, wounded 2; enlisted, killed 2, 
wounded 11; a total of officers wounded 2; enlisted, killed 3, wounded 
12. Giving a grand total for all our troops engaged of officers killed 
none, wounded 5; enlisted, killed 14, wounded 5(). 

Toward the end of this })attle the troops who had been engaged for 
hours in mud, rice tields, marshes, and rivers (brackish) without drink- 
ing water were actually suffering from thirst. Lieutenant Brooke, 
aide-de-cnmp, collected three or four wagon loads of oUas, tilled them 
with fresh water at Las Pinas, hurried them to the front, and ^Uantly 
in person supervised their distribution to the troops on the tinng line, 
ana also rendered valuable service in l)ringing up the reserve ammu- 
nition supply from Pamnaque. The command bivouacked for the night 
with strong outposts toward Imus and Bai^oor. 


In addition to General Ovenshine, Captain Sage, Lieutenants Dono- 
van and Connolly, whose gallantry has been already reported, Capt. 
F. A. Winter, assistant surgeon, U. S. A., and Capt. Robert Sewell, 
aide-de-camp, came under the personal observation of the division com- 
mander. They performed their duties under the hottest fire with 
courage and fidelity. Both were close up to the bridge. 

General Ovenshine, riding back and forth not over 150 yards from 
the enemy's intrenchments directing his command, was certainly an 
inspiring example to his men. The next morning a board of officers, 
one from each brigade and one from division headquarters, was 
directed to visit the oattlefield and after ciiref ul inquiry and investiga- 
tion to make estimate and report of the loss to the enemy in this battle, 
in killed, prisoners, and wounded. The board estimated the killed at 
150, wounded 375. This estimate was later substantiated by reports 
of the inhabitants of Bacoor and Imus. Ovenshine's brigade took 47 

The division commander, with his staff and the mounted troop as 
escort, in the morning rode into Bacoor. The enemy had fled; several 
natives remained. Two old, smoothbore guns with ammunition were 
found in earthworks commanding the bay. Capt. F. L. Pahner's 
battalion of the Ninth Infantry was brought up and left here as a 
garrison, with an outpost at the Bacoor bridge. 

A battalion of the Twenty -first Infantiy, under Captain Fltonhead, 
was also sent on a reconnoissance on the east road in the direction of 
Imus, but returned, having seen nothing of the enemy. The remaining 
sick and wounded were sent into Manila in cascos and launches. 

In obedience to telegraphic orders from department headquarters, 
the division commander visited Manila to consult with the department 
commander, returning early on the following morning. 

Upon arrival at Las Pinas the presidente or Imus was found waiting 
at division headquarters to formally announce the srurrender of Imus 
and invite the Americans to enter. He stated that the insurgents had 
left the day before; that they were much demoralized, and that they 
fled generally in the direction of Dasmarinas and San Fmncisco de 
Malabon. This information was telegmphcd department headauarters, 
at the same time suggesting that the enemy be pushed a little more. 
In reply permission was given to tempomrily occupy Inms witli two 
battalions and a couple of guns. Two battalions of the Fourteenth 
Infantry were accordingly sent. The town was occupied without 
opposition. General Wneaton, who had reported for temporary duty 
during this expedition, was relieved, and left with his stair for Manila 
about 11 o'clock. Two battalions of the Fourth Infantry, Lieutenant- 
Colonel Sanno in command, and the Wyoming battalion arrived in the 
afternoon by cascos, and, according to orders from the department com- 
mander, two battalions of the Twenty -first Infantry, one of the Ninth, 
and the two companies of the Twelfth Infantry were relieved and 
ordered to take cascos for Manila. One battalion of the Fourth Infan- 
try was stationed at Las Pinas, the other battalion and Wyoming bat- 
talion near Zapote River, with one battalion of the Ninth Infantry at 
Bacoor. One compan}' of this latter battalion was stationed as a guard 
at the Bacoor bridge on the Imus road. 

On June 15 and 16 scouts and reconnoissance from the Tenth Penn- 
sylvania Volunteer Infantry were sent out from Cavite to Noveleta, 
Bosario, and in the direction of San Francisco de Malalx)n, which indi- 
cated that the enemy was in force at the latter plac^i. 


On the morning of June 16 the division commander, with staff and 
mounted troop, made a trip through Bacoor to bridge west of that 
point, then by road along Imus River to Imus, then to San Nicolas and 
down the Zapote River, returning to Las Pinas. While at Imus, the 
Fourteenth Infantry scouts and two companies of that regiment were 
sent out to the west toward San Francisco de Malabon. This recon- 
noissance failed to get across, being misled by a guide, who took them 
in a nortJieast direction. The division commander thereupon ordered 
its recall, turned over the command of the new line to General Oven- 
shine, directed him next morning to make another attempt from Infius 
to go straight west to San Francisco de Malabon and I'econnoiter that 

The division commander then returned to Manila. Upon arrival 
word was received from Ovenshine that it was impossible to cross from 
Imus to San Francisco de Malabon on account of marshes and river, 
and that the only way to get there at that season was by way of Nove- 
leta and Cavite Viejo. Orders were at the same time received from 
the department commander directing that no further reconnoissance 
be made to San Francisco de Malabon. These orders were at once 
transmitted to General Ovenshine. 

On June 18 Geneml Wheaton was ordered to report to the division 
commander relative to a threatened attack of the enemy on Imus from 
the direction of Dasmarinas. General Wheaton proceeded to Imus, 
where the following force had been concentrated: Two battalions 
Fourteenth U. S. Infantiy, under Major Matile; the Fourth U. S. 
InfantiT, under Lieutenant-Colonel Sanno, and the Nevada cavalry 
troop, dismounted, under Captain Linscott. General Wheaton's report, 
together with those of his subordinates, will give the details of this Jittle 
expedition, closing with the occupation of Dasmarinas June 20, the 
return to Imus the day following, and General Wheaton's return to 
Manila June 22. 

Suffice it to state that General Wheaton's force was successful. He 
handled the situation with his usual vigor and dash. The enemy's loss 
in the engagement below Imus, where Major Bu})b's battalion on recon- 
noissance oeveloped a desperate tight, conducted skillfully and stub- 
bornly against large odds, is reported as between 100 and 200 killed, 
with the usual proportion of wounded. Our casualties: Four enlisted 
men killed ana 23 wounded, all of the Fourth Infantrv. 

June 22 the troops were disposed as follows: At Lnus, Fourth U. S. 
Infantry, six companies Fourteenth U. S. Infantry, Nevada cavalry 
troop, and eight guns under Lieutenant Kenly, First U. S. Artillery, 
viz, twol.65-mch, two 3-inch, and four 3.2-incn fieldpieces; at Bacoor, 
one company Fourteenth U. S. Infantry, one battalion Ninth U. S. 
Infantry, which had marched from Inms and was waiting to take 
cascos to Manila; th'^ 170 Tenth Pennsylvania men were relieved and 
sent back to Cavite; at Zapote, the Wyoming battalion; at Las Pinas, 
one company Fourteenth IJ. S. Infantry; at Paranaque, one company 
Fourteenth U. S. Infantry. 

E. K. Johnstone, acting assistant surgeon, U. S. A., was attached 
to Kenly 's batter v. His performance of professional duty in the field 
and barracks had hitherto attracted the favorable attention of the 
officers of this command, but the exceptional daring and high sense of 
duty exhibited by him during this expedition, particularly at the bat- 
tle of Zapote River, when ne gave immedmte '"first aid" to the 


wounded along the river bank and on the bridge, deserve material 

It is recommended that this gallant young surgeon be commissioned 
either major and brigade surgeon or major and surgeon of volunteers. 

Acting Asst. Surgs. H. W. Eliot, J. H. Hepburn, S. D. Huntington, 
and Arlmgton Pond, U. S. A., were commenaed by their commanding 
officers for faithful performance of duty under exceptionally trying 
conditions. They are recommended for commissions as captains and 
assistant surgeons of volunteers. 

Mr. Orlean A. Pritchett, civilian clerk, had shown at the battle of 
Santa Cruz, and during the expedition to the province of Laguna on 
April 10 last, coolness under fire to which he voluntarily was exposed 
throughout that engagement, and during the almost continuous fight- 
ing of June 10, he was constantly present with the division com- 
mander, and, in the absence of all stan officers and aids, two or three 
times on that date carried messages and orders under fire. His horse 
was shot from under him on this occasion. 

The valuable services rendered on both of these occasions entitle Mr. 
Pritchett to reward and recognition. 

An appendix, embodying copies of brief reports rendered to the 
department commander, reports of subordinate commanders which 
were at the time forwarded, of correspondence, orders — in fact, every 
available record pertaining to the expedition, is hereto attached, and 
should be read in connection with the text of this report. 

Attention is invited to final reports of subordinate commanders, 
which are, as a rule, so complete and lucid as to merit especial com- 

Lists of the names of officers considered entitled to brevet commis- 
sions "for distinguished conduct and public service in the presence of 
the enemy," and of enlisted men who are entitled to special consider- 
ation who have been mentioned in this and accompanymg reports are 
submitted, as follows: 

LiM of names of officers of the Army^ regular and volunteer ^ caimdered entitled to brevet com- 
missions ^^for distinguished gaUanlry and public service in the presence of the enemy j^^ 
under section 1^09^ Revised Statutes, 


Loyd Wheaton, brigadier- 
general, U. S. V. 

Samuel Ovenshinc, briga- 
dier-general, U. 8. V. 

H. B. McCoy, colonel First 
Colorado Volunteer Infan- 

Specific act of gallantry. 

June 10, 1899: 

" General Wheaton's gallantry, eflfective. and 
skillful control of his command and brilliant 
conduct of this movement are worthy of the 

most substantial recognition. " ( Report p. . ) 

June 19, 1899: 

"Suffice it to state that General Wheaton's 
force was successful. He handled the situa- 
tion with his usual vigor and dash." (Report, 

June 13, 1899, battle of Zapote River: 

" General Ovenshine, riding back and forth 
not over 150 yards from the enemy's intrench- 
ments directing his command, was certainly 
an inspiring example to his men." (Report, 
p. .) 

"The men and officers fought like Ameri- 
cans, and I will mention later several for most 
distinguished gallantry, among them General